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1.
JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol ; 9(4): e42157, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During spring and summer 2020, US states implemented COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, resulting in the closure of rehabilitation facilities and, with them, some of the clinical trials that were taking place. One such trial was the Supervised Versus Telerehabilitation Exercise Program for Multiple Sclerosis ("STEP for MS") comparative effectiveness multiple sclerosis (MS) exercise trial. Although 1 study arm was implemented via telerehabilitation, the comparative arm took place in rehabilitation facilities nationwide and was subsequently closed during this time frame. The experience of the STEP for MS participants provides insights into the impact of lockdown restrictions on exercise behavior by mode of exercise delivery (telerehabilitation vs conventional facility based). OBJECTIVE: This study sought to understand the impact of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on exercise behavior among people with MS enrolled in an exercise trial at the time of the restrictions. METHODS: Semistructured phone and video interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 8 participants representing both arms of the exercise trial. We applied reflexive thematic analysis to identify, analyze, and interpret common themes in the data. RESULTS: We identified 7 main themes and 2 different narratives describing the exercise experiences during lockdown restrictions. Although the telerehabilitation participants continued exercising without interruption, facility-based participants experienced a range of barriers that impeded their ability to exercise. In particular, the loss of perceived social support gained from exercising in a facility with exercise coaches and other people with MS eroded both the accountability and motivation to exercise. Aerobic exercises via walking were the most impacted, with participants pointing to the need for at-home treadmills. CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented disruption of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in spring and summer 2020 impacted the ability of facility-based STEP for MS exercise trial participants to exercise in adherence to the intervention protocol. By contrast, the participants in the telerehabilitation-delivered exercise arm continued exercising without interruption and reported positive impacts of the intervention during this time. Telerehabilitation exercise programs may hold promise for overcoming barriers to exercise for people with MS during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions, and potentially other lockdown scenarios, if the participation in telerehabilitation has already been established.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066056

ABSTRACT

Food delivery applications (FDAs) shined during COVID-19 global lockdown restrictions. Consequently, lifestyle changes imposed a greater use of these applications over this period. These changes may strongly influence the nutritional health of individuals, particularly adult Saudi females. A cross-sectional study was performed to examine the influence of using FDAs during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on attitude behaviours, including dietary habits and preferences among Saudi adult females. Participants voluntarily submitted their answers to a questionnaire administered via the Google Survey platform. Results illustrated that most Saudi female users of FDAs were aged between 18-24 years with 64.9%, 91.5% being single and 37% ordering food online within one to two days a month. There was a significant association between the influence of using FDAs during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions and age, education, and average days of ordering food online (p ˂ 0.05). Another important factor is that higher education was associated with more frequent use of the FDAs, there were direct relationships between education level and using FDAs, 58% of the participants were educated as undergraduate or postgraduate. Although lifestyle changes increased the use of FDAs during COVID-19 global lockdown restrictions, these changes may negatively affect individuals' dietary habits and preferences, particularly adult Saudi females. These findings can aid in promoting healthy diet management globally and in Saudi Arabia unless the governments lead to significant beneficial changes toward improving food delivery applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on persons with disabilities (PwDs) in India. About 27.4 million cases were reported as of 27 May 2021. The continuing pandemic in the form of subsequent waves is expected to have negative repercussions for the disabled globally, particularly in India, where access to health, rehabilitation, and social care services is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown restrictions on PwDs in India. OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of disruption due to COVID-19 and the associated countrywide lockdown restrictions on PwD in India during the first wave. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach, data were collected from a representative sample of 403 persons with disabilities in 14 states in India during the COVID-19 first wave at two different points in time (Lockdown and post-lockdown phase). Factors associated with the negative impact were examined using the Chi-square test for associations. The paired comparisons between 'lockdown' with the 'post-lockdown' phase are presented using McNemar's test and the marginal homogeneity test to compare the proportions. Additionally, a subsample of the participants in the survey was identified to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to gain in-depth insights on the study question and substantiate the quantitative findings. The framework approach was used to conduct a thematic analysis of the qualitative data. RESULTS: About 60% of the PwDs found it difficult to access emergency medical services during the lockdown, and 4.6% post lockdown (p < 0.001). Likewise, 12% found it difficult to access rehabilitation services during the lockdown, and 5% post lockdown (p = 0.03). About 76% of respondents were apprehensive of the risk of infection during the lockdown, and this increased to 92% post lockdown (p < 0.001). Parents with children were significantly impacted due to lockdown in the areas of Medical (p = 0.007), Rehabilitation (p = 0.001), and Mental health services (p = 0.001). The results from the qualitative study supported these quantitative findings. PWDs felt that the lockdown restrictions had negatively impacted their productivity, social participation, and overall engagement in everyday activities. Access to medicines and rehabilitation services was felt to be extremely difficult and detrimental to the therapeutic benefits that were gained by them during the pre-pandemic time. None of the pandemic mitigation plans and services was specific or inclusive of PWDs. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 and the associated lockdown restrictions have negatively impacted persons with disabilities during the first wave in India. It is critical to mainstream disability within the agenda for health and development with pragmatic, context-specific strategies and programs in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics
4.
Marketing Science ; 41(1):19-32, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2021424

