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1.
Hospital Pharmacy ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2089032

ABSTRACT

Emergency use authorizations (EUAs) are a mechanism to allow for the availability and use of medical products during a public health emergency. During the COVID-19 pandemic, hundreds of products have been authorized for use under an EUA. This has led to legal issues-most prominently, the legality of vaccine mandates. Language within the statute that created the EUA pathway has been subject to varying interpretations that could refuse or allow the implementation of EUA vaccine mandates and suits have been filed against organizations that have established vaccine mandates as a term of continued employment.

2.
IDS Working Paper Institute for Development Studies ; 572:1-50, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040536

ABSTRACT

This study explored how measures to curtail the spread of the coronavirus (Covid-19) in Vietnam affected the livelihoods and food and nutrition security of internal migrant workers. While Vietnam has made impressive progress towards food security in the past decades, marginalised groups of people such as ethnic minorities and migrants continue to face significant challenges. The project team investigated how the pandemic affected the precarity of these groups' income-generating opportunities and how the level of income generated affected the quality, as well as the quantity, of food consumed by migrant workers in Hanoi, the capital, and the Bac Ninh province, which hosts large industrial zones. Our research shows that income for migrant workers significantly reduced as a result of Covid-19-related lockdown measures. Almost half of the respondents were considered to be either moderately or severely food insecure. Financial support provided by the government hardly reached migrant workers because of the registration system required to receive unemployment benefits. To reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers, we conclude that: Short-term crisis responses need to focus on providing nutritious, healthy, and ample food to migrant workers;Policies that impose minimum standards of living need to be effectively enforced;The coverage of existing social safety nets by the government needs to be expanded;and A radical reform of labour law is needed to improve labour rights for migrant workers.

3.
Entertainment and Sports Law Journal ; 20(1029):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040501

ABSTRACT

Professional sport has undoubtedly been hit hard by COVID-19. Clubs and governing bodies have had to adapt rapidly to the public health emergency and have come under great financial and regulatory strain. Some sports have weathered the storm better than others, though, and professional rugby union experienced significant off-field turbulence, with wages reductions seen across the English Premiership. This article will examine the conduct of Premiership Rugby and its clubs during the COVID-19 crisis from a competition law perspective and will argue that, by acting in concert, Premiership and the clubs may have breached UK competition law.

4.
Padjadjaran Jurnal Ilmu Hukum ; 7(2):181-206, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030534

ABSTRACT

Article 1 paragraph (3) of the 1945 Constitution mandates that Indonesia is a state by rule of law. Therefore, in carrying out the life of the people and of the nation, it must be in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations. The current presence and development of Covid-19 pandemic has resulted changes in political, economic, social, and cultural sectors. Paying attention to these developments, the Indonesian Government has issued various policies. The focuses of the policies are intended to manage the Covid-19 spread. The policies, among others, include social assistance programs during the Covid-19 pandemic, which has a significant potential corruption. The corruption may happen in the forms of embezzlement of aid funds, budgets transfer, incompliance of requirement assistances, etc. This study aims to determine aspects of the new normal law and the corruption eradication in Indonesia based on normative juridical research methods. The approach looks, analyzes, and interprets theoretical aspects concerning legal principles in the form of conceptions, laws and regulations, views, legal doctrines, and related legal systems. This study is of the opinion that the corruption eradication (prevention and enforcement) in Indonesia during the Covid-19 pandemic and the application of the new normal are necessary to reform criminal law. The reform can be reconstruction and reformulation of existing laws regarding sanctions applied to perpetrators of corruption to restore state finances with accountability up to the third degree, or impoverishment of corruptors. © 2020, Padjadjaran University. All rights reserved.

