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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1150, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of SARS CoV2 virus has severely impacted the entire world population. The lockdown imposed during the pandemic has created enormous challenges particularly on the health, economic and social life of most individuals. This study aimed to investigate the changes in health-related lifestyle and food security during the lockdown and how they influenced the quality of life (QoL) of Malaysian adults. METHODS: An online survey using a structured questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic, body weight, diet quality, physical activity, sleep quality, food insecurity, and QoL was conducted among adult respondents across Malaysia. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between the changes in each component and QoL based on the total score before and during the lockdown. RESULTS: A total of 759 valid responses were included in the final analysis (75% female and 24.5% male). There was a significant improvement in diet quality during the lockdown while sleep quality and food insecurity worsened significantly. As for physical activity, metabolic equivalents (METs) in moderate activity increased significantly, whilst there was a significant decrease in the METs in walking and total minutes spent on physical activity during the lockdown. Overall, independent of age, gender, ethnicity, and religion, there were significant associations between QoL during lockdown and changes in BMI, METs of moderate activity, sleep quality, and food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented COVID-19 outbreak and the lockdown measure during the pandemic have caused significant negative changes in health-related lifestyles and affected the QoL of Malaysian adults. Despite the new norms and rules to prevent disease transmission, efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle and food security among the population must be rolled out to improve the QoL and prevent further adverse mental and physical health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Food Insecurity , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Life Style , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721221106135, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883450

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: to explore the potential consequences of the COVID-19 lockdown on the prevalence of myopia among Italian children aged 5-12 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: retrospective multicenter study conducted in Italy. Population: children aged 5-12. Selection: random selection of children who received an eye exam between 2016 to 2021. Inclusion criteria: healthy children presenting for a routine eye exam. Exclusion criteria: presence of ocular comorbidities other than refractive error, such as blepharoptosis, media opacities, corneal or retinal dystrophies, strabismus, amblyopia, or concurrent therapy with atropine 0.01%. Outcome measure: age and spherical equivalent (SE) measured in diopters (D) in the right eye (RE) in cycloplegia. Statistical analysis: ANOVA test. RESULTS: total of 803 children. In the years prior to COVID-19, the mean SE ± SD of healthy age-school children was: 0.54 ± 1.49 D in 2016; 0.43 ± 1.84 D in 2017; 0.34 ± 1.41 D in 2018; 0.35 ± 1.75 D in 2019 (ANOVA, p = .659). In 2021, the mean SE changed to -0.08 ± 1.44 D (ANOVA, p = .005). Mean age was comparable in all groups (ANOVA, p = .307). The prevalence of myopes (SE ≤-0.5D) and hyperopes (SE ≥ 2D) was respectively 24.10% and 9.64% among children aged 60-96 months, and 63.86% and 6.02% among children aged 97-144 months. These values represent a statistically-significant increase in the number of myopes (Chi-square, p = .016) and decrease in the number of hyperopes (Chi-square, p = .001), as compared to previous years (.06 and.48 respectively). CONCLUSION: this retrospective study shows a statistically-significant decrease in the mean SE in children aged 5-12 in the year following the COVID-19 lockdown. The percentage of myopes has increased significantly, while the percentage of hyperopes has decreased. The lifestyle changes caused by the lockdown led children to spend more time on near-work activities and digital devices, and less time outdoors. These are known risk factors for the development and progression of myopia. Studies in different countries are encouraged.