ABSTRACT

Many have speculated that the recent outbreak of COVID-19 has led to a surge in the use of online streaming services. However, this assumption has not been closely examined for music streaming services, the consumption patterns of which can be different from video streaming services. To provide insights into this question, we analyze Spotify's streaming data for the weekly top 200 songs for two years in 60 countries between June 2018 and May 2020, along with varying lockdown policies and detailed daily mobility information from Google. Empirical evidence shows that the COVID-19 outbreak significantly reduced music streaming consumption in many countries. We also find that countries with larger mobility decreases saw more notable downturns in streaming during the pandemic. Further, we reveal that the mobility effect was attributable to the complementarity of music consumption to other activities and likely to be transient rather than irreversible. Alternative mechanisms, such as unobservable Spotify-specific factors, a demand shift from top-selling songs to niche music, and supply-side effects, did not explain the decline in music consumption. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1495, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the UK government enforcing lockdown restrictions to control virus transmission. Such restrictions present opportunities and barriers for physical activity and healthy eating. Emerging research suggests that in the early stages of the pandemic, physical activity levels decreased, consumption of unhealthy foods increased, while levels of mental distress increased. Our aims were to understand patterns of diet, physical activity, and mental health during the first lockdown, how these had changed twelve-months later, and the factors associated with change. METHODS: An online survey was conducted with UK adults (N = 636; 78% female) during the first national lockdown (May-June 2020). The survey collected information on demographics, physical activity, diet, mental health, and how participants perceived lifestyle behaviours had changed from before the pandemic. Participants who provided contact details were invited to complete a twelve-month follow-up survey (May-June 2021), 160 adults completed the survey at both time-points. Descriptive statistics, T-tests and McNemar Chi Square statistics were used to assess patterns of diet, physical activity, and mental health at baseline and change in behaviours between baseline and follow-up. Linear regression models were conducted to explore prospective associations between demographic and psycho-social variables at baseline with change in healthy eating habit, anxiety, and wellbeing respectively. RESULTS: Between baseline and follow-up, healthy eating habit strength, and the importance of and confidence in eating healthily reduced. Self-rated health (positively) and confidence in eating healthily (negatively) were associated with change in healthy eating habit. There were no differences between baseline and follow-up for depression or physical activity. Mean anxiety score reduced, and wellbeing increased, from baseline to follow-up. Living with children aged 12-17 (compared to living alone) was associated with an increase in anxiety, while perceiving mental health to have worsened during the first lockdown (compared to staying the same) was associated with reduced anxiety and an increase in mental wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS: While healthy eating habits worsened in the 12 months since the onset of the pandemic, anxiety and mental wellbeing improved. However, anxiety may have increased for parents of secondary school aged children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Life Style , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
J Clean Prod ; 363: 132616, 2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966813

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the related lockdown restrictions have imposed a wide range of impacts that need to be analysed based on the specific characteristics of countries. By comparing socio-economic and energy data for the four quarters of 2020 to the same period of 2019, the MuSIASEM approach is used, for the first time, to investigate the energy metabolism of UK during a period of economic downturn. Results show that the commercial and the public administration activities have been able to achieve energy efficiency increases, and the residential sector has accounted for energy-related economies of scale. The industrial and the other activity sectors, on the contrary, have raised the energy intensity of production. Comparted to time series data, scenarios, and modelling exercises, the MuSIASEM approach integrates a wide range of intensive and extensive variables across different scales of analysis and investigate how specific socio-economic and energy structures have reacted to the COVID-19 crisis. The methodology can be easily replicated for other case studies and results can support the design of recovery and sustainable transition strategies.

