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1.
Chest ; 162(4):A548, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060625

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pathologies of the Post-COVID-19 World SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary aspergillosis is a recognized complication of COVID-19. Options for diagnostic evaluation in patients with suspected pulmonary aspergillosis include serum galactomannan, beta-D-glucan, Aspergillus PCR, fungal cultures and tissue biopsy. Diagnosis is challenging due to the risks and logistical barriers associated with procedural/surgical tissue biopsy and the variable reliability of serum biomarkers. We present a case of a 76-year-old male who developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after a COVID-19 respiratory infection. CASE PRESENTATION: 76-year-old male with a past medical history that includes emphysematous COPD, history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in remission, on ibrutinib, who contracted SARS-CoV-2 resulting in hypoxemic respiratory failure and requiring hospital admission and was treated with dexamethasone and remdesivir. He was discharged home and due to his worsening respiratory condition, he was readmitted to the hospital next month. Ct chest performed revealed pulmonary embolism and diffuse multifocal opacification with interspersed scattered dense opacities and nodules with cavitary lesions in the right upper lobe. A bronchoscopy was performed and the Aspergillus antibody test, beta D glucan and galactomannan antigens resulted as negative. Due to this, voriconzaole was discontinued. Subsequently CT-guided lung biopsy demonstrated Aspergillus. Eventually, fungal cultures from BAL began growing fungus. DISCUSSION: Our patient initially presented with a Covid infection in January 2022 he was initially treated with remdesivir, 14 days of baricitinib and 10 days of Decadron followed by a steroid taper (due to his underlying COPD). He did not receive tocilizumab. He was found to have progression of the cavitary lesions during a third admission. We suspect that the main contributing factors for the development of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis are related to interleukin production, distorted architecture from COVID-19 infection and multiple courses of steroids. This case report demonstrates the importance of having a high clinical suspicion for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in all patients with COVID-19 infection. It also demonstrates that serum biomarkers are not reliable indicators of infection and cannot be used to definitively rule out infection or to exclude treatment with antifungal therapy. It should be noted that positive serum biomarkers in patients with true invasive aspergillosis have a higher mortality rate as compared to those without positive serum biomarkers. This case also underscores the importance of obtaining tissue diagnosis in patients where there is a high suspicion for fungal infection when all other studies are equivocal. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this case underscores the importance of maintaining a high clinical suspicion for opportunistic and fungal infections in patients with COVID-19, regardless of the serum biomarkers. Reference #1: Arastehfar A, Carvalho A, van de Veerdonk FL, et al. Covid-19 associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis (capa)—from immunology to treatment. Journal of Fungi. 2020;6(2):91. doi:10.3390/jof6020091 Reference #2: Machado M, Valerio M, Álvarez-Uría A, et al. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in the COVID-19 ERA: An expected new entity. Mycoses. 2020;64(2):132-143. doi:10.1111/myc.13213 Reference #3: Maschmeyer G, Haas A, Cornely OA. Invasive aspergillosis. Drugs. 2007;67(11):1567-1601. doi:10.2165/00003495-200767110-00004 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Hira Bakhtiar No relevant relationships by Amanda Lindo No relevant relationships by Carlos Merino No relevant relationships by Joanna Moore

2.
Chest ; 162(4):A2163, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060904

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Systemic Diseases with Deceptive Pulmonary Manifestations SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 12:25 pm - 01:25 pm INTRODUCTION: Fat embolism is a syndrome that can occur during orthopedic procedures or fractures of the long bones, especially the femur and tibia. It can affect multiple organs, including the brain, skin, and lungs, causing the triad of altered mentation, petechiae, and hypoxemia. Here, we present a case of a 54-year-old woman at risk for graft versus host disease (GVHD) who presented with dyspnea a few weeks after an orthopedic procedure. Initial chest radiograph was notable for parenchymal infiltrates, and she was initially treated with antibiotics without improvement. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old woman with a history of leukemia, stem cell transplantation years ago, GVHD (skin liver, ocular, oral, joints (not lung), with clinical and cytogenetic remission underwent total hip arthroplasty. Two weeks later, she developed lethargy and dyspnea and presented to the emergency department. She was found to have an elevated WBC of x19.5 k/ul (normal 4.1-9.3k/uL) with a left upper lobe consolidation on the chest radiograph (Figure 1). She was treated empirically for pneumonia and discharged with a 7-day course of levofloxacin. Despite completing the course of antibiotics, her dyspnea worsened, and she presented to the emergency department two weeks later with worsening hypoxemia. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacities (GGOs) with patchy consolidations in a broncho-vascular distribution (Figure 2). She was negative for COVID-19, Influenza A, B and Legionella urinary antigen. The differential diagnosis included infection and GVHD among others. She underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). The Gram stain and the culture did not suggest an infection. Pathology from BAL returned significant for reactive bronchial and squamous cells with lipid-laden macrophages. She was started on steroids. Her clinical status improved dramatically, and she was eventually discharged. At a 3-month follow-up her symptoms had improved. Her CT scan also showed significant improvement (Figure 3). DISCUSSION: Our case highlights the successful diagnosis of fat embolism in the lungs in a patient with complicated medical history. Fat embolism usually presents as ground glass opacities. However, the diagnosis was more challenging in this case due to a significant time lapse between her surgery and her presentation to the hospital. She also lacked the other common signs of fat embolism including altered mentation and skin changes. Therefore, other etiologies, such as GVHD, bacterial or viral infection were initially strongly considered. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome condition should still be suspected despite a delay from the initial surgery. Diagnosis in immunocompromised patients requires a detailed workup to rule out other etiologies. Reference #1: Johnson, M. J., & Lucas, G. L. (1996). Fat embolism syndrome. Orthopedics, 19(1), 41-49. Reference #2: Newbigin, K., Souza, C. A., Torres, C., Marchiori, E., Gupta, A., Inacio, J., … & Peña, E. (2016). Fat embolism syndrome: state-of-the-art review focused on pulmonary imaging findings. Respiratory medicine, 113, 93-100. Reference #3: Swiatek, K., Kordic, G., & Jordan, K. (2018). An Unlikely Presentation of Fat Embolism Syndrome. Chest, 154(4), 686A. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Raheel Anwar No relevant relationships by Boris Medarov

3.
HemaSphere ; 6:1143-1144, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032157

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe SARS-CoV-2 infections associated with high mortality rates are reported in a higher percentage of patients (pts) with hematologic malignancies compared to general population. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), pts with uncontrolled disease have a higher mortality risk. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on CML pts in treatment-free remission (TFR) has not been studied so far. In particular, as immune control of residual disease may be important for TFR, the concern is that the infection could induce loss of TFR. Aims: To evaluate the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CML pts in TFR and assess any impact on maintenance of TFR. Methods: From March 2020 to December 2021, the CANDID study organized by the international CML Foundation has collected data on COVID-19 positive CML pts worldwide. Details on the registry were presented recently (Pagano ASH 2021). For this sub-analysis on pts in TFR additional information were collected including;molecular remission status (BCR::ABL1 ratios) before, during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection covering at least 6 months. For molecular analyses, BCR::ABL1 ratios were classified according to Cross et al (Leukemia 2015). In addition, ratios of 0% without indication of sensitivity were allocated as MR4 i.e. 0.01%IS. PCR outlier results were identified using the ROUT method by nonlinear regression with a maximum false discovery rate (FDR) of 1% (Motulsky et al 2006). Time to molecular relapse (MR) was measured from the date of COVID-19 diagnosis to the date of MR defined as loss of major molecular remission (MMR, BCR::ABL1 >0.1%IS) or the date of last molecular test. Molecular relapse-free survival (MRFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The statistical difference between groups was performed using log-rank test. Results: By December 2021, 1050 COVID-19 positive CML pts were registered. 95 pts were in TFR at the time point of SARS-CoV-2 infection of which 89 (93.68%) recovered and 6 deceased (6.32%). Median age of TFR pts was 57 years, male were 51 (53.68%). Median time from CML diagnosis to reporting date was 13 years (range 3.7-27.0 years). TFR duration was 2.83 years in median (range 0.5 months - 10.1 years) including 19 pts with a duration < 1 year. From the 89 recovered TFR pts, 74 pts completed the 6-month follow up (83%), a further 6 pts with molecular follow-up of 3-5 months after COVID-19 diagnosis were still in TFR, 9 pts were lost to follow-up. Of 74 pts with complete reports, 69 pts remained in TFR (93%) and 5 pts lost TFR. For 71 pts, PCR results were obtained before, during and after infection. With the ROUT method 10 pts demonstrated outlier PCR tests, 61 pts demonstrated stable PCR results. There was no statistically significant difference in PCR results before and during/after infection (p>0.2). MRFS for these 71 pts 15 months after COVID-19 diagnosis was 86%. Probability of TFR loss was higher in pts with a TFR duration < 6 months compared to pts with TFR duration >6 months (27% vs 10%, Fig 1A). Additionally, there were no statistically differences in hospitalization rate (16% vs 23%, p=0.12) and severity of COVID-19 symptoms (12.6% vs 12%, p=0.87) comparing TFR and TKI treated pts. OS of COVID-19 positive TFR pts did not differ from COVID-19 positive pts on TKI therapy (HR 1.1, CI 0.47-2.54) (Fig 1B). Summary/Conclusion: In this sub-analysis of the CANDID study, CML pts in TFR had similar severity and survival to CML pts who were on TKI therapy and there was no evidence of an increased risk of TFR loss after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
HemaSphere ; 6:2558-2559, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032153

ABSTRACT

Background: We have previously described AUTO1, a CD19 CAR with a fast off-rate CD19 binding domain, designed to reduce CAR T-cell immune toxicity and improve engraftment. Its clinical activity has been tested in r/r paediatric and adult B-ALL (Ghorashian S et al., Nat Med 2019;Roddie C et al., JCO 2021). This data confirms the intended function of the receptor, with low levels of CRS/ICANS and long-term engraftment of CAR T-cells observed in both patient groups. Aims: We have initiated testing of AUTO1 in the setting of B-NHL and CLL/SLL (NCT02935257). Methods: Manufacturing: CAR T-cell products were generated using a semi-automated closed process from non-mobilised patient leukapheresate. Study design: Subjects ≥ 16y underwent lymphodepletion with fludarabine (30mg/m x3) and cyclophosphamide (60mg/kg x1) prior to AUTO1 infusion, with the exception of the DLBCL cohort who additionally received a single dose of pembrolizumab (200mg) on day -1 to potentiate CAR-T expansion. AUTO1 dose varies based on the indication. Split dosing of 230 x106 CD19 CAR T-cells at day 0 and day 9 is employed in the CLL cohort. A single dose of 200 x106 CD19 CAR T-cells is delivered to patients with B-NHL. Study endpoints include feasibility of manufacture, grade 3-5 toxicity and remission rates at 1 and 3 months. Results: As of 8th February 2022, we enrolled 23 patients: 11 low grade NHL (LG-NHL:7 with FL and 3 with MCL), 7 DLBCL and 5 CLL. Apheresis was successful in all 23 patients and product manufacture was successful in 22 (pending in the last). 19 patients were infused: 10 with LG-NHL, 6 with DLBCL and 3 with CLL. 1 CLL patient was pending infusion at time of data cut-off and 2 patients died pre-infusion: 1 MCL patient, from COVID-19 and 1 CLL patient, from intracerebral haemorrhage. Patients treated with AUTO1 had a median age of 60 years (range 39-79), had received a median of 3 prior lines of treatment (range 2-8). Grade 1 CRS was reported in 6/19 and Grade 2 CRS in 3/19. No ICANS was observed in the B-NHL and CLL cohorts. CAR engraftment was observed in 13/13 patients evaluated by qPCR with ongoing persistence in 12/13 patients at last follow-up. In the LG-NHL and DLBCL cohorts 10/10 and 4/5 evaluable patients respectively were in CMR by 18FDG PET-CT post-treatment. Responses were ongoing in 9/10 LG-NHL at 12 months and in 4/4 DLBCL at months 1, 3, 3 and 6. In the CLL cohort, 2/3 evaluable patients achieved MRD negative remission in the bone marrow with residual small volume lymph nodes by CT at 6 and 3 months of follow-up respectively. 1 CLL patient did not engraft and had SD at month 1. Summary/Conclusion: AUTO1 has a tolerable safety profile in patients with r/r B-NHL and CLL despite high disease burden. Early data shows excellent complete remission rates and excellent CAR engraftment/expansion. Additional patients, updated data and longer follow up will be presented.

5.
HemaSphere ; 6:523, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032145

ABSTRACT

Background: During the coronavirus pandemic, the risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality are higher in certain groups, in particular in patients with oncohematological diseases. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a special group of oncohematological diseases in which mortality in the era of COVID-19 has increased 2-3 times. Currently, there is no consensus on the treatment of ALL during coronavirus infection. Aims: To determine the basic principles and features of the management of patients with ALL during COVID-19. Methods: 46 patients with ALL and COVID-19 (men 52.2%, women 47.8%) aged 18-74 years (median-44.5) were treated at the Moscow City Clinical Hospital 52 on 01.04.20-01.11.21. B-ALL was 58.7% (27 patients), T-ALL - 34.8% (16 patients), biphenotypic - 4.3% (2 patients), not defined - 2.2% (1 patient), Ph-positive ALL - 17.4% (8 patients). The status of the disease of patients upon admission to the Hospital differed: debut of ALL - 20 patients (43.5%), remission - 16 patients (34.8%), relapse and refractory course - 10 patients (21.7%). All patients were treated COVID-19 in accordance with the current guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID- 19 (interleukin 6 inhibitor, anticoagulant and antibacterial therapy, glucocorticoids (GCs), human immunoglobulin (IG) against COVID-19). According to vital indications and with stabilization of the patient's condition, 18 patients (39.1%) received chemotherapy (CT). Results: There were no deaths in the group of patients with remission of ALL. In patients with the debut of ALL, mortality was 45% (9 patients), in relapse and refractory course - 50% (5 patients) (p=0.005). Mortality in the group who did not receive CT was 35.7%, and in the group who received CT - 22.2%. 6 patients with Ph-positive ALL (75.0%) continued therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). According to the protocol for the treatment of ALL, full doses of GCs (100%) and anthracyclines (ATC) (100%) were used, lumbar punctures (LP) and intrathecal (IT) injections of CT (100%) were continued. Due to the high risk of thrombotic complications in COVID-19 and asparaginase therapy, anticoagulant therapy was performed (100%). Prevention of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) (89.1%), antifungal (37.0%) and antibacterial (87.0%) therapy were carried out in the treatment of COVID-19. With the persistence of COVID-19 and the absence of antibodies to COVID-19, 2 patients received repeated transfusion of human IG against COVID-19. Summary/Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients in remission of ALL coronavirus infection are treated and controlled. Treatment of COVID-19 in patients with ALL is carried out according to general protocols for the treatment of COVID-19, taking into account the peculiarities of nosology (agranulocytosis, high risk of PCP and fungal infection with long-term therapy of GCs, persistence of COVID-19). When the patient's condition is stabilized, the issue of CT should be decided individually in each case, taking into account all the risks of ALL and COVID-19. During CT, use full doses of GCs, ATC. In patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, continue LP and IT injections of CT, therapy with TKI.

6.
HemaSphere ; 6:882-883, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032138

ABSTRACT

Background: The end of the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), is not foreseen. Vaccination using two subtypes of mRNA-based vaccines, BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, is an effective public health measure to reduce the risk of infection and severe complications from COVID-19. However, COVID-19 vaccine response data for patients with myeloid malignancy, who are at severe risk in case of infection, has not emerged. Aims: We investigated the antibody titers of COVID-19 in patients with myeloid malignancies who received two doses of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: Previously treated, currently treated, and newly diagnosed 46 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 23 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were included in this study. Anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers were measured at 3 months after the second vaccination and compared them to those in healthy controls. Results: Seroconversion rates for AML and MDS were 94.7% and 100%, without significant difference from healthy controls (100%). In AML patients, the median antibody titers of patients in complete remission (CR) (816.5 [interquartile range (IQR): 250.0-2063.5] U/ml vs 1023.0 [640.0-1535.0] U/ml, P=0.668), especially those who were under treatment-free observation in CR (1630.0 [806.0-2454.0] U/ml vs 1023.0 [640.0-1535.0] U/ml, P=0.1220), were comparable to those in healthy controls. On the other hand, even in CR, the antibody titer in AML patients under maintenance therapy was significantly lower than that in patients under treatment-free observation (154.0 [126.0-289.0] U/ml vs 1630.0 [806.0-2454.0] U/ml, P=0.0003). Among the AML patients in CR, patients receiving maintenance treatment had a significantly lower median absolute lymphocyte count (0.81 [0.71-1.46] x 109/l vs 1.58 [1.29-1.93] x 109/l, P=0.0094) and a significantly lower median absolute neutrophil count (1.45 [1.15-1.64] x 109/l vs 3.45 [2.68-4.28] x 109/l, P<0.0001) than that in patients under treatment-free observation. Significantly lower antibody titers were associated with current active treatment (92.2 [37.5-216.3] U/ml vs 1630.0 [806.0-2454.0] U/ml, P<0.0001), AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (50.8 U/ml [39.9-109.1] vs 816.5 [283.0-1935.3] U/ml, P=0.0022), advanced age more than the median age of 68 years (195.0 [43.3-743.0] U/ml vs 1630.0 [806.0-3391.0] U/ml, P=0.0002), and vaccine subtypes of BNT162b2 (285.0 [127.8-1045.3] U/ml vs 3037.0 [2198.50-4537.0] U/ml, P=0.0002) in AML patients and with current active treatment (41.0 [10.7-227.5] U/ml vs 623.5 [173.8-1613.3] U/ml, P=0.0233), subtypes of excess blasts (11.1 [4.8-34.1] U/ml vs 212.0 [81.7-600.0] U/ml, P=0.0293), and high and very high risk of the revised international prognostic scoring system in MDS patients (9.0 [3.4-41.0] U/ml vs 169.0 [48.5-327.0] U/ml, P=0.0380). Summary/Conclusion: This is one of the first studies on the effect of COVID-19 vaccines focusing on patients with AML and MDS, and there are many new findings. The response to COVID-19 vaccine appears to be related to disease and treatment status. Myeloid malignancies may have less impact than lymphoid malignancies on the vaccine response. AML patients under treatment-free observation in CR could be expected to have a vaccine effect that is comparable to that in healthy individuals. In contrast, since the response to vaccination might be insufficient in AML patients undergoing maintenance therapy, maintenance therapy should be continued with strict measures for prevention of infection even after vaccination.

7.
HemaSphere ; 6:1038, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032104

ABSTRACT

Background: Vulnerability of patients (pts) with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and their susceptibility to Covid-19 infection is documented in several studies with reported case fatality rates (CFRs) up to 40%, but there is still paucity of data on identifying risk factors of their adverse outcome. Aims: To evaluate demographic, patient-related, CLL-related and Covid-19 related risk factors in hospitalized pts with concurrent CLL and Covid-19. Methods: Total of 81 CLL pts were identified in medical records of three University centers in Belgrade: Clinical Hospital Center (CHC) Zemun, CHC Bezanijska kosa and CHC Zvezdara dedicated to treatment of Covid-19 pts during pandemic (from 15 March 2020 to 31 December 2021). Results: For all 81 pts CFR was 32.1%. Age (median age 68 yrs;range 45-90 yrs) and sex (apparent male prevalence: 61 male and 20 female;M:F=3.05) had no influence on outcome. Pts with Charlson comorbidity index >4 (29/81;35.8%) had significantly higher CFR (38% vs 9.5%, p=0,025). Concerning CLL-directed treatment: 26/81(32.1%) pts were on active treatment (5 pts were on Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, 21pts receiving imunochemotherapy), 11/81(13.6%) pts were in remission on previous lines of therapy, while 44/81(54.3%) pts were treatment naive. CLL treatment history had no impact on CFR, as well as anemia (Hb<100g/l) that was present in 29/81(35.8%)pts, hipogammaglobulinemia (21/81;26%pts) and hiperferritinemia>450ng/mL (50/81;61.7%pts). Of evaluated laboratory parameters, high levels of lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH>2xUNL:6/81;7.4%pts), D-dimer (>1000ng/mL:36/81;44.4%pts), and C-reactive protein (CRP>100mg/L: 31/81;38.3%pts) proved to be associated with adverse outcome;p-values 0.002, 0.039 and <0.001, respectively. According to Covid-19 clinical course, the severe Covid-19 score had 35(43,2%)pts, and critical 19(23.5%)pts. Covid-19 infection was treated according to current National guidelines. Corticosteroids were administrated to 81.5% of pts, antiviral agents to 38.3%, IL-6 receptor inhibitor to 11.1%, antiviral monoclonal antibodies to 7.4% and intravenous immunoglobulin to 19.8% of pts. None of listed therapeutic approaches had impact on CFRs. Antibiotics were administrated to 43/81 (53.1%) of pts with documented or highly suspected concomitant bacterial infection (procaltitonin level>0.5ng/mL and/or chest X-Ray image corresponding to bacterial pneumonia), and the bacterial coinfection had adverse impact on CFR (51.2% vs.10.2%;p<0.001). Significantly higher mortality was documented in pts who needed supplemental oxygen (58/81;71%) (CFR 43.1 vs.4.3%;p<0.001), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (25/81-30.9%;19/25 needed mechanical ventilation) (CFR 88% vs.7.1%;p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, bacterial coinfection and ICU admission proved to be the most significant adverse parameters influencing outcome (p=0.012). Summary/Conclusion: Our study proved the dismal outcome of CLL pts with concurrent Covid-19. That could be mainly attributed to the high proportion of bacterial coinfections reflecting their frailty and sucessibility to both viral and bacterial infections.

8.
HemaSphere ; 6:3284-3285, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032098

ABSTRACT

Background: The Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor acalabrutinib is approved for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia(CLL). Acalabrutinib induces durable remissions in most CLL patients, which mostly are partial remissions (PR), and therefore treatment typically is given as long-term monotherapy. As a potential alternative we developed a time-limited regimen, combining acalabrutinib with obinutuzumab. Aims: Here, we report early results from 14 treatment-naïve patients with CLL who enrolled in this ongoing phase 2 trial (NCT04505254) since September, 2020 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods: Patients and Study Design: Treatment-naïve CLL patients requiring therapy as per iwCLL criteria receive acalabrutinib 100 mg orally twice a day for 24 cycles, combined with monthly obinotuzumab for 6 doses, starting in cycle 3. The first dose of obinutuzumab is divided into 100 mg on day 1 and 900 mg on day 2 of cycle 3;1000 mg are given during subsequent cycles (cycles 4-8). Patients who do not achieve a complete remission (CR) after cycle 8 can receive an additional 6 monthly doses of obinotuzumab during cycles 9 -14. Treatment is discontinued after 24 cycles, and patients will be monitored. The primary objective is to determine the durability of remissions after treatment discontinuation, secondary objectives are to determine clinical and laboratory characteristics that predict for early versus late relapse after time-limited therapy. Results: The median age of the patients is 70 yrs (range, 40 -83 yrs), 14% had del17p or TP53 mutation, 43% had an unmutated IgHV and 71% advance stage disease (RAI stage III and IV). The median baseline absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and b2 microglobulin at start of therapy were 39.2x109/L (range: 7.1 - 188.4 x 109/L) and 4.2 mg/L (range: 2.2 - 7.9 mg/L), respectively. After a median follow-up of 7 months (2 - 16 months), 13 (93%) of patients remain on study;one patient died (7%) due from complications from a presumed bacterial (COVID19-negative) pneumonia after 2 months on therapy. The estimated one-year PFS and OS for the cohort is 92.8 %. Seven patients were evaluable for response assessment after 8 months of therapy. No patient has yet discontinued therapy. All patients achieved a PR (one patient with undetectable minimal residual disease/U-MRD in the bone marrow), accounting for an overall responsonse rate of 100%. The median levels of bone marrow infiltration by CLL cells, quantified by flow cytometry, declined from 83.6% (range: 54.3 - 94.0 %) at baseline to 4.1% (range, 0.0 - 63.3%, n=7, p<0.05, see figure) after 6 cycles of combination treatment. Sixty-four percent of patients completed all doses of obinotuzumab, 50% requiered a dose reduction of acalabrutinib to 100 mg per day due to adverse events (AE). Grade 33 AE were observed in 4 patients (29%), which included decreased neutrophil counts (n=2), syncope (n=1), and grade 5 lung infection (COVID19 not detected, n=1). The most frequently reported non-serious related AE (3 2 patients) were anemia (n=5 [36%]), decreased platelets counts (n=3 [21%]), bruising (n=3 [21%]), limbs edema (n=2 [15%]) and headache (n=2 [15%]). All these events were grade 1. Importantly, no bleeding or atrial fibrillation events were observed. 3285 (Figure Presented ) Summary/Conclusion: Our preliminary data indicate that combination therapy of acalabrutinib plus obinotuzumab induces remissions with a major reduction in bone marrow disease after 6 months of combination therapy. Longer treatment and follow-up is warranted to determine the durability of responses after therapy discontinuation.

9.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005641

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has substantially decreased cancer screening, management visits and surgeries. CVS Health recently developed a best-in-class mobile app and website that enables oncology patients to start and stay on therapy. This study examined the impact of COVID-19 on adherence to oral oncolytic agents in a large health plan with a significant digital health platform. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), ovarian cancer or prostate cancer initiating oral oncolytics between 3/1/19 and 3/1/2021. Patients were divided into two groups: pre-COVID oral oncolytic initiators before 3/1/20 and COVID initiators after 3/1/20 and were followed for 1 year after therapy initiation. The primary outcome was optimal adherence to oral oncolytic agents as defined by a medication possession ratio (MPR) ≥ 0.8. Percent of digital engagement, defined as the number of times a patient interacted with the CVS digital platform, was examined as a secondary endpoint and was considered as a binary and categorical endpoint (none, low (< 28), moderate (28-105) and high (> 105)). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression modeling were performed;p-values < 0.05 were significant. Results: In total, 15,494 patients were included in the study, with 8,067 (52.07%) in the pre-COVID initiator group. Patient demographics were similar across study groups, with the exception of pre-COVID initiators who were less likely to be male (75.32% vs. 77.34%;p < 0.01) and receive copay assistance (38.37% vs. 41.70%;p < 0.01). No difference in digital engagement pre and during COVID was noted (74.55% vs. 73.60%;p = 0.18). Pre-COVID initiators were less likely to be optimally adherent than COVID initiators (84.75% vs. 85.96%;p = 0.04). Therapy persistence was more common among COVID initiators, with greater number of fills (Median [quartile (Q) Q1-Q3]: 10 [4-12] vs. 9[4-12];p < 0.01) and less changes to therapy (8.87% vs. 9.95%;p = 0.02). After regression, COVID initiation of oral oncolytics was not associated with optimal adherence (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06 [95% (confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.16]). Adherence increased as digital engagement increased (low: OR 0.64 [95% CI 0.56-0.72];moderate: OR 0.67 [95% CI 0.56-0.76];high: OR 1.71 [95% CI 1.48-1.99]). Other factors associated with increased adherence were copay assistance, male gender and age between 65 and 84 (all p < 0.05). Factors associated with decreased adherence were therapy change, CML and age < 50 years (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly impact optimal adherence for new-to-therapy oral oncology patients. Patients with high digital engagement during the pandemic experienced significantly improved adherence than those not engaged. Additionally, persistence and number of fills were slightly improved in COVID initiators, suggesting that the current pandemic may have influenced adherence behaviors.