3.
F S Sci ; 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess if the unprecedented change in lifestyle due to the lockdown initiated by the COVID-19 pandemic which altered human behavior, influencing purchase and consumption patterns may have had an impact on the exposure to phthalates in Indian women undergoing IVF/ICSI. To evaluate if the effects of the strict and lengthy lockdown in India which promoted the new norms of stay-at-home and work-from-home, closure of beauty parlours and restriction on social and public gatherings may have contributed to a decrease in the exposure to phthalates like dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). These are found in many personal care products (PCPs) which include cosmetics and fragrances. To investigate if the extensive use of flexible single-use plastic in personal protective equipment (PPE) like face masks/gloves and in plastic packaging used for online purchases, food takeaways and home deliveries of essentials and groceries during the COVID-19 pandemic, in an attempt to provide a contact free delivery system may have inadvertently led to an increase in exposure to phthalates like di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-isodecyl phthalate (DiDP) which are plasticizers used in manufacturing flexible plastic. DESIGN: A comparative study of the levels of 6 phthalate metabolites detected in FF of Indian women undergoing IVF/ICSI one year before and in the immediate period after the lockdown initiated by the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: IVF centre in a large referral Hospital in India. PATIENT(S): A total of 176 consenting Indian women seeking treatment for infertility and undergoing oocyte retrieval were included. Each woman contributed one FF sample to the study. Group A (n = 96) women [mean age 34.0 (±3.9) years, mean BMI 25.4 (±4.8)] had their FF samples collected and screened between January 2019 - mid-March 2020, one year prior to the COVID-19 initiated lockdown. Group B (n = 80) women [mean age 33.9 (±4.1) years, mean BMI 25.0 (±4.4)] had their FF collected and screened post the lockdown between October 2020-June 2021. Both groups were matched by age and BMI. INTERVENTION(S): The cryopreserved FF samples of 176 women were processed using enzymatic deconjugation followed by the solid-phase extraction technique and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the total levels of 6 phthalate metabolites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the change in the phthalate metabolite levels in the FF of Indian women undergoing IVF/ICSI pre and post the lockdown. RESULT(S): The median levels of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP - 1.64 ng/ml Group A vs 0.93 ng/ml Group B; p <0.001) and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP - 5.25 ng/ml Group A vs 3.24 ng/ml Group B; p <0.001) metabolites of DBP and DEP found in PCPs including cosmetics and fragrances were significantly higher in the FF of 96 women (Group A) as compared to the levels seen in the FF of 80 women (Group B). However, the median levels of mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP - 0.11ng/ml Group A vs 0.13 ng/ml Group B; p <0.001), mono-isodecyl phthalate (MiDP - 0.11 ng/ml Group A vs 0.14 ng/ml Group B; p <0.001) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP - 0.13 ng/ml Group A vs 0.14 ng/ml Group B; p = 0.023) metabolites of DiNP, DiDP and DEHP used as plasticizers were significantly higher in the FF of women in Group B compared to women in Group A. CONCLUSION(S): The significant drop in the levels of MBP and MEP that accumulated in the FF of 80 Indian women in Group B reflects a decrease or absence of usage patterns of PCPs including cosmetics and fragrances suggesting that these women may have deprioritized their use during the COVID-19 pandemic giving personal hygiene and safety a preference. On the other hand the unprecedented increase in the use of flexible single-use plastic that became our line of defense against the coronavirus during the COVID-19 pandemic may be responsible for the accumulation of significantly higher levels of MiNP, MiDP and MEOHP in FF of the same group of women.

4.
J Clean Prod ; 363: 132616, 2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882161

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the related lockdown restrictions have imposed a wide range of impacts that need to be analysed based on the specific characteristics of countries. By comparing socio-economic and energy data for the four quarters of 2020 to the same period of 2019, the MuSIASEM approach is used, for the first time, to investigate the energy metabolism of UK during a period of economic downturn. Results show that the commercial and the public administration activities have been able to achieve energy efficiency increases, and the residential sector has accounted for energy-related economies of scale. The industrial and the other activity sectors, on the contrary, have raised the energy intensity of production. Comparted to time series data, scenarios, and modelling exercises, the MuSIASEM approach integrates a wide range of intensive and extensive variables across different scales of analysis and investigate how specific socio-economic and energy structures have reacted to the COVID-19 crisis. The methodology can be easily replicated for other case studies and results can support the design of recovery and sustainable transition strategies.