7.
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management ; 16, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1954242

ABSTRACT

Background: After coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic, movement restrictions were implemented across sub-Saharan Africa. There has been much speculation on what the long-term impacts on urban transport might be. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to identify the revealed and future travel impacts of the pandemic. Method: To pursue this aim, evidence was compiled from two sources: secondary big data;and a ( n = 15) two-wave Delphi panel survey of experts in the region. Results: It is predicted that longer-term impacts will take the form of: reduced travel by, and accessibility for, low-income households residing in peripheral locations because of decreased welfare;reduced transport service availability;operator reduction (particularly amongst unsubsidised formal operators);increased remote activity participation for a minority of better resourced households with white-collar workers;and disrupted trip distributions as the mix of city-centre land use changes in response to business attrition in economic recession rather than to disrupted bid rents. Conclusion: The major impact of the pandemic is likely to be on welfare, rather than on trip substitution. There is a need, therefore, to focus policy on the mitigation of these impacts and, more particularly, on ways of measuring changes in transport disadvantage and exclusion so that reliable data are available to inform mitigation strategies. The mitigation strategies considered should include investment in affordable ‘digital connectivity’ as a means of complementing accessibility from physical proximity and mobility. The pandemic also highlights the need to develop more robust transport planning practices to deal with uncertainty.

8.
Journal of African Education ; 2(3):107-107–131, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1812091

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to provide a critical examination on the impact of Covid-19 on teaching and learning in higher learning institutions in South Africa. There have been few studies on the phenomenon which mostly focused particularly on the impact of Covid-19 on teaching and learning in higher learning institutions. As a result, there is a dearth of scholarly work on the impact of Covid-19 primarily on the adoption of online learning as the sole learning strategy adopted during the stringent restrictions of the national lockdown. This paper, therefore, makes a contribution on the impact of Covid-19 on the adoption of online learning. A major finding in the paper is that, although the online teaching and learning strategy has brought convenience and flexibility for both university staff and students, it has its own disadvantages particularly for poor students. The paper conclude that the move to online learning has created an opportunity to learn from exceptional situations and could be of a positive benefit to most students to accord with the inventions of the technological landscape. The paper recommends that online learning should not be dropped-off should Covid-19 disperse rather, be assimilated with face-to-face learning in all spaces of higher learning.

9.
5th International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Networks, ISCON 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1759103

ABSTRACT

This paper study the mental health during COVID-19 pandemic. In the end of 2019,new global disease was found called as coronavirus and it is also named as COVID-19. The main origin of this global virus is began in Wuhan (China) approximately in December 2019,and after sometime this virus is spread globally, specially in nearby countries of china[1]. The first COVID-19 positive patient was found in India 30 January 2020[1], and over the time virus was spread all over the India, and till date total number of cases in India is 10.4 Million and from this number of recovered cases are 10 Million and death cases are 151 Thousand[2] [3]. The way these global virus has badly affected the physical health of the people, the same way it has affected the mental health of people, that is the main reason of this study. In some cases early detection of COVID-19 is possible because there was common symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat and shortness of breath and in some of the cases symptoms are not visible. COVID-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus. Over a period the number of COVID-19 cases increased across the world as a corona virus is spreading rapidly it create stress and fear, so because of this uncertain situations are happened globally. Front line COVID-19 warriors and other essential workers face many challenges while they work to keep us safe and maintain services also social distancing and lockdown restrictions have badly affected mental health of the people.[4]The main aim of this research paper is to examine mental health after the COVID-19.It's important to understand the immediate and eternal impact of this pandemic on the people's mental health because normal lifestyle as a before will not come back until we get vaccine for it. Nowadays Mental health is one of the most important thing but no one gives proper attention towards it so it has become a topic of more concern. Also it focuses mental health awareness by demonstrating on areas of diagnosis, treatment and support, research etc so that people can recover through it and understand itsokaynottobeokay. © 2021 IEEE.

