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Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721221101360, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846713


PURPOSE: To identify global research trends in teleophthalmology, as well as productivity and its association with Human development index (HDI). METHODS: A cross-sectional study. The main outcome measures were publication count, citation count, and publications count per million populations. Bibliographic data were derived from the Web of Science website. HDI data were derived from Human Development Report [2020]. One-way ANOVA test was used to examine the association between HDI and the outcome measures. We studied the correlation between continuous variables using Spearman's. Bibliometric analysis software's VOSviewer and Citspace were used to analyse results and creating visualizing maps. RESULTS: The results retrieved 355 publications, one-third of them have been published in the year of the COVID-19 pandemic; (2020). The USA has contributed to one-half of all publications, and just five countries have contributed to about 90% of all records. Very high HDI countries had significantly more publications count per million populations, than high (p-value = 0.0047), medium (p-value = 0.0081) or low HDI countries (p-value = 0.002). The main themes are screening programmes, reliability, photography, COVID-19, access, artificial intelligence, and cost-effectiveness. The leading countries in terms of both publications and citation count are the USA and India. In terms of publications count per million populations, the leading countries are Singapore and Australia. CONCLUSION: Most of the contribution in teleophthalmology research was confined to a small number of countries. More effort is needed to expand the global contribution. The hotspots in this field are artificial intelligence applications and COVID-19 impact.

Eur J Ophthalmol ; 32(4): 2445-2451, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354692


OBJECTIVE: To assess the patterns of patient generated aerosol in the context of ophthalmic surgery and ophthalmic examinations. To inform medical teams regarding potential hazards and suggest mitigating measures. METHODS: Qualitatively, real-time time videography assessed exhalation patterns from simulated patients under different clinical scenarios using propylene glycol from an e-cigarette. Quantitatively, high-speed Schlieren imaging was performed to enable high resolution recordings analysable by MATLAB technical computing software. RESULTS: Without a face mask, the standard prior to COVID 19, vapour was observed exiting through the opening in the drape over the surgical field. The amount of vapour increased when a surgical mask was worn. With a taped face mask, the amount of vapour decreased and with inclusion of a continuous suction device, the least amount of vapour was seen. These results were equivocal when the patient was supine or sitting upright. High-speed Schlieren imaging corroborated these findings and in addition showed substantial increase in airflow egress during coughing and with ill-fitting face masks. CONCLUSION: Advising patients to wear a surgical mask at the time of ophthalmic interventions potentially contaminants the ocular field with patient generated aerosol risking endophthalmitis. Surgeon safety can be maintained with personal protective equipment to mitigate the increased egress of vapour from the surgical drape and taping, with or without suction is advisable, whilst meticulous hygiene around lenses is required at the time of slit lamp examination.

COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Endophthalmitis , Aerosols , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment