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Clinics in Liver Disease ; 27(1):103-115, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2241425
American Journal of the Medical Sciences ; 365(Supplement 1):S263, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2231361


Case Report: A 48y/o man with a history of ESRD secondary to FSGS was found to have hepatitis-C virus (HCV) reactivation after kidney transplantation (KT) with an HCV-positive allograft. The patient was HCV-negative before transplantation in July 2021. He was negative for hepatitis-B virus (HBV) core antibodies but had evidence of prior HBV vaccination and was negative for HIV 1/2. His induction therapy included thymoglobulin, and his maintenance immunosuppressive regimen included mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), tacrolimus, and prednisone. Aweek after KT, the patient tested positive for HCV genotype 1a, and he was started on sofosbuvir/velpatasvir in August 2021. Lab monitoring showed decreasing levels of HCV viral load (VL) until it was undetectable 2 months later. In January 2022, renal function remained stable, and urinalysis and hepatic function tests remained unremarkable. However, HCV viral load was positive in February 2022 and the HCV genotypewas 1a, as before. This result raised the possibility of reactivation of HCV from his allograft more than 6 months post KT. Additionally, despite negative BK polyoma VL initially, he was positive in January 2022 and discontinued his MMF. He was also positive for COVID-19 in January 2022 as well. Given his recurrence of HCV VL, he initiated sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/ voxilaprevir in April 2022 and completed therapy in July 2022, and maintained sustained viral response (SVR) as of October 2022. His BK VL was negative in May 2022. Recent guidelines on preventing HCV reactivation in allograft-positive KT recipients state that individuals should achieve SVR after 8-12 weeks of a course of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. The patient completed DAA therapy post-transplantation with a successful negative viral load 2 months later. However, he did not achieve SVR because his VL was again positive 3 months after completion of therapy. Reactivation of BKV, a DNA virus that establishes lifelong infection in renal tubular and uroepithelial cells, is common among KT recipients, but there is insufficient evidence to establish a causal association between BKV reactivation and HCV reactivation. There is no consensus on a chemotherapeutic maintenance regimen to prevent HCV reactivation. This case highlights the importance of close follow-up monitoring for HCV and BKV among KT recipients and the need to explore the relationship between BKV reactivation, HCV reactivation, and immunosuppression regimen. Copyright © 2023 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation.

Anaesthesia ; 78(Supplement 1):52.0, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2235448


COVID-19 has and continues to affect healthcare across the world. Pregnant women have been identified as a moderate-risk group with regards to clinical susceptibility to COVID-19. Acute liver injury in pregnancy secondary to COVID-19 has been documented sparsely across the world. In this report, we describe the case of a pregnant women who presented with COVID-19 liver injury. A second women with a similar presentation and outcome also presented during the same COVID-19 wave but contact details were lost and consent not gained. Description The cases occurred in December 2020 during which time the predominant reported variant was the alpha strain of COVID-19. Patient A was a multiparous woman, who presented to the labour ward at 37 weeks, a few days after a positive COVID-19 test with vomiting. Investigations revealed significant derangement of liver function tests (LFTs) but with normal bilirubin and clotting. On a working diagnosis of acute fatty liver of pregnancy and with breech presentation, she underwent a caesarean section. Liver enzymes continued to deteriorate with a mild coagulopathy. A non-invasive liver screen and ultrasound did not reveal any significant abnormalities. She was discussed with the tertiary liver centre and started on a Nacetylcysteine infusion with some additional vitamin K. A few days later LFTs began to improve and she was discharged home with follow-up in the community. Her baby was treated with antibiotics for 5 days empirically due to the unknown nature of the transaminitis but remained well. Following further discussion with the tertiary centre, a diagnosis of acute liver injury secondary to COVID-19 was made. Discussion Extra-pulmonary features of COVID-19 have been reported in the literature. A number of theories have been postulated to describe the hepatic effects. This has mainly manifested itself as a transaminitis with varying outcomes. The prevalence in the obstetric population has been more sparsely reported but most isolated cases have been relatively self-limiting with positive outcomes [1]. This case also highlighted the diagnostic difficulties with other severe hepatic diseases of pregnancy. A handful of case reports have already described some of the crossover and difficulty in decisionmaking when these patients present acutely unwell to hospital [2]. The severity and rapid progression of some hepatic disorders in pregnancy not only warrants decisive decision-making but also involvement of the multidisciplinary team.