10.
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders ; 59, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2004360

ABSTRACT

Background: CNS involvement in CLL is rare and it usually occurs in late-stage CLL disease. There is usual delay in the diagnosis due to its variable manifestations, challenging diagnosis process and possible misdiagnosis with a mimicker condition. I am sharing our relative successful experience with this challenging case that had satisfied outcome after going through comprehensive investigations and treatment journey treating his symptoms until arriving the final diagnosis and getting the best treatment option. Material(s) and Method(s): A 42 years old male, with recent COVID-19 infection, presented with multiple progressive neurologic symptoms over one month;started as numbness around the mouth, reduced facial sensation and a feeling of band like sensation below the costal margins. On exam, he had left abduction restriction, diplopia on left gaze and upbeat nystagmus, reduced facial sensation and hyperesthesia. The reflexes were 1+ in the upper limbs, 3+ in the lower limbs, up going planters, tingling from the feet up to T6 level and postural tremor bilaterally. His CSF showed high protein level. MRI brain/ spine revealed left frontal juxtacortical white matter and bilateral middle cerebral peduncles lesions with post-contrast enhancement and long segment spinal cord demyelinating plaques. He was initially treated as a case of Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) post viral infection in a background of CLL. The delayed diagnosis was due to temporal relation of neurological manifestation to viral infection, similar MRI lesions to ADEM and multiple negative CSF results of cytology and flow cytometry. He had persistent disabling symptoms and enhancing lesions in MRI despite being treated with IVMP, IVIG and PLEX. He was managed for ADEM based on responsiveness to the recommended therapy step by step. Firstly, he received a high-dose corticosteroids, secondly IV immunoglobulin but he was still progressing and considered as steroid-unresponsive ADEM. lastly, plasma exchange was done when he exhibited progressive symptoms with fair improvement. Interestingly, the patient showed significant improvement in the clinical and radiological parameters after starting him with a new anti-leukemia medication (Acalabrutinib) for his concurrent active condition. He run out of his medication for around 1 week and he experienced recurrent of the neurological manifestation and the previous lesions in the images. A repeated flow cytometry for the third time came positive for CLL cells and the final diagnosis of CNS involvement by CLL was established. The diagnosis was made after the exclusion of other etiologies. Result(s): The patient received Ibrutinib at a standard dose and as a monotherapy. It is an efficient chemotherapy that crosses the blood brain barrier and has showed a favorable clinical, biological and radiological outcome. The patient is back to his work and his daily activities have improved. Conclusion(s): In case of inconclusive work up, CSF analysis should be repeated testing for cytology and flow cytometry\immunophenotypes as the false negative results are common. Our patient had an active CLL proved in his investigations, and the fact that the patient responded very well to the new chemotherapy should alert the diagnosis of CNS involvement by CLL and directs towards repeating investigations and introducing aggressive treatment strategy to target both hematological and neurological complications of the condition.

11.
British Journal of Haematology ; 197(SUPPL 1):22-23, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1861224

ABSTRACT

B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is associated with immune suppression and patients are at increased risk following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia-Vaccine Response (CLL-VR) study was designed to assess immune responses following the introduction of Covid-19 vaccination in UK. Five hundred patients with CLL were recruited nationally through NHS and charity communications. Phlebotomy blood samples were taken from local patients ( n = 100) and dried blood spot samples were collected via post from participants across the UK ( n = 400). Ninety-six age-matched control subjects were also recruited locally. Samples were taken at 2-3 weeks following the first, second and third primary vaccine doses. Antibody and cellular responses against spike protein, and neutralising antibody titre to delta and omicron variant, were measured. Total serum immunoglobulin level was also determined. Responses were analysed according to clinical history, serum immunoglobulin level and vaccine type received. Donors with a clinical or serological history of prior natural infection were excluded from the analysis. Twenty percent (70/353) of participants developed a measurable antibody response after the first vaccination and this increased to 67% (323/486) following the second dose and 80% (202/254) after a third dose. The response rate in healthy controls plateaued at 100% after only two doses. The magnitude of the antibody response was also 3.7-fold lower following the second vaccine compared to controls ( n = 244;490 vs. 1821 U/ml, p < 0.0001) but increased markedly to 3114 U/ ml after third dose ( n = 51). No difference was observed in relation to the initial vaccine platform received. Multivariate analysis on 486 participants showed that BTKi therapy, history of recurrent infection and low serum antibody levels of IgA or IgM were independent prognostic markers for poor antibody response. Among participants with a detectable antibody response, a marked reduction in the ability to neutralise the delta and omicron variants of concern was noted compared to healthy controls following both the second and third dose of vaccine. Cellular responses were assessed following the second vaccine by IFN-g ELISPOT ( n = 91). Patients who had received the ChAdOx1 vaccine had similar levels to controls ( p = 0.39), while those who had received BNT162b2 had lower levels ( p < 0.0001). Five patients with poor spike-specific antibody responses to vaccination subsequently developed breakthrough infection with SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. Antibody responses and neutralisation remained poor following recovery from infection although T-cell responses were strong and only one patient required hospital admission. CLL-VR is the largest vaccine study conducted in patients with CLL and reveals diminished but comparable antibody responses to both the ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 vaccines with some improvement following third primary dose of mRNA vaccine. In contrast T-cell responses following second dose are greater in those who received ChAdOx1 platform. Low neutralising activity against the delta and omicron variants highlights an ongoing risk for this vulnerable population despite repeated vaccination and reveals the need for alternative approaches to protection including prophylactic monoclonal antibody therapy..

12.
Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy ; 43:S535-S536, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1859749

ABSTRACT

On behalf of Grupo Oncoclínicas. Objectives: COVID-19 has become one of the worst pandemics in history and patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) seems to have high risk for severe events and death by the SARS-COV-2. Our aim is to report a survey conducted with Brazilian hematologists who attended AML patients with COVID-19 to evaluate the mortality rate and any potential risk factor for death. Methods: From May 5th to May 19th, 2021 we conducted a survey with 178 hematologists and collected data about adult patients with AML who had the COVID-19 diagnosis confirmed by RT-PCR: age, gender, possible source of contamination by SARS-COV-2 previous vaccination, moment of the AML treatment, status of AML when COVID was diagnosed and the outcomes related to COVID-19. Results: 33 patients (22 females) were recorded and the median age at the COVID-19 diagnosis was 60 years (19 to 79y). Only one had been previously vaccinated. In 21 cases (63%) in-hospital transmission was presumed to be the source of infection. In 20 patients (60,6%) COVID-19 was diagnosed when the patient had active AML, while in 13 patients (39,3%) AML was in remission. Twelve patients had diagnosis before starting AML treatment, 6 during intensive chemo induction remission, 3 during intensive chemo consolidation, 9 while in low-intensity therapy and 2 during treatment of relapse. There were 18 deaths attributed to COVID-19 (54,5%), of which 15 (83%) had active AML and 3 (17%) were in AML remission (p = 0.0052). We did not identify any other factors that could be associated to death. Among the 15 patients who survived 8 (53%) had some delay in their AML treatment. Discussion: Despite its limitations, this exploratory report addressing specifically AML and COVID-19 brings up some points to consider: 1) Most patients were presumed to be infected in the hospital, which reinforces the need for taking measures to control the dissemination of COVID-19 in the hospital enviroment.2) Our data suggests that patients with active AML possibly have a higher risk of death from COVID-19 and that patients on treatment did not have better outcomes. Beside this, 5 of 12 patients who had COVID-19 diagnosis before beginning AML treatment were alive. These findings lead us to speculate that the best strategy could be postponing the beginning of AML treatment as long as it is safe. 3) Our survey seems to confirm the high risk of death due to COVID-19 in patients with AML. 4) More than 50% of patients who survived COVID-19 had a delay in their treatment;the impact of this delay on AML survival remains uncertain and should be evaluated in future studies. Conclusion: AML patients seem to have a very high risk of death when infected by SARS-COV-2. Furthermore, even when recovered from COVID-19 those patients may suffer a delay in their treatment. Further reports are need to formulate evidence-based recommendations.

13.
Leukemia and Lymphoma ; 62(SUPPL 1):S70-S72, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1747047

ABSTRACT

The BCL2-specific inhibitor, venetoclax, has demonstrated remarkable clinical activity in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), either alone or in combination with CD20 antibodies. Nevertheless, patients who fail to attain a complete remission relapse, and require further therapy. Data on retreatment with venetoclax at disease progression are currently limited. Here, we report patterns of clonal evolution in an R/R CLL patient that has demonstrated successful retreatment. A 57 year-old lady with chemotherapy- refractory (FCR, RCHOP, high dose methyl prednisolone) TP53 mutant CLL was treated for 21 months with single-agent venetoclax in 2014 (NCT01889186). She attained an MRD positive CR with the resolution of massive lymphadenopathy and with only low-level (0.01%) disease in the bone marrow. However, she subsequently progressed rapidly with a lymphocyte doubling time of only 4 weeks and was treated with tirabrutinib and idelalisib in combination (NCT02968563) from December 2015 for 37 months before progressing December 2019. She was retreated with venetoclax and rituximab but died of COVID-19-induced respiratory failure in March 2020. To study the clonal evolution underlying these events, in vitro drug sensitivity assays and whole exome sequencing (WES) were used to study peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) and bone marrow samples. WES of sample 1 showed multiple mutations in CLL driver genes: SF3B1 R625C, KMT2C R4434Q, and TP53 R110L at VAFs of 37, 17, 35%, respectively. Mutations in other genes associated with CLL included FANCA L217F (47%) and SPEN P3402S (46%). At disease progression (sample 2), following venetoclax, there was the loss of detectable (WES at 100× coverage) TP53 R110L (with loss of 17p deletion on interphase FISH and analysis of copy number) but maintenance of SF3B1 R625C (44%), KMT2C R4434Q 30%), FANCA L217F (47%), and SPEN P3402S (55%). These data, therefore, suggest the TP53 mutant subclone was largely lost during therapy. No other mutations were identified as possible resistance mediators. There were no detectable BCL2 mutations. In vitro drug sensitivity testing to venetoclax showed an EC50 of 228nM (CLL EC50 usually 3-5 nM). The patient was then treated with the BTK inhibitor tirabrutinib in combination with idelalisib, with an excellent clinical response. After 10 months (sample 3, during the lymphocytosis induced by BTKi/PI3Kdi) SF3B1, KMT2C, FANCA, and SPEN mutations were detected at VAFs of 26, 30, 54, and 56%, respectively. At this point the TP53 R110L mutation was detected again at a VAF of 4%, indicating that stopping venetoclax allowed the clone to re-emerge. At this time, there were no detectable BTK or PLCG2 mutations. The patient then responded for a further 37 months before disease progression. At progression (sample 4), SF3B1, KMT2C, FANCA, and SPEN mutations were still detected in the peripheral blood at VAFs of 43, 31, 48, and 50%, respectively. The VAF of the TP53 R110L mutation had increased to 33%. Additionally, a BTK mutation (T474I) was identified with a VAF of 16%. Identical results were obtained using a bone marrow sample. Now, however, in vitro analysis demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity to venetoclax (EC50 0.72 nM). The patient was, therefore, retreated with venetoclax and rituximab. At the point of re-treatment, VAFs were maintained, with the emergence of a new subclonal NOTCH1 G1001D mutation at a VAF of 3%. The patient, unfortunately, died 4 months after commencing therapy due to COVID-19 associated pneumonitis. A full disease reassessment was not made but the patient's blood count had normalized, with rapid clearance of CLL cells from the peripheral blood, recovery of normal hematological indices, resolution of splenomegaly, and partial resolution of lymphadenopathy on CT scan. These data, therefore, suggest that re-treatment with venetoclax in CLL can be successful. Regaining sensitivity to venetoclax may largely depend on shifting clonal dynamics. The molecular basis of venetoclax resistance in this case is currently being investigated. A so in this particular case, it appears that the TP53 mutant subclone was more sensitive to BCL2 inhibition than TP53 wild-type subclone(s), and was largely eliminated by initial venetoclax treatment, contrasting with recently published data suggesting resistance of TP53 mutant hematological malignancies to BCL2 inhibition due to increased thresholds for BAX/BAK activation (Thijssen et al., 2021).