5.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 77: 103082, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882073

ABSTRACT

Given the public resentment that trailed the unprecedented lockdown order enforced as a public health emergency control strategy to contain the spread of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic, this study explored citizens' compliance with the order and how its enforcement occasioned illegal police practices in Nigeria. With a qualitative approach, this study recruited 90 participants using varieties of sampling methods to understand public behaviour and police conduct in the enforcement of the order. From the insights gathered with a semi-structured interview and analysed with the thematic analysis method, the study observed that economic hardship, unavoidable matters from the citizens' end and mistrust of authorities fueled non-compliance. Such mistrust amplified misinformation during the pandemic. Although there was a reasonable level of compliance, the pre-existing police illegalities (extortion and bribery) facilitated the cases of non-compliance in Nigeria. Also, hostility ensued between police personnel and citizens during the enforcement of the lockdown. Therefore, this study advised the government and stakeholders on the imperatives of adequate socio-economic preparations, emphasising public trust and the provision of relief materials. Additionally, it suggested to the police authorities reform ideas to better equip, monitor, and manage police resources for effective handling of future pandemics.

6.
Heliyon ; 8(6): e09681, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882051

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies have reported that Covid-19 home-quarantine periods have had mostly negative psychological impact on children with ASD and their families. Here we examined parent perceived impact of a 6-week quarantine period imposed in Israel at the beginning of the Covid-19 outbreak, in mid-March 2020. Methods: An anonymous online questionnaire was completed by parents of 268 children with ASD. Parents rated deterioration/improvement in their child's behaviors, abilities, mood, sleep, and anxiety along with changes in their own mood, sleep, parenting skills, and family relationships. We performed t-tests and ANOVA analyses to assess the significance of perceived impact on each domain and potential differences in the impact across families with children of different ages, genders, and levels of required support as well as families that experienced different magnitudes of economic hardships. Results: Parents reported significant deterioration in their mood and sleep along with significant improvements in relationships with their spouse and child with ASD, and in their parenting skills. Parents also reported significant increases in the severity of tantrums, anxiety, and restricted and repetitive behavior symptoms along with significant improvements in social and communication abilities of their child with ASD. Ratings were significantly lower in families of ASD children who regularly require more support and in families that experienced economic hardships. Conclusions: While periods of home-quarantine create numerous hardships for families of children with ASD, they may also offer an opportunity for improving parenting skills, family relationships, and children's social communication abilities with potential relevance for improving remote services.

7.
Structural Change and Economic Dynamics ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1882532

ABSTRACT

This paper presents an agent-based model to study the effects of lockdown restrictions, due to epidemic prevention, on cultural consumption. Two kinds of cultural products, designed as ’popular’ and ’highbrow’, are taken into account. People preferences and choices on different cultural products are influenced by individual education and income;the presence of imitative behaviour through social networks is also considered. Numerical simulations show that partial and global lockdown restrictions produce different –and sometimes counter-intuitive– effects. In particular, highbrow activities are affected by adverse economic consequences of partial lockdown measures to a larger extent, as compared to popular cultural activities. The result is driven by factors related to both the demand and the supply side.

8.
Revista Colombiana de Reumatologia ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1882474

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by chronic generalized pain, joint stiffness, sleep disorders, fatigue, anxiety and depressive episodes, whose clinical manifestations begin after a physical or emotional trauma. However, few publications describe the clinical impact of COVID-19 on fibromyalgia symptoms. Objective: To map the available medical evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and PCS in patients with and without a diagnosis of fibromyalgia prior to infection. Materials and methods: Exploratory systematic review in PubMed and Scopus, considering articles in English and Spanish, with data on fibromyalgia in the population surviving SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical trial records of the World Health Organization databases were reviewed. Results: Twelve published articles were included: retrospective studies (n = 4), cross-sectional (n = 2), cases and controls (n = 2), qualitative studies (n = 2), a prospective cohort (n = 1) and a longitudinal section study (n = 1). The total study population of the included publications was 3,060 patients. In addition, one randomized controlled clinical trial and two observational cross-sectional and case-control studies were included. The total sum of the study population was 173 participants. Conclusion: Survivors of COVID-19 with or without a previous diagnosis of fibromyalgia may present an increase in chronic pain, insomnia, joint stiffness, and deterioration in quality of life. The population with a history of fibromyalgia may be more affected by psychological stress, tissue damage to neuromuscular structures, and inflammation due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Sport Sci Health ; : 1-13, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881516