5.
Journal of Henan Normal University Natural Science Edition ; 49(6):74-86, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2026897

ABSTRACT

Public health law is a legal concept not only regulating the provision of health services but also improving the quality of life and extending access to the service for the public members. Covid-19 opens access to health services for the people, and it serves as an indispensable part in the survival of the people, including the vulnerable people of adat law. This research aims to analyze the degree of success in implementing public health law in Tenganan Pegrisingan village-Bali in the scope of preparedness or response to the pandemic. This research employed socio-legal methods involving interviews, observation, and focus group discussion (FGD). Primary data were collected from interviews and FGD, involving the participation of the traditional chief, village head, and other adat figures in Tenganan Pegringsingan-Bali. The research analysis required a descriptive-qualitative approach. This research sees how the tenganan Pagringsingan tribe clings on to their sovereignty to survive and respond to the Covid-19 pandemic without leaving their framework governed by international and national laws. It leads to the research result revealing that the public health law in Tenganan Pegrisingan adat village combines traditional and modern elements and spiritual and science. This approach can set a model for other village communities. The leadership role of adat people that are inherent, strong, and obeyed has made public health law more properly managed and more effective in dealing with the pandemic. The supportive policy framework that is harmonized at all international, national, and regional levels and all over adat villages is a prerequisite to help maximize the potential of tribal public health system innovation.

6.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(3):248-253, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1975557

ABSTRACT

This article summarized the laws and regulations on the prevention and control of infectious diseases, classification of infectious diseases, and measures for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in Japan. It focused on the containment of spread of infectious diseases, classification and categorization in the treatment and quarantine. In addition, the response to the novel coronavirus pneumonia in the early stage of transmission in Japan was introduced. Moreover, we propose specific suggestions to improve the system of laws and regulations on the prevention and control of infectious diseases in China, improve the classification of infectious diseases, clarify the rights and obligations of governments at all levels, establish medical facilities with"classification and combination of normal and emergency situations"for the treatment of infectious diseases, practice emergency simulation exercises regularly, and improve risk communication.

7.
Bali Medical Journal ; 10(3 Special Issue):1289-1293, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1912311

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine has grown in prominence as a result of the growing deployment and development of digital technology. The existence of the Covid-19 Pandemic encourages the occurrence of Social Distancing drives people to seek safer health services, especially physicians with Covid-19 comorbidities in Indonesia, as a safer way to continue to provide services to the community. The points in this article are the type of telemedicine services, legal standing, and the rights and obligations of healthcare providers. The pandemic further emphasizes the importance of remote monitoring. However, physicians should have easy access to digital equipment and software to improve individual screening and monitor disease development.

8.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; 12(3):510-530, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1901390

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study examines whether the law of one price (LOP) or price convergence holds during the COVID-19 pandemic for essential food items in India. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use the daily retail price data of 22 essential food items from 103 Indian markets for two years (2019 as pre-COVID and 2020 as COVID period). Pesaran's (2007) second-generation panel unit-root test has been used to examine the price convergence of essential food commodities across various markets of different zones in the pre-COVID and COVID periods. Findings: The authors find a tendency toward the convergence of prices across the spatially segregated markets for essential products. But, during the COVID period, there is a weak or no convergence of prices for essential food items. Hence, the LOP does not hold during the pandemic, indicating massive price deviations for food items across Indian markets. This has severe implications for food security as enormous price increases in some markets have been evidenced during the pandemic. Research limitations/implications: The study calls for immediate policy adoption to restore the disrupted supply chain of essential food items. Along with that, the public authority should strictly prohibit black marketing and unlawful hoarding of essential food items. In addition, farmers should be provided direct cash benefits for restoring their farming activities. Originality/value: This paper is first study to examine that hypothesis of LOP in the context of COVID crisis.

