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1.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; JOUR(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 83.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2102002

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (i.e., COVID-19) led to the death of more than 6 million individuals globally. This viral infection manifests differently in individuals, with some experiencing mild symptoms and others experiencing severe symptoms that result in hospitalization or even death. Survivors of COVID-19 may recover in days, while others experience prolonged symptoms for weeks or months after initial illness manifestation (Navabi, 2020). These prolonged symptoms, termed "long-covid," can be continuous or relapsing and remitting and may be new or the same symptoms of acute COVID-19 (Raveendran et al., 2021). Research on chronic illness indicates that individuals with chronic health conditions experience higher rates of depression and anxiety, which are associated with reduced quality of life (QoL;Gerontoukou, 2015;National Institute of Mental Health, 2021;Obo et al., 2014). Long-covid patients also experience increased rates of depression and anxiety and decreased QoL (Frontera et al., 2021;Ismael et al., 2021;Ma et al., 2020;Mendez et al., 2021;Talman et al., 2021;Temperoni et al., 2021). However, resilience (i.e., successfully adapting to adversity;VandenBos, 2007), can protect against the harmful psychological effects of chronic illness (Manning et al., 2016). Specifically, grit, social support, and optimism are associated with better mental health outcomes in chronic illness populations (Ratajska et al., 2020;Sharkey et al., 2018;Zenger et al., 2010). Another important component of adjustment to chronic illness is cognitive appraisal of illness, which can facilitate or impede mental health outcomes in patients. Illness intrusiveness (II;i.e., disruption of lifestyles, activities, and interests) and illness uncertainty (IU;i.e., cognitive experience where illness outcomes are unpredictable and ambiguous) are both associated with poorer adjustment to chronic illness and poor mental health and QoL outcomes (Devins, 1994;Gromisch et al., 2019;Pai et al., 2006;Schiele et al., 2019;Szulczewski et al., 2017). However, research suggests that resilience variables can decrease II and IU (Carroll & Arthur, 2010;Neri et al., 2011;Sajjadi et al., 2015). The current study examined the resilience variables of grit, optimism, and social support and their effect on anxiety, depression, and QoL. Mediators of II and IU were assessed. A total of 217 long-covid patients recruited through snowball sampling were asked to complete questionnaires measuring the related constructs. It was hypothesized that resiliency would be negatively associated with poor mental health outcomes and positively associated with QoL. It was also hypothesized that II and IU would mediate these relationships. The data was analyzed using Model 4 of the PROCESS macro for SPSS by Andrew Hayes. Results indicated that social support and optimism were negatively associated with anxiety and depression and positively associated with QoL. Grit was negatively associated with anxiety and depression but did not influence QoL outcomes. IU and II were negatively associated with grit, social support, and optimism. There was partial support for IU mediating the relationships between grit and anxiety and depression, social support and anxiety and depression, and optimism and anxiety. IU did not mediate the relationship between optimism and depression. II did not mediate the relationships between grit and anxiety and depression, social support and anxiety and depression, and optimism and anxiety and depression. II and IU fully mediated the relationship between grit and QoL and social support and QoL. There was partial mediation for II and IU between optimism and QoL. These results were discussed in terms of effective interventions for reducing negative outcomes in long-covid patients. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

2.
Exp Ther Med ; 24(5): 705, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099951

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a widespread impact on individuals' mental health through indirect psychological and social mechanisms, related to factors such as fear of infection or death, social isolation, lack of social support and financial instability. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has also been associated with the development or recurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms, both during the acute phase, as well as during the post-acute 'long-COVID' phase. In addition to the COVID-19 survivors with a mental health history that are at a high risk of experiencing a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms following resolution of acute COVID-19, there is accumulating evidence that a diagnosis of COVID-19 may also be associated with new-onset neuropsychiatric morbidity among survivors without pre-existing mental health disorders. In particular, studies investigating the incidence of post-acute neuropsychiatric sequelae, based mostly on retrospective cohort study designs and data from national health registries, have reported the development of new-onset manifestations, including depression, anxiety, psychotic symptoms, sleep disturbances and fatigue. Nevertheless, when COVID-19 survivors were compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative controls and especially survivors of other disorders (such as influenza), the findings regarding the risk of incident neuropsychiatric manifestations varied among studies. While there is evidence of an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the subsequent occurrence of new-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms, especially among patients with increased disease severity, further research using methodological approaches less susceptible to confounding bias is required to establish causal relationships.

3.
Children (Basel) ; 9(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099375

ABSTRACT

There is a lack of evidence of the health impacts due to long COVID among children and young people (CYP). The objective of this study is to determine the main clinical characteristics of long COVID in CYP and to investigate the academic, social, and health status impacts of long COVID in this population. An observational, descriptive, and longitudinal study on CYP who presented COVID-19 symptoms for more than twelve weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection was performed between December 2020 and May 2021. Fifty CYP were included, with a median age of 14.1 years, 33 (66%) were female, and 17 (34%) had a relative diagnosed with long COVID. Since the initial infection and up to the first visit, CYP had persisting symptoms for a median of 4.1 months, and for 18 (36%) CYP these symptoms persisted for more than 6 months. Fatigue (100%), neurocognitive disorders (74%), muscular weakness (74%), and headache (72%) were the most reported symptoms. A total of 9 (18%) CYP could not attend school, 17 (34%) had a reduced schedule, 33 (66%) showed a decreased school performance, and 68% had stopped extracurricular activities. This preliminary study shows the impact that long COVID has on the health, academic, and social life of CYP.