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This review aimed to assess the effects of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on mental health to elite athletes. The emotional background influenced their sport career and was examined by questionnaires. Methods: We included original studies that investigated psychological outcomes in elite athletes during COVID-19 lockdown. Sixteen original studies (n = 4475 participants) were analyzed. Results: The findings showed that COVID-19 has an impact on elite athletes' mental health and was linked with stress, anxiety and psychological distress. The magnitude of the impact was associated with athletes' mood state profile, personality and resilience capacity. Conclusion: The lockdown period impacted also elite athletes' mental health and training routines with augmented anxiety but with fewer consequences than the general population thanks to adequate emotion regulation and coping strategies.

10.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881489

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Psychosocial health problems, such as social isolation, loneliness, depression and anxiety, have gained attention during the COVID-19 pandemic and are commonly co-occurring. We investigated the network of psychosocial health constructs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study included 4553 participants (mean age: 68.6 ± 11.2 years, 56% women) from the prospective Rotterdam Study, who filled out a questionnaire between April and July 2020, the time of the first COVID-19 wave in the Netherlands. Psychosocial health constructs included were depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale), anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale), loneliness (University of California, Los Angeles loneliness scale), social connectedness (five items) and pandemic-related worry (five items). We estimated mixed graphical models to assess the network of items of these constructs and whether age and sex affected the network structure. RESULTS: Within the network of psychosocial constructs, a higher depressive symptoms score was particularly associated with items of loneliness and social connectedness, whereas overall anxiety was particularly associated with items of pandemic-related worry. Between people from different sex and age, the network structure significantly altered. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that within the same network of psychosocial health constructs, depressive symptom score is particularly associated with loneliness and social connectedness, whereas anxiety symptom score is associated with pandemic-related worry during the first COVID-19 lockdown. Our results support that psychosocial constructs should be considered in conjunction with one another in prevention and treatment efforts in clinical care, and that these efforts need to be tailored to specific demographic groups.

11.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 15: 1411-1421, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881326

ABSTRACT

Background/Purpose: In the context of COVID-19 lockdowns, extant research suggests that secondary coping (a strategy aimed at adjusting oneself self to the stressor) is more robustly associated with better mental health than primary coping (a strategy aimed at adjusting the stressor to oneself). We investigated whether these findings are generalizable to Spain-one of the most severely affected countries at that time. We also tested whether the link between secondary coping and mental health (as measured by anxiety) can be accounted for by how individuals perceive the COVID-19 impact (ie, perceived life changes and personal global impact) and how frequently they use traditional and social media to check COVID-19-related information. Methods: A diverse community sample (N = 408), collected during the first lockdown in Spain (early April 2020), completed a multi-measure online survey including the targeted variables. Results: Secondary coping outperformed primary coping in predicting reduced anxiety during the lockdown in Spain. Moreover, lower perceived life changes from COVID-19 and reduced personal global impact from COVID-19 both mediated the negative secondary coping-anxiety relationship. No indirect effects emerged for either conventional or social media exposure. Conclusion: These results (a) strengthen the cross-cultural validity of the link between secondary coping and anxiety and (b) advance our understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying this association.

12.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):381, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881032