14.
Blood ; 138:3682, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1736318

ABSTRACT

text: Background/Introduction: Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML) is an uncommon MDS/MPN overlap syndrome that has historically been included under the umbrella of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) for clinical trial and treatment. As a result, DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) such as decitabine or azacitidine have been the established standard of care for the treatment of CMML. The oral bioavailability of these agents has been limited due to rapid degradation by cytidine deaminase (CDA) in the gut and liver so treatment has required intravenous infusion or subcutaneous injections daily for 5-7 days every month (m) adding significant burden to older cancer patients due to daily time commitment and travel to treatment centers. In the context of pandemic SARS-CoV-2, parenteral therapy also increases contact with medical settings with increased infection risk. Oral decitabine 35 mg/cedazuridine 100 mg (ASTX727) is an oral fixed dose combination of decitabine and the CDA inhibitor cedazuridine that produced equivalent exposure (99%;90% CI 93% to 106%) to IV decitabine 20 mg/m 2 in a randomized cross-over study (Garcia-Manero et al, ASH 2019), and Median overall survival (mOS) for the entire study population in the ASCERTAIN study was approximately 32 months (Savona, 2021). Here, we present outcome data for this study for the enrolled subpopulation of patients with CMML. Methods: We used a randomized cross over design in which patients were randomized in the first 2 cycles 1:1 to either Sequence A: (decitabine 35 mg/ cedazuridine 100 mg in Cycle 1 followed by IV decitabine at 20 mg/m 2 in Cycle 2), or Sequence B: (IV decitabine in Cycle 1 followed by oral decitabine/cedazuridine in Cycle 2). We conducted an intra-patient comparison of decitabine PK (primary PK endpoint: decitabine AUC equivalence over 5 days of dosing). Cycles were repeated every 28 days (unless delays were needed). All patients received oral decitabine/cedazuridine in Cycles 3 and above until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients were eligible per the FDA-approved label of IV decitabine (MDS patients by FAB classification including CMML, or MDS IPSS Intermediate-1, 2 or high-risk patients). Clinical endpoints were best response according to International Working Group (IWG) 2006 response criteria, transfusion independence for at least 8 or 16 consecutive weeks, overall survival, and safety. Adverse events (AEs) were graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v 4.03. Results: Of the 133 patients enrolled and treated in ASCERTAIN, 16 (12%) had a diagnosis of CMML with demographics and as follows: median age 71.5 years, 69% Male/31% Female, median weight 87kg (range 65-124), 25% ECOG 0, 75% ECOG 1. Population disease characteristics were: 19% poor or intermediate risk cytogenetics, with median baseline hemoglobin 90 g/L, neutrophils 1.27 X 10 9/L, platelets 84 x 10 9/L, bone marrow blasts 5%, with 38% RBC transfusion dependent. Patients received a median of 7 cycles of therapy (range 3-24). Treatment-emergent adverse events of CTCAE Grade 3 or higher in > 10% of patients, independent of relationship to ASTX727, were cytopenias (neutropenia [69%], thrombocytopenia [63%], anemia [56%], leukopenia [19%]), febrile neutropenia (31%), fatigue (13%). Two patients (12.5%) had Complete Responses (CR), 8 (50%) had marrow CR ([mCR], including 3 (19%) with hematologic improvement (HI);Overall Response rate (ORR) [CR + PR+ mCR + HI] was 75%. Of six patients with baseline RBC transfusion dependence 3 (50%) became transfusion independent. Leukemia-free survival was 28.2 months and after a median follow up of more than 33 months, median overall survival had not been reached. Two patients (13%) went on to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HCT). Conclusions: In the overall study, oral decitabine/cedazuridine delivered equivalent PK exposure to 5 days of IV decitabine 20mg/m 2 with a resultant clinical activity safety and efficacy profile in CMML patients consistent with the published literature (e.g Zeidan, et a 2017) and the Phase 2 experience. The use of oral decitabine/cedazuridine is a reasonable approach in CMML patients. References: Garcia-Manero, et al ASH 2019 Savona, et al, Int. MDS Symposium, 2021 Zeidan, et al, Cancer 2017: 3754-3762. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Savona: Geron: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;CTI: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Karyopharm: Consultancy, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;BMS-Celgene: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;NOVARTIS: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Ryvu: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Sierra Oncology: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Taiho: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;TG Therapeutics: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Takeda: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;ALX Oncology: Research Funding;Astex: Research Funding;Incyte: Research Funding. McCloskey: Pfizer: Consultancy;Takeda: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau;Incyte: Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Consultancy;COTA: Other: Equity Ownership;BMS: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Amgen: Speakers Bureau;Jazz: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau. Griffiths: Boston Biomedical: Consultancy;Celgene/Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria;Taiho Oncology: Consultancy, Honoraria;Genentech: Research Funding;Astex Pharmaceuticals: Honoraria, Research Funding;Takeda Oncology: Consultancy, Honoraria;Novartis: Honoraria;Apellis Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;Alexion Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Research Funding. Yee: Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Forma Therapeutics: Research Funding;Geron: Research Funding;Shattuck Labs: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Bristol-Myers Squibb/Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;F. Hoffmann La Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;AbbVie: Honoraria;Janssen: Research Funding;Onconova: Research Funding;Genentech: Research Funding;Otsuka: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;MedImmune: Research Funding;Jazz: Research Funding;Astex: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Tolero: Research Funding;Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;TaiHo: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Paladin: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Zeidan: BeyondSpring: Consultancy;Janssen: Consultancy;Boehringer Ingelheim: Consultancy, Research Funding;BioCryst: Other: Clinical Trial Committees;AstraZeneca: Consultancy;Pfizer: Other: Travel support, Research Funding;Kura: Consultancy, Other: Clinical Trial Committees;Incyte: Consultancy, Research Funding;Ionis: Consultancy;Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy;Epizyme: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy, Other: Clinical Trial Committees, Travel support, Research Funding;Loxo Oncology: Consultancy, Other: Clinical Trial Committees;Genentech: Consultancy;Geron: Other: Clinical Trial Committees;Cardiff Oncology: Consultancy, Other: Travel support, Research Funding;BMS: Consultancy, Other: Clinical Trial Committees, Research Funding;Gilead: Consultancy, Other: Clinical Trial Committees;Aprea: Consultancy, Research Funding;Astellas: Consultancy;Astex: Research Funding;Jazz: Consultancy;Jasper: Consu tancy;Amgen: Consultancy, Research Funding;Agios: Consultancy;ADC Therapeutics: Research Funding;Acceleron: Consultancy, Research Funding;AbbVie: Consultancy, Other: Clinical Trial Committees, Research Funding. Al-Kali: Novartis: Research Funding;Astex: Other: Research support to institution. Patel: Agios: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Celgene-BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;PVI: Honoraria. Sabloff: Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Astellas: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;TaiHo: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Jaxx: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;ROCHE: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Dao: Astex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Current Employment. Fazal: Janssen Oncology: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Taiho Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Gilead Sciences: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Agios: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Sanofi Genzyme: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Glaxo Smith Kline: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;AMGEN: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Incyte: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Jazz Pharmaceuticals:Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Stemline Therapeutics: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Karyopharm Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau. Odenike: Celgene, Incyte, AstraZeneca, Astex, NS Pharma, AbbVie, Gilead, Janssen, Oncotherapy, Agios, CTI/Baxalta, Aprea: Research Funding;AbbVie, Celgene, Impact Biomedicines, Novartis, Taiho Oncology, Takeda: Consultancy. Kantarjian: Ipsen Pharmaceuticals: Honoraria;Astra Zeneca: Honoraria;Astellas Health: Honoraria;Aptitude Health: Honoraria;Pfizer: Honoraria, Research Funding;Novartis: Honoraria, Research Funding;Jazz: Research Funding;Immunogen: Research Funding;Daiichi-Sankyo: Research Funding;BMS: Research Funding;Ascentage: Research Funding;Amgen: Honoraria, Research Funding;AbbVie: Honoraria, Research Funding;KAHR Medical Ltd: Honoraria;NOVA Research: Honoraria;Precision Biosciences: Honoraria;Taiho Pharmaceutical Canada: Honoraria. DeZern: Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Taiho: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Takeda: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Roboz: Janssen: Research Funding;AbbVie: Consultancy;Actinium: Consultancy;Agios: Consultancy;Amgen: Consultancy;Astex: Consultancy;Astellas: Consultancy;AstraZeneca: Consultancy;Bayer: Consultancy;Blueprint Medicines: Consultancy;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy;Celgene: Consultancy;Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy;Glaxo SmithKline: Consultancy;Helsinn: Consultancy;Janssen: Consultancy;Jasper Therapeutics: Consultancy;Jazz: Consultancy;MEI Pharma - IDMC Chair: Consultancy;Mesoblast: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy;Otsuka: Consultancy;Pfizer: Consultancy;Roche/Genentech: Consultancy. Busque: Novartis: Consultancy. Leber: Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, peakers Bureau;BMS: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;AMGEN: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;TaiHo: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Otsuka: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Astellas: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Jazz: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Hao: Astex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Current Employment. Keer: Astex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Current Employment. Azab: Astex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.