9.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; 12(3):345-370, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1901380

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Waqf (endowment) lands constitute as among the highest types of waqf (endowment) properties in Malaysia;yet it is still unable to reach its maximum potential due to various challenges such as capital, location, legal and administrative issues. Therefore, this study intends to explore these issues by focusing on the two states in Malaysia (Selangor and Perak) that have fertile lands but different management authorities. Design/methodology/approach: There were series of interviews that had been conducted with ten (10) key informants who are experts and practitioners in the areas of Shariah (Islamic law), farming, agribusiness, land management and waqf. Findings: Findings exhibit that constraints and challenges that had been highlighted in the previous literature still exist (although some improvements had been made), but there is emerging theme that the study intends to highlight which is on the needs to secure market for the agribusiness produce and the potential role of anchor company in the agribusiness. It is pertinent that for agribusiness to thrive, selecting the right anchor company that has the capacity to address the challenges is necessary. This study posits two anchor company models (Waqf Trustee-Anchor Company and Waqf Trustee-Anchor Company-Community Farmers) that can be applied for agribusiness on the waqf lands. Research limitations/implications: This study is based on the Malaysia's context influenced by specific country's features. Nevertheless, such findings can still be used as reference or benchmark by other endowment trustees in other countries especially for the Muslim countries as well as the non-Muslim countries that have significant Muslim populations. Social implications The suggested models have potentials to improve the living condition of the B40 (below 40% household income) in Malaysia because the models encourage their participation in the agribusiness activities. Originality/value This study focusses on the agribusiness, which is rarely being given attention in previous literature in the context of endowment lands. Therefore, this article bridges the literature gap and at the same time attempts to provide suggestion to address the pertinent issue - the underutilised endowment lands.

10.
Journal of Communication in Healthcare ; 15(1):54-63, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1890697

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed many challenges to societies, individual healthcare systems and global public health. Manifestations of increasing health inequalities, social stigmatization and challenging ethical decision-making have been previously noticed. The aim of this article is to analyse the perceptions of frontline healthcare professionals regarding the potential impact of COVID-19 on the provision of healthcare services and the ethical challenges it may entail. Method: This research is a part of a larger research project which was conducted among frontline healthcare professionals in Estonia and used both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. In this article, answers to specific open-ended questions from the questionnaire (n = 116) and in-depth interviews (n = 8) were analysed. For data analysis, inductive content analysis was used. The research was granted ethical approval.

11.
ITTO Tropical Forest Update ; 29(3):25-26, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1888212

ABSTRACT

This article presents compliance courses made by the International Wood Products Association (IWPA) for the Lacey Act and other laws affecting the wood-products industry. The training encourages importers to work closely with suppliers to ensure they have access to the information needed to understand the rules and conduct robust due diligence. The course was crafted in the hope that it would help develop an industry-wide class of wood trade compliance professionals. The initial compliance and due-diligence course in 2016 was extremely well-received;it led to a series of more advanced courses, comprising, "Advanced Wood Trade Compliance", "Audits for the Wood Trade Professional", "Wood Products Supply Chain Mapping Basics", and "Formaldehyde Emissions Regulations for the Wood Trade Professional". IWPA has conducted briefings and training for suppliers worldwide, partnering with organizations, such as the International Tropical Timber Technical Association, the Global Timber Forum, the Malaysia Timber Council, and several Chinese industry associations. The global COVID-19 pandemic has led IWPA to re-examine how stakeholders access its wood-trade compliance training courses. In the due-diligence space, travel restrictions are requiring that wood-product importers re-evaluate their due-diligence procedures to ensure they continue to meet the requirements of the Lacey Act and other relevant laws and regulations. IWPA will continue to update its courses to reflect the new reality. In particular, and for the first time, it will offer courses virtually and via IWPA's e-learning platform in the second half of 2020.

12.
Saglik Bilimlerinde Ileri Arastirmalar Dergisi / Journal of Advanced Research in Health Sciences ; 4(1 Suppl):S37-S50, 2021.
Article in Turkish | GIM | ID: covidwho-1876451

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study aims to analyze the issue of whether the application of vaccines developed in the COVID-19 pandemic can be legally enforced in terms of both international law and domestic law. Materials and Methods: Within the scope of the study, the jurisprudence of both the European Court of Human Rights and the Turkish Constitutional Court, which shows whether vaccinations can be made compulsory in general and the legal conditions of this, has been scanned. Legal normative analysis was made with the obtained data and then it was applied to COVID-19 vaccines by using the analogy method.