ABSTRACT

Background: China implemented strict lockdowns to contain COVID-19 at the early stage. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on HIV care continuum in China. Methods: Anonymized programmatic data on HIV care continuum between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2020 were collected from seven provincial and municipal centers for disease control and prevention and eight major infectious disease hospitals specialized in HIV care in various regions in China. We performed interrupted time series analysis to characterize temporal trend in monthly numbers of HIV tests, HIV diagnosis, HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiations, ART collections, and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) prescriptions before, during and after the national lockdown period (23 January to 7 April 2020). We used Poisson segmented regression models to estimate the immediate impact of the lockdown on these outcomes, as well as post-lockdown trends. Results: During the study period, we recorded 1,101,686 HIV tests, 69,659 HIV diagnoses, 63,458 ART initiations, 1,593,490 ART collections, and 16,780 PEP prescriptions. A median of 789 (IQR 367-975), 409 (278-626), and 1045 (524-1262) HIV tests per day were recorded before, during and after lockdown. Lockdown was associated with 32.8% decrease in HIV testing in January 2020, the first month after lockdown (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.672;95% confidence interval [CI] 0.585-0.772). Daily HIV diagnoses decreased from a median of 50 (7-76) before lockdown, to 23 (6-46) during lockdown, and back to 48 (12-74) after lockdown, with an estimated 27.1% decrease in January 2020 (0.729, 0.599-0.887). There was no marked change in the number of ART initiation and ART collection during the lockdown, but the number of ART collection was lower than the expected level by the end of December 2020 (0.761, 0.659-0.879). The number of monthly PEP prescriptions decreased significantly during the lockdown (0.362, 0.220-0.595) and still had not recovered to the expected level by the end of December 2020 (0.456, 0.362-0.574). With the ease of restrictions, HIV testing (slope change 1.067/month, 1.048-1.086) and PEP prescriptions (1.077/month, 1.016-1.142) showed a significant increasing trend. Conclusion: ART initiation and ART collection generally remained stable during the lockdown, but HIV testing, HIV diagnosis and PEP prescription were affected. ART collection and PEP prescriptions have not recovered to expected levels in the eighth month after the suspension of lockdown.

13.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):376, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881014

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health complications are highly prevalent among people living with HIV. Left untreated mental health complications can negatively affect HIV treatment outcomes. In March 2020, South Africa introduced a lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lockdowns might induce or exacerbate mental health conditions and limit access to treatment. We studied the effect of the lockdown on mental health care use among HIV-positive beneficiaries of a South African private sector medical aid scheme. Methods: We performed an interrupted time series analysis using insurance claims from January 1, 2017, to June 1, 2020 of HIV-positive beneficiaries aged 18 years or older from a large private sector medical aid scheme. Weekly outpatient consultation and hospital admission rates were calculated for substance use disorders (ICD10 F10-F19), serious mental disorders (F20-F29, F31), depression (F32, F34.1, F54), anxiety (F40-F48), and any mental disorder (F00-F99). We estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the effect of the lockdown on weekly hospital admission and outpatient consultation rates. Results: 61,873 adults living with HIV were followed up for a median of 151 weeks. Hospital admission rates (OR 0.38;95% CI 0.27-0.54) and outpatient consultation rates (OR 0.72;95% CI 0.64-0.82) for any mental disorder decreased substantially after the implementation of the lockdown in March 2020 and did not recover to pre-lockdown levels until June 1, 2020 (Figure). Substantial decreases were observed in hospital admissions rates for substance use disorders (OR 0.13;95% CI 0.02-0.73), depression (OR 0.30;95% CI 0.16-0.54), and serious mental disorders (OR 0.58;95%CI 0.17-2.02). Decreases in outpatient consultation rates were observed for substance use disorders (OR 0.21;95% CI 0.08-0.55), anxiety disorders (OR 0.64;95% CI 0.54-0.76), depression (OR 0.71;95% CI 0.62-0.82), and serious mental disorders (OR 0.85;95% CI 0.72-1.00). Conclusion: Reduced mental health care contact rates during the COVID-19 lockdown likely reflect a substantial unmet need for mental health services with potential long-term consequences for people living with HIV and comorbid mental health complications. Steps to ensure access and continuity of mental health services during future lockdowns should be considered.