15.
Blood ; 138:4423, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1736311

ABSTRACT

Background: Venetoclax combined with hypomethylating agents is a new standard of care for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) 75 years or older, or unfit for intensive chemotherapy. As precision therapy in AML expanded with the addition of venetoclax among others in the therapeutic armamentarium of AML, efficacy and safety reports in ethnic minorities are limited, with a background of well recognized inter-ethnic differences in drug response. Phase III data from VIALE-A, as well as VIALE-C, was limited for the Arab population as no site opened in the Arab world. We herein report our experience on the use of venetoclax with azacitidine in patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory AML in the Arab population. Methods: Retrospective-single center review on the use of Azacitidine with venetoclax in older patients (aged ≥60 years) with newly diagnosed AML, not eligible for intensive chemotherapy;secondary AML and relapsed or refractory AML. All patients self-identified of Arabic ethnicity. Patients who received previous BCL2-inhibitor therapy were excluded. Patients who received at least one dose of treatment (Azacitidine ≥3 days, >14 days of venetoclax) were included in the intention to treat analysis. Patients typically received azacitidine 75 mg/m2 intravenously for 7 days with oral venetoclax 400 mg daily for induction, with appropriate dose adjustment for concomitant use of azoles. This is followed by the same regimen in consolidation, with adjustment according to response and side effects at the treating physician's discretion. The primary endpoint was overall survival. The secondary endpoints include response rate, safety, and relapse-free survival. Results: Between July 2019, and July 2021, we identified 19 patients;13 (68%) had newly diagnosed AML (ND-AML), and 6 (32%) had relapsed or refractory AML (R/R AML). The median age was 70 years (17-82). In the ND-AML, most patients had an adverse ELN 2017 AML (69%) with 23% having either intermediate or adverse AML (Negative for CBF, NPM1, FLT3-ITD and biCEBPA, but missing NGS data for adverse mutations Tp53/ASXL1 and RUNX1). Only one patient was classified as intermediate-risk AML. The overall response rate in the ND-AML was 77%, with 46% achieving complete remission (CR), and 23% CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) [Table]. One patient achieved PR after the first cycle (blast 7% by morphology and 1.5% by flow cytometry) and did not have a subsequent bone marrow evaluation, however had a full count recovery. Among the responders in the ND-AML cohort, 4 deaths were noted. One death was related to COVID-19 associated pneumonia, one due to graft failure (at day 42 post Haplo-SCT), one due to septic shock, and one was related to relapse disease. The overall survival and relapse-free survival for ND-AML were 5.6 months for both [Figure]. In the R/R AML, 66% had prior HMA exposure, and all patients did receive high-intensity chemotherapy. The median number of prior treatments was 3 (1-5). the response rate was 80% (4/5), with 60% achieving CR. All patients are still alive with a median follow-up of 7.6 months. One patient had progressive disease. One patient is early to evaluate and was not included in the response analysis [Table]. The 30-day mortality was zero in both ND-AML and R/R AML cohorts. Conclusions: In a majority of adverse risk ND-AML, and in heavily pretreated R/R AML, the response rate and overall survival is comparable to what has been previously reported. Our data support the use of this regimen in older patients with newly diagnosed AML, patients with relapsed or refractory disease, and those with adverse-risk features. This analysis is limited by the small number of patients, and by the lack of ELN 2017 favorable-risk AML. Future prospective and randomized studies are needed to clarify activity and safety in the Arab population, as well as in the high-risk AML subset. [Formula presented] Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

16.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism ; 132:S40, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1735090

ABSTRACT

Cytogenetic abnormalities involving chromosome 16 are found in 5– 8% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). These are typically a pericentric inversion inv(16)(p13.1q22) or a translocation, t(16;16)(p13.1;q22), involving the MYH11 and CBFB genes localized to chromosome 16p13.1 and 16q22, respectively. In addition, less common rearrangements include deletion of the long arm of chromosome 16, del(16) (q22), and cryptic insertions involving the MYH11 and the CBFB genes with otherwise normal karyotypes. In this report, we present the first AML case with a new translocation involving the CBFB gene. The more common CBFB - MYH11 fusion product resulting from the inversion and/or translocation of chromosome(s) 16 leads to an AML with monocytic and granulocytic differentiation and abnormal eosinophil component with large, purple to violet color eosinophilic granules. This entity typically corresponds to the adult AML-M4Eo in French-American- British (FAB) Classification and now called AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22);CBFB-MYH1 in the new 2017 WHO Classification. Patients may present with myeloid sarcoma at initial diagnosis or at relapse. We present a case of an 80-year-old male with a history of prostate cancer post radiotherapy who was referred for COVID-19 testing. A complete blood count with differential revealed neutropenia and a macrocytic anemia. A bone marrow biopsy and a bone marrow aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of AML with 33% blasts including myeloblasts and promonocytes. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with a break-apart probe for CBFB showed an abnormal hybridization pattern consistent with rearrangement of CBFB in 66% of nuclei. Chromosome analysis revealed an abnormal karyotype with two related clones: 47,XY, t(10;16)(p13;q22),+22[4]/48,idem,+8[16]. Sequential GTG-FISH confirmed that the 3’ region of CBFB was translocated to 10p13 in the t(10;16) and the 5’ region remained on 16q. Based on the karyotype, the patient’s bone barrow exhibits clonal evolution having acquired additional chromosome abnormalities (trisomy 22 and trisomy 8). Molecular studies by next generation sequencing showed NRAS p.Gln61Lys mutation with a VAF of 11.21%. No genomic alterations were detected in KIT, KRAS or FLT3 genes. AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22) is associated with a high rate of complete remission and favorable overall survival when treated with intensive consolidation therapy. However, their prognostic advantage may be affected by additional cytogenetic abnormalities and/or other gene mutations. Specifically, trisomy 22, is a frequent abnormality additional to inv(16) detected as a secondary finding which has been associated with an improved outcome when compared to the prognosis associated with inv(16) alone. Furthermore, KIT (in 30–40%), FLT3 (in 14%), NRAS (in 45%) and KRAS (in 13%) mutations are common in this AML type. The prognostic implications of KIT mutation (especially involving exon 8) do not appear to be significantly poor prognostic compared to other AML types. On the other hand FLT3-TKD mutations and trisomy 8 are associated with a worse outcome. The patient is currently receiving Vidaza 75 mg/m2, days 1–7 of a 28 days cycle with Venetoclax mg daily of a 28-day cycle and his clinical prognosis is currently unclear. Further analysis by DNA sequencing may help to characterize the molecular nature of the fusion gene product resulting from the novel t(10;16)(p13;q22). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an AML patient with translocation t(10;16)(p13;q22) involving the CBFB gene. Given the rarity and lack of additional information regarding the effects of this abnormality, the prognosis and survival cannot be predicted.