13.
Notiziario dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita ; 35(4):3-8, 2022.
Article in Italian | GIM | ID: covidwho-1871205

ABSTRACT

Viral hepatitis C is an important public health problem and its elimination by 2030, defined by the World Health Organization, is an ambitious goal. The chance of free screening for HCV infection represents an important achievement that requires a successful State-Regions coordination and an effective regional organisation, that guarantees an interdisciplinary course between local and specialized healthcare. A structured communication program to increase the sensitivity of target populations as well as health professionals is the key for success. The implementation of the proactive screening, defined by the Milleproroghe Law, is crucial because it will define the tracks for the whole HCV costeffective screening strategies (1948-1988 birth cohorts) required to achieve the HCV elimination targets in Italy by 2030.

14.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1854940

ABSTRACT

The vegetation loss in the Brazil's Legal Amazon (BLA) in 2020 corresponds to the highest loss observed in a decade, caused by the intensification of fires, mineral extraction activities, and other pressures. The possibility of earning from illegal activities such as deforestation and mining attracts the population to indigenous territories, while fires aggravate respiratory problems and enhance the current COVID-19 crisis. Furthermore, the BLA's road network is usually related to increased deforestation and fires in its areas of influence, and airports are known to contribute to spreading COVID-19 infections worldwide. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effect of characteristics of Special Indigenous Health Districts (DSEIs) (including population, number of airports, and extent of the road network) and vegetation loss rates (deforestation, and area of vegetation lost by fires and mining) on the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths among the indigenous population in DSEIs in the BLA. We observed a positive correlation between the number of cases and deaths and the number of Indigenous Primary Healthcare Units, suggesting that many of these units did not increase appropriate activities for prevention and protection from COVID-19 in the DSEIs. The DSEIs with larger air transport and road networks were more affected by COVID-19. These networks constituted critical mechanisms for facilitating the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the BLA. Additionally, we noted that changes that impact the landscape of DSEIs, such as fires and mining, also impact legal indigenous areas (IAs). Thus, IAs are not spared from exploratory processes in the district's landscape. Models that associate the air transport and road networks with the transformation of the landscape in IAs from burning or mining can explain the number of indigenous people who died due to COVID-19. These results are particularly important given the current disruptive scenario imposed by the Brazilian government on critical institutions that detect and fight fires in indigenous lands and the policies enacted to combat COVID-19 in Brazil, which are based on denying isolation measures and delaying vaccinations.

15.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721221101360, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846713

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify global research trends in teleophthalmology, as well as productivity and its association with Human development index (HDI). METHODS: A cross-sectional study. The main outcome measures were publication count, citation count, and publications count per million populations. Bibliographic data were derived from the Web of Science website. HDI data were derived from Human Development Report [2020]. One-way ANOVA test was used to examine the association between HDI and the outcome measures. We studied the correlation between continuous variables using Spearman's. Bibliometric analysis software's VOSviewer and Citspace were used to analyse results and creating visualizing maps. RESULTS: The results retrieved 355 publications, one-third of them have been published in the year of the COVID-19 pandemic; (2020). The USA has contributed to one-half of all publications, and just five countries have contributed to about 90% of all records. Very high HDI countries had significantly more publications count per million populations, than high (p-value = 0.0047), medium (p-value = 0.0081) or low HDI countries (p-value = 0.002). The main themes are screening programmes, reliability, photography, COVID-19, access, artificial intelligence, and cost-effectiveness. The leading countries in terms of both publications and citation count are the USA and India. In terms of publications count per million populations, the leading countries are Singapore and Australia. CONCLUSION: Most of the contribution in teleophthalmology research was confined to a small number of countries. More effort is needed to expand the global contribution. The hotspots in this field are artificial intelligence applications and COVID-19 impact.