10.
Addiction ; 117(6): 1622-1639, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Early evidence suggests that COVID-19 lockdown restrictions affect alcohol consumption. However, existing studies lack data on how drinking practices changed as restrictions disrupted people's work, family life and socializing routines. We examined changes in consumption and drinking occasion characteristics during three periods of changing restrictions in Scotland/England. DESIGN: Interrupted time-series analysis of repeat cross-sectional market research data (assessing step-level changes). SETTING: Scotland/England, January 2009-December 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Scotland: 41 507 adult drinkers; England: 253 148 adult drinkers. MEASUREMENTS: Three intervention points: March 2020 lockdown, July 2020 easing of restrictions and October 2020 re-introduction of some restrictions. PRIMARY OUTCOME: mean units consumed per week (total/off-trade/on-trade; 1 unit = 8 g ethanol). SECONDARY OUTCOMES: drinking > 14 units per week, heavy drinking, drinking days per week, solitary drinking, drinking with family/partners, drinking with friends/colleagues, own-home drinking, drinking in someone else's home and drinking start times. FINDINGS: In Scotland, March 2020's lockdown was associated with a 2.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.61, 4.02] increase in off-trade (i.e. shop-bought) units per week, a -2.84 (95% CI = -3.63, -2.06) decrease in on-trade (i.e. licensed venues) units per week, but no statistically significant change in total units per week. July 2020's easing of restrictions was associated with a 1.33 (95% CI = 0.05, 2.62) increase in on-trade units per week, but no statistically significant total/off-trade consumption changes. October 2020's re-introduction of some restrictions was not associated with statistically significant consumption changes. Results for England were broadly similar. Lockdown restrictions were also associated with later drinking start times, fewer occasions in someone else's home and with friends/colleagues, more own-home drinking and (in Scotland only) more solitary drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in on-trade alcohol consumption following COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in Scotland/England in 2020 were mainly offset by increased own-home drinking. This largely persisted in periods of greater/lesser restrictions. The shift towards off-trade drinking involved significant changes in the characteristics of drinking occasions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Scotland/epidemiology
11.
Marketing Science ; : 15, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1581924

ABSTRACT

Many have speculated that the recent outbreak of COVID-19 has led to a surge in the use of online streaming services. However, this assumption has not been closely examined for music streaming services, the consumption patterns of which can be different from video streaming services. To provide insights into this question, we analyze Spotify's streaming data for the weekly top 200 songs for two years in 60 countries between June 2018 and May 2020, along with varying lockdown policies and detailed daily mobility information from Google. Empirical evidence shows that the COVID-19 outbreak significantly reduced music streaming consumption in many countries. We also find that countries with larger mobility decreases saw more notable downturns in streaming during the pandemic. Further, we reveal that the mobility effect was attributable to the complementarity of music consumption to other activities and likely to be transient rather than irreversible. Alternative mechanisms, such as unobservable Spotify-specific factors, a demand shift from top-selling songs to niche music, and supply-side effects, did not explain the decline in music consumption.

12.
Can Public Policy ; 47(4): 554-572, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553722

ABSTRACT

We examine how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected trade between Canada and the United States, using a novel dataset on monthly bilateral trade flows between Canadian provinces and US states merged with COVID-19 health data. Our results show that a one-standard-deviation increase in COVID-19 severity (case levels, hospitalizations, deaths) in a Canadian province leads to a 3.1 percent to 4.9 percent fall in exports and a 6.7 percent to 9.1 percent fall in imports. Decomposing our analysis by industry, we determine that trade in the manufacturing industry was most negatively affected by the pandemic, and the agriculture industry had the least disruption to trade flows. Our descriptive evidence suggests that lockdowns may also have reduced Canadian exports and imports. However, although our regression coefficients are consistent with that finding, they are not statistically significant, perhaps because of the lack of variation as a result of similar timing in the imposition of restrictions across provinces.


Cet article examine l'incidence de la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) sur le commerce entre le Canada et les États-Unis. La recherche utilise un nouvel ensemble de données sur les échanges commerciaux bilatéraux mensuels entre les provinces canadiennes et les États américains croisées avec les données médicales reliées à la COVID-19. Nos résultats démontrent qu'un accroissement d'un seul écart-type de la sévérité de la COVID 19 (nombre de cas, hospitalisations, décès) dans une province canadienne a causé une chute de 3,1 à 4,9 pour cent des exportations et une chute de 6,7 à 9,1 pour cent des importations. En décomposant notre analyse par industrie, nous constatons que le commerce dans l'industrie manufacturière a été le plus touché négativement par la pandémie, et que le secteur agricole a été le moins perturbé quant aux échanges commerciaux. Nos données descriptives montrent que les périodes de confinement peuvent avoir réduit, à leur tour, les importations et exportations canadiennes. Cependant, même si nos coefficients de régression concordent avec ces résultats, ils ne sont pas pour autant significatifs statistiquement, peut-être en raison du manque de variation découlant des restrictions imposées dans toutes les provinces.