17.
Blood ; 138:1474, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582431

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Treatment-free remission (TFR) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is demonstrated to be achievable and recommended for patients (pts) in sustained deep molecular response (sDMR) who can discontinue tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment and maintain responses in ~50% of cases. While the feasibility and safety of TKI cessation have been largely demonstrated, the strategies of TFR optimization are yet to be clarified. Studies (eg. DESTINY) investigating de-escalation, mainly after imatinib, suggested that a stepwise approach may favor TFR outcome. We present the interim results of the phase 2, prospective, multicenter DANTE study (NCT03874858) evaluating de-escalation and TFR in Italian pts with CML in chronic phase (CML-CP) treated with nilotinib (NIL). Methods: Adults with CML-CP treated with NIL 300 mg twice daily (bid) in first-line for ≥3 years who achieved sDMR for ≥1 year (≥MR 4.0;BCR-ABL level ≤0.01% IS) were enrolled in 27 centers. The study consisted of 4 phases: screening (week [wk] −4-0), consolidation (wk 0-48), TFR (wk 48-144), and follow-up (until wk 144). Ongoing treatment with ≥400 mg/day dose was allowed at study entry. During consolidation, pts were treated with NIL 300 mg once daily (qd). At the end of consolidation phase, pts with sDMR entered TFR phase and discontinued NIL;indeed, pts with at least major molecular response (MMR;BCR-ABL ≤0.1% IS), but without sDMR, continued NIL 300 mg qd. At any time, pts with loss of MMR returned to NIL 300 mg bid. During TFR phase, BCR-ABL levels were monitored monthly from wk 52-96, and then every 3 months. Pts on half-dose or full-dose NIL were monitored every 3 months. The primary endpoint is the percentage of pts in full treatment-free remission (FTFR) 96 wks after the start of consolidation phase. FTFR is defined as pts with MMR or better, including those who remained in discontinuation during TFR phase and those who are treated with half the standard dose. Key secondary endpoints include percentage of pts with sDMR at wk 48;TFR rate at wk 96 and 144;BCR-ABL kinetics and safety. The predictive role of digital droplet PCR is also evaluated as an exploratory objective. Results: Overall, 113 pts were screened and 107 entered consolidation phase. This interim analysis included 52 pts who reached the end of consolidation phase by data cut-off period (February 8, 2021). Of these 52 pts, 49 (94.2%) were ongoing by data cut-off and 3 (5.8%) discontinued the study (1 patient due to adverse event (AE) and 2 per patient's decision). Median age at study entry was 49.5 years. Median time from diagnosis was 5.6 years and median dose of prior NIL treatment was 600 mg/day for all pts except one who was on NIL 450 mg/day at baseline. Median duration of last sustained MR4 and MR4.5 were 30 and 16.5 months, respectively. Further details are listed in Table 1. At screening, molecular response categories were MR4.0 in 13.7%, MR4.5 in 23.1% and undetectable MR4.5 in 63.5% of pts. During consolidation phase, 5 (9.6%) pts discontinued prematurely: 2 pts restarted NIL full dose (3.8%) for MMR loss, 2 (3.8%) discontinued for AEs and 1 (1.9%) for pt decision. Overall, 47 pts completed consolidation: of them 40 (76.9%) sustained DMR and 7 (13.5%) maintained MMR but not sDMR. Of the 7 pts not sustaining DMR during consolidation, 6 regained DMR after a median of 4.4 months, while 1 pt was still in MMR by data cutoff. The 2 pts who lost MMR after 5 and 8 months regained MMR and 1 regained DMR by data cutoff after increasing NIL to 300 mg bid. Median time spent in consolidation phase was 11.7 months, and the evolution of response categories over time is shown in Figure 1. During consolidation phase, AEs were observed in 16 pts (30.8%), of them 2 (3.8%) pts had serious AEs: 1 patient had skin ulcers and COVID-19 related pneumonia, while 1 patient had unstable angina. No deaths and disease progressions were observed. Conclusions: DANTE is the first study that showed the safety and feasibility of NIL de-escalation before TFR in CML-CP pts with sDMR. Inter m results suggest that loss of MMR during de-escalation is rare. De-escalation strategy may lead to further improvement of TFR outcome and tolerability and may also preemptively support the identification of pts who may not be ready for discontinuation, with a tailored approach. To date, accuracy in predicting TFR outcome is still low, and the de-escalation setting may sharpen biological and clinical predictive factors, including the potential role of digital PCR. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Breccia: Abbvie: Honoraria;Pfizer: Honoraria;Novartis: Honoraria;Incyte: Honoraria;Bristol Myers Squibb/Celgene: Honoraria. Abruzzese: Incyte: Consultancy, Honoraria;Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria;Pfizer: Consultancy, Honoraria;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Honoraria. Stagno: InCyte: Consultancy, Honoraria;Pfizer: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Support for attending meetings and/or travel;Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Support for attending meetings and/or travel, Research Funding. Iurlo: Incyte: Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Speakers Bureau;Pfizer: Speakers Bureau;Bristol Myers Squibb: Speakers Bureau. Sportoletti: AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Honoraria;Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria;AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria. Lemoli: Jazz, Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;AbbVie, Daiichi Sankyo, Servier: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Celgene: Other: Support for attending meetings and/or travel. Siragusa: Novartis, CSL, Behring, Amgen, Novonoridsk, SOBI, Bayer: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau. Chiodi: Novartis: Current Employment.

18.
Blood ; 138:4428, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582419

ABSTRACT

Decitabine (Dec) and Azacitidine (Aza) that target DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) are hypomethylating agents (HMAs) approved to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in combination with Venetoclax (Ven). The combination is also used to treat high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes, especially TP53-mutated (TP53mut) cases in which responses to HMA alone are short-lived. In most patients (pts), however, myelosuppression from treatment leads to frequent Ven duration and/or dose-reductions, and/or cycle delays. An approach to decrease HMA-mediated myelosuppression but maintain S-phase dependent DNMT1-targeting, evaluated in a previous clinical trial (https://doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16281), is to administer noncytotoxic doses/concentrations of Dec (0.2 mg/kg;~5 mg/m 2) by a frequent-distributed schedule of 1X/week. An approach to decrease Ven mediated myelosuppression but maintain cooperation with HMA, shown in pre-clinical studies, is to administer a single-dose prior to HMA. Ven can depolarize mitochondrial membranes;mitochondrial membrane-potential is essential to function of the mitochondrial enzyme DHODH that produces cytidine/deoxycytidine that competes with HMA in cells. Thus, Ven prior to HMA dosing temporarily inhibits de novo pyrimidine synthesis, to counter a major mechanism of resistance to HMA in MDS/AML, without suppressing normal myelopoiesis (https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2020-143200). We conducted a retrospective analysis of all pts with TP53mut MDS or AML treated with weekly Ven and low-dose subcutaneous Dec at our institution. We analyzed the characteristics of these pts, response to therapy, and outcomes using standard descriptive statistics. Mutational testing was performed using a commercial next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel. Five pts, 3 male and 2 female, with TP53mut MDS or AML were treated with weekly Ven 400 mg on D1 and subcutaneous Dec 0.2 mg/kg on D2, administered weekly in 28 day cycles. Two pts had MDS (1 de novo, 1 treatment related) and 3 pts had AML (1 de novo, 2 secondary from prior MDS). Four pts (80%) received the treatment in frontline, all with poor performance status (PS), and 1 pt (20%) had R/R disease. Median age at diagnosis was 79 years [41-82]. The only young pt had prolonged severe cytopenias after 1 cycle Dec standard dosing during the peak of COVID-19 pandemic so was switched to this regimen. Of the 4 frontline treated pts, 2 pts had high-risk MDS, and 2 pts had adverse risk AML. The R/R pt had high-risk MDS transformed to AML that was refractory to 2 prior lines of therapy: standard Aza/Ven x5 cycles, then standard Vyxeos. Disease cytogenetics were complex in all pts. 60% (3/5) pts had sole TP53mut on NGS, with median variant allelic frequency (VAF) 48% [28-79]. 80% (4/5) pts were transfusion dependent prior to treatment. Median time to initiating therapy was 7 days from initial or refractory diagnosis [3-59] and median follow-up was 7.8 months (mo) [2.9-11.4]. The overall response rate (ORR) was 100%: 4/4 frontline pts had complete remissions (CR), and the 1 R/R pt achieved morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS). Median time to best response was 2.9 mo. 50% (2/4) pts became transfusion independent. 40% (2/5) pts lost their TP53mut at best response, and another 40% (2/5) pts had significant reductions (83% and 38%) in TP53 mut VAF. The regimen was well tolerated with no pts stopping therapy due to adverse effects (AE). AE included G3/G4 neutropenia (80%), G1 thrombocytopenia (40%), nausea (20%), fatigue (20%), lower extremity edema (20%), pneumonia (60%), and neutropenic fever (20%) with a median of 1 unplanned hospitalization per pt during follow-up. 60% (3/5) pts remain in CR on continued therapy for a median of 7.8 mo [7.2-9.4] thus far. One pt underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation, however, died 11.4 mo after conditioning due to transplant related mortality. The R/R pt died after being lost to follow-up 2.9 mo after therapy initiation. No pt had measurable relapse during follow-up. Combination weekly Ven with subcutaneous low-dose Dec is well tolerated yielding igh rates of clinical and molecular response in pts with TP53mut MDS/AML. Although small, this case-series extends previous clinical trial proof-of-activity of non-cytotoxic DNMT1-targeting to a high-risk, poor PS, historically chemorefractory patient population. The regimen allowed frequent, sustained exposure to therapy often not possible with standard HMA/Ven regimens. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Shastri: Kymera Therapeutics: Research Funding;Guidepoint: Consultancy;GLC: Consultancy;Onclive: Honoraria. Gritsman: iOnctura: Research Funding. Feldman: Glycomimetics: Current Employment, Current holder of stock options in a privately-held company. Verma: Celgene: Consultancy;Acceleron: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy;Stelexis: Consultancy, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company;Eli Lilly: Research Funding;Curis: Research Funding;Medpacto: Research Funding;Incyte: Research Funding;GSK: Research Funding;BMS: Research Funding;Stelexis: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company;Throws Exception: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Saunthararajah: EpiDestiny: Consultancy, Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Patents & Royalties.