14.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):302, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880962

ABSTRACT

Background: Spain has been one of the main epicenters for Covid-19 in Europe. The country is divided into 17 Autonomous Communities (AC) and two Autonomous Cities (ACi). This study aims to describe the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain across 3 study periods established from the beginning of the pandemic to the third epidemiologic wave, after analyzing genomes from all AC/ACi from February 2020 to March 2021. Methods: All 14,256 available partial and complete Spanish SARS-CoV-2 human genomic sequences deposited in the GISAID repository (https://www. gisaid.org/) until 21 March 2021 were downloaded in nucleotides and classified according to the AC/ACi and to the epidemiological week by collection date. The sequences were assigned to the genetic lineages according to Pangolin COVID-19 Lineage Assigner (https://pangolin.cog-uk.io/). Epiweeks were grouped into three main periods adjusted to the Spanish epidemic curve, as informed in the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RENAVE, https://cnecovid.isciii. es). The first period comprised from the beginning of the pandemic to the end of the first state of emergency (June 2020). The second period included the second epidemic wave (June-December 2020), and the third period covered the third wave (December 2020-March 2021). Only AC with at least 10 sequences for each period were described in the results. The two ACi were considered together. Results: Before the national lockdown (14 March 2020), 11 SARS-CoV-2 lineages were circulating in Spain with A.2 lineage predominance. During the lockdown the SARS-CoV-2 variant diversity increased, decreasing during the confinement. During this period, B.1 was the main circulating variant. During summer 2020, B.1.177 became the main circulating variant. The third wave was characterized by the introduction and fast spread of the B.1.1.7 or Alpha Variant of Concern. Conclusion: The reduction of diversity during the lockdown suggests this measure was effective in reducing the import of SARS-CoV-2 lineages. After the opening of borders within Europe during summer 2020, the variant diversity increased again and B.1.177 became the predominant variant, suggesting that despite the efforts to avoid SARS-CoV-2 spread between countries, travel restrictions during summer 2020 were not sufficient to control viral spreading. The variant distribution was heterogeneous among the AC and periods, reflecting different incidence and sequencing capacities across AC.

15.
Journal International Medical Sciences Academy ; 35(1):62-66, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880921

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In order to halt the progression of COVID-19, governments of many countries including India implemented national lockdown. In view of the sudden closure of educational institutions, remote teaching was implemented with the help of online learning or E-learning. Thus, the aim of the study was assessing the attitudes and perceptions of MBBS students regarding the effectiveness of e-learning and the impact of COVID-19 on the student’s mental wellbeing and learning. Methods: The survey instrument was a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 17 close ended questions and 3 open ended question. It has 3 sociodemographic questions, 13 questions assessing their attitudes and perceptions regarding the effectiveness of e-learning and 4 questions investigating the impact of COVID-19 on the student’s mental wellbeing and learning. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS (version 20). Results: A total of 404 undergraduate students studying in FMHS, SGT University, Gurugram participated in the survey. A major part of the students (57.1%) was using their Mobile phones for e-learning followed by 24.6% using their Personal computer or Laptop, 12% were using combination of these devices and 6.3% using tablets. Due to inconsistent internet connection, most of the students (71.5%) were facing challenges. 64.9% of the respondents faced distraction during the class such as lack of audio clarity, internet connection problems, lack of environment, concentration issues, notifications and social media, student teacher interactions, practical aspect not covered and lack of physical interaction with the teacher. The continuous screen time posed a major problem for students who suffered from strain in the eyes (58.3%), headache (18.7%), neck pain (8.8%), back pain (6.3%) or all of the above problems (7.7%). Thus, 84.1% of the undergraduate students preferred conventional Classroom learning to e-learning. Conclusions: Implementation of strict social distancing and lockdown in COVID-19 era, has mandated the pedagogy of remote learning which remains the only viable option for teaching and learning in these difficult times. The students should be advised to follow good ergonomic practices to maintain their ocular health and should be motivated to enhance their mental well-being and learning amid COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):378, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880919