13.
J Epidemiol ; 31(12): 648-652, 2021 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore how sexual activity was impacted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown measures in the general adult population. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 6,003 Italian adults aged 18-74 years who were representative of the Italian general population. Study subjects were recruited at the time of the nationwide stay-at-home order (from April 27 to May 3, 2020). We identified characteristics associated with decreased frequency of sex during lockdown, differentiating between cohabiting and non-cohabiting subjects. RESULTS: Over one-third (35.3%) of Italians reported to have changed their sexual activity during lockdown (8.4% increased and 26.9% decreased). When focusing on cohabitants (N = 3,949, 65.8%), decreased sexual activity (20.7%) was more frequently reported by men (22.3%; compared to women, multivariable odds ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.44), younger subjects (P for trend <0.001), more educated subjects (P for trend = 0.004), subjects living in smaller houses (P for trend = 0.003), and those reporting longer time spent outdoors before the lockdown (P for trend <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 lockdown drastically altered people's day-to-day life and is likely to have impacted lifestyle habits and behavioral risk factors, including sexual attitudes and practice. This is the first national population-level study exploring changes in sexual life in this COVID-19 era. As we report sexual practice to have been affected by lockdown restrictions, we suggest that the mental health, social, and other determinants of these changes are to be explored beyond imposed social distancing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior
14.
Lab Anim ; 55(6): 509-520, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317105

ABSTRACT

Policies and guidelines are available for acute disasters such as earthquakes, fire and floods, however, little is available on how laboratory animal facilities should mitigate subacute disasters like the COVID-19 pandemic that imposed major restrictions on the free movement of people. As such, laboratory animal facilities had to find plausible mitigating measures to safeguard the welfare of animals in their care, to prevent animal suffering if staff could not reach the animals, albeit with limited time. The simplest approach was to stop active experiments and halt animal breeding, or to euthanize all animals. Challenges with such methods included the ethical debate regarding euthanasia of animals at the start of a pandemic and the need to perform a harm-benefit analysis while drafting the disaster plans, termination of studies at advanced stages with information loss or killing of genetically modified strains that would be difficult to replace.Two research animal facilities in South Africa addressed these challenges by implementing several changes such as allowing only essential studies to continue, maintaining small breeding colonies for essential strains, and providing staff with private transport for travelling to and from work to avoid public transport and risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Engineering changes included redesigning working areas to cater for social distancing.The mitigating measures put in place by the two laboratory animal facilities were successful in ensuring the continued welfare of animals during the COVID-19 lockdown restrictions. These measures can be adopted in future pandemics that lead to restricted movement of staff.Plans de gestion en cas de catastrophes telles que le COVID-19 pour deux installations d'animaux de laboratoire en Afrique du Sud.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Animals , Animals, Laboratory , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154411

ABSTRACT

In view of the prevailing preferences for health and recreation revealed by previous studies as the main expected benefits of forest visits, the research presented herein focuses on whether such expectations would translate into a significant increase in the number of forest visits (NFV) following pandemic outbreaks. In this context, a Slovak nationwide survey on forests was conducted, with the main objective of casting light on possible changes in NFV as a coping mechanism or behavioral response to the discomfort and severe restrictions stemming from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the related measures. The survey was administered on a statistically representative sample after the pandemic's first wave ebbed and restrictions were eased in the summer months of 2020. Collected data were assessed using ANOVA, the results of which supported the importance of forests as places providing opportunities for restoration of mental and physical resources. Forest accessibility as represented by forest coverage and settlement size emerged as a paramount factor affecting NFV rates both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic and its accompanying measures affected the relationships between NFV and average per capita income, type of employment, and most importantly age, highlighting possible vulnerabilities and disadvantages in certain population segments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Forests , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No previous study has investigated the SARS-CoV-2 prevalence and the changes in the proportion of positive results due to lockdown measures from the angle of workers' vulnerability to coronavirus in Greece. Two community-based programs were implemented to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 prevalence and investigate if the prevalence changes were significant across various occupations before and one month after lockdown. METHODS: Following consent, sociodemographic, clinical, and job-related information were recorded. The VivaDiag™ SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test was used. Positive results confirmed by a real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction for SARS-COV-2. RESULTS: Positive participants were more likely to work in the catering/food sector than negative participants before the lockdown. Lockdown restrictions halved the new cases. No significant differences in the likelihood of being SARS-CoV-2 positive for different job categories were detected during lockdown. The presence of respiratory symptoms was an independent predictor for rapid antigen test positivity; however, one-third of newly diagnosed patients were asymptomatic at both time points. CONCLUSIONS: The catering/food sector was the most vulnerable to COVID-19 at the pre-lockdown evaluation. We highlight the crucial role of community-based screening with rapid antigen testing to evaluate the potential modes of community transmission and the impact of infection control strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupations , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Prevalence
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