16.
Facta Universitatis: Series Physical Education and Sport ; 19(3):257-269, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1836312

ABSTRACT

The goal of this paper is to provide a review of the transfer of rights to broadcasting sporting events as one source of financing sporting activities and clubs through comparative practice and current legal regulations. Sports and the law are deeply intertwined, primarily due to the fact that sports are exposed to various challenges, ranging from doping, prevention of violence at sports manifestations, all the way to competition regulations, managing sports organizations and business processes. In this paper, we will analyze the positive legal regulations that enable the realization of income based on the right to broadcast. Sources of financing are necessary for the conduct of sporting activities. The most successful clubs generate the biggest part of their revenue through leasing broadcasting rights for sporting events and marketing. Broadcasting sporting events not only enables generation of direct revenue, but also removes the shackles of previously existing spatial barriers and thus contributes to the popularity of sports, athletes and their clubs. Occurrences such as the coronavirus pandemic have led to the organization of sporting events in controlled conditions, without the presence of an audience or with numerous limitations and restrictions. In such situations, numerous institutions have offered interactive forms of communication with the consumers (online museum tours, concerts, etc.), thus not only minimizing losses, but also maintaining contact with the audience. This situation has proven the significance of digital communication with the consumers. Even though the year 2020 went by without the previously planned Olympics and, in most cases, without sports fans in the stands, the sporting industry recorded a jump (from 388.28 billion dollars in 2020 to 440.77 billion of dollars in 2021). The growth in earnings was achieved predominantly due to the increase in media revenues.

17.
Seguranca Alimentar e Nutricional ; 28(27), 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1836192

ABSTRACT

School meals are a right enshrined in the Federal Constitutional of Brazil, and it is the duty of the State to guarantee them to all students enrolled in the public basic education network. The main way to carry out this guarantee has been through the National School Feeding Program (PNAE). Since March 2020, when the World Health Organization declared the pandemic by COVID-19, several measures have been taken to control the disease, including the suspension of face-to-face classes, putting at risk the guarantee of the human right to school feeding in public school system. In view of this, this article, through a review, presents and discusses the reframing process and the challenges faced by PNAE in the context of the pandemic. It addresses the main changes that occurred with the enactment of Law n degrees . 13.987/2020, regulated by Resolution CD/FNDE n degrees 02/2020, which authorized, exceptionally, during the period of suspension of classes, the distribution of foodstuffs purchased with program resources to students' families. In addition, it presents the modalities adopted by the Executing Entities and the attributions of the different school feeding actors in the country, in the context of the pandemic, highlighting their reflexes on the food and nutritional security of this public.

18.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(5):167-170, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812695

ABSTRACT

During 2018, Black or African American (Black) persons accounted for 43% of all new diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States (1). The annual diagnosis rate (39.2 per 100,000 persons) among Black persons was four times the rate among all other racial/ethnic groups combined, indicating a profound disparity in HIV diagnoses (1,2). Community-level social and structural factors, such as social vulnerability, might help explain the higher rate of HIV diagnoses among Black persons. Social vulnerability refers to the potential negative health effects on communities caused by external stresses (3). CDC used National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS)* and Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) data to examine the association between diagnosed HIV infections and social vulnerability among Black adults aged 18 years. Black adults in communities in the highest quartile of SVI were 1.5 times (rate ratio [RR] = 1.5;95% CI = 1.4-1.6) as likely to receive a diagnosis of HIV infection as were those in communities in the lowest quartile. Because of a history of racial discrimination and residential segregation, some Black persons in the United States reside in communities with the highest social vulnerability (4,5), and this finding is associated with experiencing increased risk for HIV infection. The development and prioritization of interventions that address social determinants of health (i.e., the conditions in which persons are born, grow, live, work, and age), are critical to address the higher risk for HIV infection among Black adults living in communities with high levels of social vulnerability. Such interventions might help prevent HIV transmission and reduce disparities among Black adults. Data on diagnoses of HIV infection among Black adults and reported to CDC through December 2019 were obtained from NHSS. Cases were geocoded to the U.S. Census Bureau tract level based on a person's residential address at the time of diagnosis. Census tract level social vulnerability data were obtained from the 2018 CDC SVI, which was developed to identify communities with the most potential needs (i.e., highest social vulnerability), before, during, and after public health events. Scores for overall SVI were generated using 15 population-based measures.. and were presented as percentile rankings by census tract, with higher scores indicating more vulnerability. SVI scores ranged from 0 to 1 and were categorized as quartiles based on their distribution among all U.S. Census tracts. NHSS data for Black adults with HIV diagnosed during 2018 were linked with SVI data. Data were analyzed by sex at birth with stratifications by age group and region of residence.. at time of diagnosis to assess differences in HIV diagnosis rates by SVI quartile. HIV diagnosis rates were calculated per 100,000 persons. RRs with 95% CIs were calculated comparing communities with the lowest SVI scores (Quartile 1) to those with the highest scores (Quartile 4) by sex at birth for age group and region of residence. Rates were considered significantly different if the 95% CIs of RRs excluded 1. Differences in numbers of diagnoses across the quartiles were analyzed by sex at birth and transmission category (i.e., male-to-male sexual contact, injection drug use, and heterosexual contact.) Rates and RRs were not calculated for transmission categories because of lack of population data. Data were statistically adjusted using multiple imputation techniques to account for missing HIV transmission categories (6). Analyses were conducted using SAS software (version 9.4;SAS Institute, Inc). This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy.**Among the 13,807 diagnoses of HIV infection among Black adults in 2018, the number and percentage of diagnoses by SVI quartile was 1,045 (7.6%) in Quartile 1;1,881 (13.6%) in Quartile 2;3,423 (24.8%) in Quartile 3;and 7,205 (52.2%) in Quartile 4 (Table);SVI scores were missing for 253 persons (1.8%). Black adults in Quartile 4 (rate = 52.1) were 1.5 times (RR = 1.5) as likely to