ABSTRACT

Background: Travel restrictions during the COVID-19 epidemic in China have impacted on the daily life and antiretroviral therapy (ART) of people living with HIV, including men who have sex with men (MSM). As China enters a state of routine COVID-19 prevention and control, it is necessary to understand the conditions of ART interruption (ATI) among HIV-infected MSM during and after the lockdown period (23 January to 7 April 2020) to summarize experience on HIV treatment. Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted among HIV-infected MSM in China in February 2021, using convenience sampling on the WeChat platform called Li Hui Shi Kong. We collected information during and around lockdown period, including socio-demographics, health behaviors such as physical exercise and alcohol drinking, ART maintenance, CD4 and viral load testing. Pearson's Chi-squared test was performed to compare those characteristics between participants who experienced ATI during the lockdown period and did not. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the correlates of ATI. Results: A total of 1296 participants were included in the analysis. The median age was 29.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 25.2-34.0). 40.9% (n=530) of them did not exercise regularly in the second half of 2019 and 62.3% (n=808) had alcohol drinking. During the lockdown period, 6.8% (n=88) reported ATI experience, and 49.5% (n=629) performed CD4 cell test. Among the participants who took the last CD4 test after the lockdown, more people had not experienced ATI (66.8%) compared to those had experienced ATI (38.6%). HIV-infected MSM using other ART regimen as temporary substitution were more unlikely to experience ATI, including free ART (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.11) and out-of-pocket ART (aOR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-0.89), which is different from their previous prescription. Conclusion: COVID-restrictions did not result in significantly negative effects on ART maintenance among HIV-infected MSM in China. In order to reduce the negative impact on HIV-infected MSM, attention should be paid to conducting health behavior education, maintaining ART service and encouraging CD4 and viral load testing during and after public emergencies.

17.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):367, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880766

ABSTRACT

Background: Haiphong is a Vietnamese city of 2 million people and a historic hotspot for HIV and drug use. The DRIVE community research program recently demonstrated the end of the HIV epidemic among PWID in the city, with an incidence of 0.085/100PY, and a substantial decrease in HCV incidence in the past 5 years. After the emergence of COVID-19, a one-month strict lockdown was imposed in April 2020 in Vietnam, followed by lighter social distancing restrictions over the year. We investigated whether those measures affected PWID in terms of risk behaviors and access to prevention and care. Methods: Participants were PWID that had been enrolled in a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey as part of DRIVE in the last quarter of 2019. They were recalled and interviewed in the last quarter of 2020 by peer educators on their socioeconomic situation, drug use and sexual behaviors, relations to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and ART services. They were tested for drugs and methadone in the urine, and for HIV, HCV, and HIV plasma viral load when HIV(+). Changes following the restrictions were assessed by comparing these "after" data to the "before" data collected one year earlier during the RDS survey. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 participants including 5 female sex workers (FSW). Results: 780 PWID were enrolled. Their mean age was 44 years and 94% were male. 56% were still actively injecting (100% heroin) at the time of the interview;their monthly consumption had decreased from 24 to 17 days on average. The main source of syringes remained pharmacies for 83% before, during and after the lockdown. The proportion of PWID still engaging in sharing decreased from 6.0 to 1.5%. No change in the frequency of condom use was reported. The proportion of PWID on MMT increased from 68.7 to 75.3%. There was no alteration in the HIV cascade of care that was still above 90/90/90. No HIV seroconversion was observed, and HCV incidence remained stable (2.6/100PY, 95%CI: 0.7-6.7). 53% reported a monthly income of less than 130 USD "after" compared to only 9% "before". One FSW reported accepting unsafe sex during the lockdown due to financial pressure. Conclusion: Six months after the beginning of COVID-19-related restrictions, access to harm reduction materials and care services for PWID was maintained and no increase in the number of new HIV or HCV infections was observed. However, this period was a major financial challenge, especially for FSW that were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors.

18.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):359-360, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880674