19.
Blood ; 138:280, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582418

ABSTRACT

Background: Predictors of severe infection and outcomes with COVID-19 in patients (pts) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are lacking. Pts with active disease may experience worse outcomes due to overall prognosis and cytopenias. Here we identify risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection and mortality in pts with AML, MDS, and ALL using the ASH RC COVID-19 Registry for Hematology. Methods: The ASH RC COVID-19 Registry for Hematology includes features and outcomes of a laboratory-confirmed or presumptive diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adult pts with ongoing or a history of blood disorders. The Registry opened for data collection on April 1, 2020 and is a global effort housed on a secure data platform hosted by Prometheus Research, an IQVIA company. Data are made publicly available and regularly updated on the ASH RC website. Pt characteristics, outcomes, and predictors were analyzed and stratified by disease status (active initial diagnosis and relapsed/refractory vs. remission) and type of hematologic malignancy. Variables included age, comorbidities, type of hematologic malignancy (AML, MDS, ALL), neutrophil and lymphocyte count at time of COVID-19 diagnosis, and active treatment at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. COVID-19 severity was defined as mild (no hospitalization required), moderate (hospitalization required), or severe (ICU admission required). Categorical pt characteristics for each response group and associations between response groups and characteristics (i.e., alive vs. dead, severity vs. non-severity) were summarized by frequency with differences between response groups evaluated by Fisher's exact test and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated by logistic regression. Multivariable analyses identified independent predictors of outcomes. Results: Analyses were conducted on data from 257 pts with AML (n=135), MDS (n=40), and ALL (n=82);46% were in remission and 44% had active disease (10% unknown). Overall mortality from COVID-19 infection was 21%. Pts with active disease were significantly more likely to present with moderate and severe COVID-19 compared to those in remission (remission vs. active disease, severe 33% (n=20) vs. 67%(n=40), moderate 45% (n=35) vs.55% (n=42), and mild: 67% (n=56) vs. 33% (n=28), p value <0.001) (Figure 1). This was significant when categorized as severe vs. non severe as well (p=0.002). COVID-19 severity was also associated with AML diagnosis, major comorbidities, and neutropenia and lymphopenia at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. Univariate analyses of increased mortality after COVID-19 diagnosis were significantly associated with advanced age, male sex, pre-diagnosis survival < 6 months, active disease status, neutropenia, lymphopenia and forgoing ICU care. Multivariable analyses in all pts (Figure 1), revealed that increased COVID-19 related mortality was significantly associated with neutropenia at diagnosis (OR 3.15, 95% C.I. 1.31-8.08, p=0.01), estimated pre-COVID-19 prognosis of < 6 months (OR 8.58, 95% C.I. 3.24-24.46, p<0.001) and forgoing ICU care (OR 6.66, 95% C.I. 2.56-18.23, p<0.001). Among hospitalized pts, increased COVID-19 mortality was associated with estimated pre-COVID-19 prognosis of < 6 months (OR 6.77, 95% C.I. 2.34-22.24, p<0.001) and forgoing ICU care (OR 3.98, 95% C.I. 1.45-11.66, p=0.007). Pts who were older, male, smokers, with active disease, or estimated to have pre-COVID-19 survival of < 6 months were more likely to forgo ICU care. Forgoing ICU care (n=37,16%) was associated with a higher COVID-19 mortality in all pts (n=234, OR 15.6, 95% C.I. 6.4-40.9, p<0.001), hospitalized pts (n=143, OR 9.2, 95% C.I., 3.5-26.5, p<0.001) and in pts where ICU admission was indicated and declined (n=61 OR 5.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-56.4, p=0.03)). Neither active disease status nor ongoing cancer treatment were associated with increased mortality among hospitalized patients. Conclusions: These data suggest that patients with active disease experience significantly higher COVID-19 severity but not increased mortality from COVID-19. Patients who had neutropenia and a pre-COVID-19 prognosis of < 6 months had higher mortality from COVID-19 infection and may be more likely to forgo ICU care. If desired by patients, aggressive support for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is appropriate regardless of remission status. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Desai: Agios: Consultancy;Janssen R&D: Research Funding;Kura Oncology: Consultancy;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy;Astex: Research Funding;Takeda: Consultancy. Goldberg: AbbVie: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Aprea: Research Funding;Prelude Therapeutics: Research Funding;Pfizer: Research Funding;Genentech: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;DAVA Oncology: Honoraria;Astellas: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Arog: Research Funding;Celularity: Research Funding;Aptose: Consultancy, Research Funding. Anderson: Sanofi-Aventis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Bristol Myers Squibb: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Millenium-Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Scientific Founder of Oncopep and C4 Therapeutics: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;AstraZeneca: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Mana Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Neuberg: Pharmacyclics: Research Funding;Madrigal Pharmaceuticals: Other: Stock ownership. Radhakrishnan: Emcure Pharmaceuticals: Other: payment to institute;Bristol Myers Squibb: Other: payment to institute;Astrazeneca: Consultancy, Honoraria;Cipla Pharmaceuticals: Honoraria, Other: payment to institute;Pfizer: Consultancy, Honoraria;Johnson and Johnson: Honoraria;Novartis: Honoraria;Aurigene: Speakers Bureau;Roche: Honoraria, Other: payment to institute;Intas Pharmaceutical: Other: payment to institute;Dr Reddy's Laboratories: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Janssen India: Honoraria;NATCO Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding. Roboz: Novartis: Consultancy;Mesoblast: Consultancy;Amgen: Consultancy;Actinium: Consultancy;AbbVie: Consultancy;Janssen: Consultancy;Blueprint Medicines: Consultancy;Astex: Consultancy;Janssen: Research Funding;Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy;Jazz: Consultancy;Agios: Consultancy;Glaxo SmithKline: Consultancy;Celgene: Consultancy;Otsuka: Consultancy;Astellas: Consultancy;Helsinn: Consultancy;MEI Pharma - IDMC Chair: Consultancy;Jasper Therapeutics: Consultancy;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy;AstraZeneca: Consultancy;Bayer: Consultancy;Pfizer: Consultancy;Roche/Genentech: Consultancy. Sehn: Novartis: Consultancy;Genmab: Consultancy;Debiopharm: Consultancy. Sekeres: Takeda/Millenium: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Tallman: Syros: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Kura: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;NYU Grand Rounds: Honoraria;Innate Pharma: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Biosight: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Jazz Pharma: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Oncolyze: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;KAHR: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Orsenix: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Daiichi-Sankyo: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Amgen: Research Funding;Rafael Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;Glycomimetics: Research Funding;Biosight: Research Funding;Orsenix: Research Funding;Abbvie: Research Funding;Mayo Clinic: Honoraria;UC DAVIS: Honoraria;Northwell Grand Rounds: Honoraria;NYU Grand Rounds: Honoraria;Danbury Hospital Tumor Board: Honoraria;Acute Leukemia Forum: Honoraria;Miami Leukemia Symposium: Honoraria;New Orleans Cancer Symposium: Honoraria;ASH: Honoraria;NCCN: Honoraria. Wood: Pfizer: Research Funding;Teladoc: Consultancy;Koneksa Health: Consultancy, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company.

20.
Blood ; 138:3606, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582412

ABSTRACT

Background. Treatment-free remission (TFR) has become a new treatment goal for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. However, usually abrupt tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy discontinuation has been successful only in about half of eligible patients and it can cause burdening TKI withdrawal syndrome (TWS) in about 30% of them. Moreover, any robust clinical or biological factor predictive for successful TFR has not been identified yet. On top of that, sustainable deep molecular response (DMR) as the main prerequisite for TKI discontinuation attempt is achieved only in 20-40% of patients. The majority of CML patients, therefore, need to be treated with the effective and well-tolerated drug for a long time or even life-long. Study design and methods. With the recognition of all these aspects, we designed a nationwide prospective investigator-initiated phase II clinical trial HALF (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04147533) in order to evaluate efficacy and safety of TKI discontinuation after previous two-step dose reduction in patients with CML in DMR (Fig. 1). Step-wise TKI dose reduction, i.e. half of the standard during the first 6 months after study entry, and the same dose given alternatively (every other day) during the next 6 months, was derived from pharmacokinetics and experimental data as well as from clinical trials' results. We assume that the step-wise and eventually meaningful TKI dose reduction enables a higher rate of patients achieving successful TFR with less pronounce TWS, or even would represent a more reasonable and safer alternative to the complete and sudden TKI interruption. This unique nationwide academic project has been facilitated by hematological patients care centralization in the Czech Republic. A primary study objective is to evaluate the proportion of patients in major molecular response (MMR) at 6 and 12 months and in TFR at 18, 24, and 36 months after the study enrollment, respectively, and molecular recurrence-free survival at all mentioned time points as well. Main secondary and exploratory objectives are: to evaluate the proportion of patients loosing MMR and in whom MMR and MR4.0 would be re-achieved after TKI re-introduction, time to MMR and MR4.0 re-achievement, FFS, PFS, OS, TWS, and QoL assessment, predictive factors for successful TFR identification, quantification of BCR-ABL1 using digital droplet PCR at both the DNA and mRNA levels, immunological profiling, BCR-ABL1 kinetics mathematical modeling, assessment of TKI pharmacokinetics, clonal hematopoiesis and pharmaco-economics. Results. The study was launched in December 2019;however, due to the COVID-19 outbreak, patients' recruitment started on June 16, 2020. Here, characteristics of the first 74 patients included in the study until April 2021 are presented. There were 37 males and 37 females, with median age at the time of diagnosis of 53 years (range, 23-74) and at the time of the study entry of 67 years (range, 35-86). A median time of CML disease, TKI treatment, and DMR duration before the study initiation was as follows: 9.9 years (range, 4.4-22.5), 9.8 years (range, 4.2-20.2), and 7.3 years (range, 3.2-18.3), respectively. The ELTS score was low, intermediate, high and unknown in 62.2%, 21.6%, 13.5%, and 2.7% of patients, respectively. At the time of study entry, 58 patients (79.5%) were treated with imatinib, 10 (13.7%) with nilotinib, and 5 (6.8%) with dasatinib, respectively, whereas in 63 patients (86.3%) it was in the first line of therapy. With almost half of patients (48.6%), the TKI dose was already reduced at the time of study entry. With 10 (13.5%) patients, interferon-α treatment preceded TKI administration. At the time of this preparation, on July 26, 2021, altogether 102 patients (from planned 150) have been enrolled in the study;48 of them (47.1%) have already moved to the second de-escalation phase and 9 (8.8%) patients to the TFR phase. There were 2 cases of confirmed MMR loss (both in month 8 after the study entry) and no patient experienced symptoms resembling TWS. Conclusions. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the HALF study was successfully launched and initiated in the majority of centers, with 102 already included patients and continuing intensive enrolment. Based on our very preliminary results, the step-wise dose reduction seems to be an effective and safe approach. More included patients, longer follow-up and further analyses are needed in order to reach all set up objectives. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Žácková: Angelini: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Speakers Bureau. Faber: Angelini: Consultancy, Other: conference fees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Other: conference fees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Consultancy, Other: conference fees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Pfizer: Other: conference fees;TERUMO: Other: conference fees. Bělohlávková: Novartis: Consultancy;BMS/Celgene: Consultancy. Horňák: Angelini: Honoraria. Svobodník: Roche: Speakers Bureau;Janssen-Cilag: Speakers Bureau. Machová Poláková: Incyte: Consultancy;Angelini: Consultancy;Novartis: Research Funding. Mayer: Principia: Research Funding.

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