19.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(5):10054-10066, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1812618

ABSTRACT

Indonesia is often referred to as the Ring of Fire so that there are many natural disasters, especially earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and landslides. Based on the Environmental Profile, geography and population can increase the risk of natural disasters in Indonesia. To overcome these losses, it is necessary to mitigate natural disaster losses. The efforts of the Indonesian government as regulated in Law No. 24 of 2007, have allocated a budget for disaster management in the APBN/APBD. The government needs to reform natural disaster risk financing policies to meet the need for large amounts of disaster funding, timely and targeted, more planned, sustainable and transparent to reduce economic losses and the burden on the state budget. This disaster risk financing must also be able to answer the financing needs when there is no disaster in the context of disaster risk mitigation and transfer, financing when a disaster occurs (emergency response) and financing after a disaster occurs (rehabilitation and reconstruction). One way of financing disaster risk that can be done is with insurance services or insurance companies. The insurance company is referred to as the individual risk insurer who follows the insurance. In insurance there is a contractual agreement between the insured and the insurer called the policy. The agreement is regarding the insurer who is willing to bear a number of risks that may arise in the future in exchange for certain payments from the insured. Payments made by the insured to the insurer are called premiums.

20.
Health Secur ; 20(2): 97-108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806224

ABSTRACT

Laws play an important role in emergency response capacity. During the COVID-19 outbreak, experts have noted both a lack of law where it is needed and a problematic use of laws that exist. To address those challenges, policymakers revising public health emergency laws can examine how existing laws were used during the COVID-19 response to address problems that arose during their application. Judicial opinions can provide a source of data for this review. This study used legal epidemiology methods to perform an environmental scan of global judicial opinions, published from March 1 through August 31, 2020, from 23 countries, related to government-issued COVID-19 mitigation measures. The opinions were coded, and findings categorize the measures based on: (1) the World Health Organization's May 2020 publication, Overview of Public Health and Social Measures in the Context of COVID-19, and (2) related legal challenges brought in courts, including disputes about authority; conflicts of law; rationality, proportionality, or necessity; implementation; and enforcement. The findings demonstrate how judicial review of emergency measures has played a role in the COVID-19 response. In some cases, court rulings required mitigation measures to be amended or stopped. In others, court rulings required the government to issue a measure not yet in place. These findings provide examples for understanding issues related to the application of law during an emergency response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Government , Humans , Public Health
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