ABSTRACT

Background: Key Populations (KP) makeup 3.4% of the general population, yet account for ∼32% of new HIV infections in Nigeria (NACA, 2017). With criminalizing laws, and ∼3000 active KPs hotspots in Lagos state alone, it is increasingly challenging for civil society organizations to reach these groups with the much needed HIV services. With the COVID-19 outbreak in the South-West region of Nigeria, Lagos state in early March, 2020 and attendant lockdown leading to restriction in movement, it became even more challenging to reach KP members with a complement of comprehensive HIV services. We describe our experience implementing innovatively evidence and community-based strategies to scale active HIV case-finding using a COVID-19 guided protocol during the 6-week lockdown in the state. Methods: We set up 22 Community ART (cART) teams split into an 8-person KP peer-led sub team comprising (community health worker, pharmacist, laboratory technician, four counselor testers, and a community mobilizer) that conducted HIV Testing Services (HTS) in 78 communities across 7 districts using the "moonlight testing" (nightly testing) approach. The teams were equipped with a line-list of index clients for elicitation of sexual and needle-sharing partners. Community engagement of gate keepers of pre-mapped KP communities was innovatively conducted, to seek approval, grant access and provide security during testing of elicited partners. Following an orientation on COVID-19 protocols for clients assessing services, index partners who accepted HTS were provided HIV prevention information, condom messaging, demonstration and distribution;those who tested positive were retested and provided with ART immediately. Results: Prior to the lockdown (February-March 2020), 8,831 clients were offered HIV testing services with 1,396 (positivity yield of 16%). Following the lockdown period which lasted for 6 weeks (March-May, 2020), HIV testing among key population increased by 38% (12, 159) with a 28% increase (1, 781) in HIV positives and 15% positivity yield. Conclusion: Despite the pre-existing challenges with KP access to comprehensive differentiated services worsened by current COVID-19 realities, peer-led cART showed significant promise in accelerating KP HIV case finding and sustaining community ART delivery.

19.
Mausam ; 73(1):115-128, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880647

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the comparative results of surface and satellite measurements made during the Phase 1 (25 March to 14 April), Phase 2 (15 April to 3 May) and Phase 3 (3 May to 17 May) of Covid-19 imposed lockdown periods of 2020 and those of the same locations and periods during 2019 over India. These comparative analyses are performed for Indian states and Tier 1 megacities where economic activities have been severely affected with the nationwide lockdown. The focus is on changes in the surface concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), PM2.5 and PM10, Ozone (O-3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and retrieved columnar NO2 from TROPOMI and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from MODIS satellite. Surface concentrations of PM2.5 were reduced by 30.59%, 31.64% and 37.06%, PM10 by 40.64%, 44.95% and 46.58%, SO2 by 16.73%, 12.13% and 6.71%, columnar NO2 by 46.34%, 45.82% and 39.58% and CO by 45.08%, 41.51% and 60.45% during lockdown periods of Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 respectively as compared to those of 2019 periods over India. During 1st phase of lockdown, model simulated PM2.5 shows overestimations to those of observed PM2.5 mass concentrations. The model underestimates the PM2.5 to those of without reduction before lockdown and 1st phase of lockdown periods. The reduction in emissions of PM2.5, PM10, CO and columnar NO2 are discussed with the surface transportation mobility maps during the study periods. Reduction in the emissions based on the observed reduction in the surface mobility data, the model showed excellent skills in capturing the observed PM2.5 concentrations. Nevertheless, during the 1st & 3rd phases of lockdown periods AOD reduced by 5 to 40%. Surface O-3 was increased by 1.52% and 5.91% during 1st and 3rd Phases of lockdown periods respectively, while decreased by-8.29% during 2nd Phase of lockdown period.

20.
Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science ; 10(2):309-312, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880629

ABSTRACT

India is the second largest populous country suffering from the pandemic due to Corona Virus. Social separation and lockdown rules were implemented, but they had a negative influence on economic situation of our country. While there was a negative toll on the economy and the human interaction of our country, environment was the only sector which was positively impacted. During early December in 2019, the first Corona Virus epidemic was announced in Wuhan, Hubei Province, the WHO (World Health Organisation) declared an outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30th January, 2020, and on 20th February, 2020, WHO formally recognised this epidemic of coronavirus disease as COVID-19, where CO stands for Corona, VI-Virus D-Disease, and 19 for 2019 as that was the year this infection first caused an epidemic. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 causes COVID-19 disease (SARS-CoV-2). The Corona Virus Disease outbreak introduced not only illness and death, but also hitherto new difficulties including as public health, food availability, deadly interactions, and the global economy. It paved the way for the entire globe to face new challenges that no one could have predicted.

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