Rheumatology Advances in Practice ; 5(Supplement 1):i14-i15, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2234228


Case report - Introduction: Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a rare, life-threatening disease occurring in up to 1% of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) cases. It was first defined in 1992 and remains a difficult to treat entity with a mortality rate of 37%. We describe a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and CAPS presenting with simultaneous multi-organ injuries who was successfully managed with 'triple' therapy including cyclophosphamide. Case report - Case description: A 42-year-old female presented to her local hospital with chest pain and worsening vision. She had a background of SLE, triple antibody-positive APS (previous DVT, pregnancy loss and strokes), hypertension, a metallic mitral valve, a previous myocardial infarction and pre-existing visual impairment due to a prior intra-cerebral bleed related to anticoagulation. Examination revealed a faint malar rash, cortical blindness and long tract neurological signs. Her ECG showed ischaemic changes and the admission troponin was significantly raised (3773ng/L). An echocardiogram showed new left ventricular dysfunction and a subsequent cardiac MRI was in keeping with coronary artery disease. Investigations showed an acute kidney injury, newly deranged liver function tests and a raised INR (>11, with no bleeding). Complement was normal with a low dsDNA titre. Urinalysis revealed proteinuria and a protein creatinine ratio measured 176mg/mmol. MRI diffusion weighted brain imaging showed acute bilateral occipital and left fronto-parietal infarcts. She had symptoms of a lupus flare with arthralgia and a butterfly facial rash. COVID-19 PCR tests were negative and she had not been recently vaccinated. She was diagnosed with CAPS and transferred to St Thomas' hospital intensive care. On arrival, she received 1mg intravenous vitamin K followed by triple therapy for CAPS: an unfractionated heparin infusion, oral prednisolone 40mg daily, 5 days of plasma exchange and, given her background of SLE, she was treated with intravenous cyclophosphamide (according to the EUROLUPUS regimen). Intravenous methylprednisolone was avoided due to a previous hypertensive encephalopathy reaction. She responded rapidly. Her troponin fell from a peak of 5054 to 294ng/ L, her creatinine settled at a new baseline (232umol/L) and her liver function normalised. She was switched back to warfarin due to her metallic valve and started on aspirin for cardiovascular secondary prevention. She required physical and occupational therapy due to her strokes but recovered well. Case report - Discussion: According to the 2003 criteria, CAPS can be classified as definite when there is evidence of: -3 organs involved, development of manifestations simultaneously or within a week, confirmation by imaging and/or histopathology of small vessel occlusion and positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Probable CAPS is when 3 out of the 4 criteria are present. In this case, three organs were confirmed to be involved with imaging showing cerebral and cardiac ischaemia. Her creatinine rose from a base of 190 to 289umol/L coupled with a high protein creatinine ratio confirming renal involvement. A Budd-Chiari syndrome was also suspected due to deranged liver function tests and INR, though imaging performed after therapy did not confirm this. A biopsy of any of these four organs was not feasible given the severity of her presentation and coagulopathy. There are no randomised controlled trials but data from the CAPS registry guides treatment and management follows a logical approach: anticoagulation to treat thrombosis, glucocorticoids for inflammation and plasma exchange (or IVIG) to remove the circulating autoantibodies. Triple therapy was associated with a reduced mortality compared to no treatment (28.6% versus 75%, respectively). Following analyses from the CAPS registry we also chose to treat with cyclophosphamide, which is associated with improved survival in patients with SLE. This decision was based on the clinical features of an SLE flare as opposed to serological grounds. There have b en reports of rituximab and eculizumab being used successfully in CAPS, though generally as a last resort. As complement activation is seen in animal models of antiphospholipid syndrome thrombosis and rituximab is often used in refractory SLE, they may prove to be promising agents for refractory CAPS. Case report - Key learning points: 1. Prompt recognition and early treatment is vital in managing CAPS 2. Triple therapy with anticoagulation, glucocorticoids and plasma exchange / IVIG is associated with better survival in CAPS 3. Cyclophosphamide is associated with better survival in patients with CAPS and concomitant SLE.

Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):403-406, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067753
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):7528-7533, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067316
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(9):ED01-ED03, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067193
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1069, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063450
Chest ; 162(4):A1035, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060758
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S207-S208, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057837
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S205-S206, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057644
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology ; 16(3):165-172, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033602
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:917-918, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008906
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S116, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006405
American Journal of Kidney Diseases ; 79(4):S96-S97, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996902
Hepatology International ; 16:S304, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995911
Hepatology International ; 16:S302, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995904
Hepatology International ; 16:S304-S305, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995902
Hepatology International ; 16:S122, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995898