4.
Br J Biomed Sci ; 79: 10426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099102

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organisation has reported that the viral disease known as COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is the leading cause of death by a single infectious agent. This narrative review examines certain components of the pandemic: its origins, early clinical data, global and UK-focussed epidemiology, vaccination, variants, and long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099068

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although a primarily respiratory disease, recent reports indicate that it also affects the central nervous system (CNS). Over 25% of COVID-19 patients report neurological symptoms such as memory loss, anosmia, hyposmia, confusion, and headaches. The neurological outcomes may be a result of viral entry into the CNS and/or resulting neuroinflammation, both of which underlie an elevated risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, we ask: Is COVID-19 a risk factor for AD? To answer, we identify the literature and review mechanisms by which COVID-19-mediated neuroinflammation can contribute to the development of AD, evaluate the effects of acute versus chronic phases of infection, and lastly, discuss potential therapeutics to address the rising rates of COVID-19 neurological sequelae.

6.
Endocr J ; 69(10): 1173-1181, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098816

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of long COVID are complex and long-lasting, and endocrine dysfunction might be involved in the underlying mechanisms. In this study, to clarify the hormonal characteristics of long COVID patients, laboratory data for patients who visited the outpatient clinic for long COVID were evaluated. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients who visited Okayama University Hospital during the period from Feb 2021 to Dec 2021 with focus on the interrelationships between major symptoms and endocrine data. Information and laboratory data were obtained from medical records for 186 patients. The patients had various symptoms, and the most frequent symptoms were general malaise, dysosmia/dysgeusia, hair loss, headache, dyspnea, and sleeplessness. Patients who were suffering from fatigue and dysosmia/dysgeusia were younger, while hair loss was more frequent in older and female patients. As for the characteristics of patients suffering from general fatigue, the scores of depression and fatigue were positively correlated with serum levels of cortisol and free thyroxin (FT4), respectively. Also, patients suffering from general fatigue had lower levels of serum growth hormone and higher levels of serum FT4, while patients with dysosmia/dysgeusia had a significantly lower level of serum cortisol. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels were higher and the ratios of FT4/TSH were lower in the initially severe cases, suggesting occult hypothyroidism. In addition, the ratios of plasma adrenocorticotropin to serum cortisol were decreased in patients with relatively high titers of serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody. Thus, hormonal changes seem to be, at least in part, involved in the persistent symptoms of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Female , Aged , Thyrotropin , Hydrocortisone , Retrospective Studies , Dysgeusia , SARS-CoV-2 , Alopecia , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Thyroxine
7.
Respiration ; : 1-9, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persistent symptoms after acute coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) are common, and there is no significant correlation with the severity of the acute disease. In long-COVID (persistent symptoms >4 weeks after acute COVID-19), respiratory symptoms are frequent, but lung function testing shows only mild changes that do not explain the symptoms. Although COVID-19 may lead to an impairment of the peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscles, respiratory muscle function has not been examined in this setting. METHODS: In this study, we assessed the severity of dyspnea (NYHA-function class) in long-COVID patients and analyzed its association with body mass index (BMI), FEV1, forced vital capacity, other parameters of body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), arterial blood gases, and inspiratory muscle function, assessed by airway occlusion pressure (P0.1) and maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) in two respiratory clinics in Germany between Oct 2020 and Aug 2021. RESULTS: A total of 116 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 50.2 ± 14.5 years; BMI, 26.7 ± 5.87 kg/m2; NYHA class I, 19%; II, 27%; III, 41%; and IV, 14%. While lung function values and computed tomography or conventional X-ray of the chest were in the normal range, inspiratory muscle function was markedly impaired. P01 was elevated to 154 ± 83%predicted and PImax was reduced to 41 ± 25%predicted. PImax reduction was strongly associated with the severity of dyspnea but independent of BMI, time after acute COVID-19 and most of the other parameters. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that in long-COVID patients, respiratory symptoms may be mainly caused by reduced inspiratory muscle strength. Assessment of PImax and P0.1 might better explain dyspnea than classical lung function tests and DLCO. A prospective study is needed to confirm these results.

8.
J Neurol Sci ; 443: 120487, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exists evaluating predictors of long-term outcomes after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The following outcomes were collected at 6 and 12-months post-diagnosis: disability using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), activities of daily living assessed with the Barthel Index, cognition assessed with the telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (t-MoCA), Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep, and post-acute symptoms of COVID-19. Predictors of these outcomes, including demographics, pre-COVID-19 comorbidities, index COVID-19 hospitalization metrics, and life stressors, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 790 COVID-19 patients who survived hospitalization, 451(57%) completed 6-month (N = 383) and/or 12-month (N = 242) follow-up, and 77/451 (17%) died between discharge and 12-month follow-up. Significant life stressors were reported in 121/239 (51%) at 12-months. In multivariable analyses, life stressors including financial insecurity, food insecurity, death of a close contact and new disability were the strongest independent predictors of worse mRS, Barthel Index, depression, fatigue, and sleep scores, and prolonged symptoms, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.5 to 20.8. Other predictors of poor outcome included older age (associated with worse mRS, Barthel, t-MoCA, depression scores), baseline disability (associated with worse mRS, fatigue, Barthel scores), female sex (associated with worse Barthel, anxiety scores) and index COVID-19 severity (associated with worse Barthel index, prolonged symptoms). CONCLUSIONS: Life stressors contribute substantially to worse functional, cognitive and neuropsychiatric outcomes 12-months after COVID-19 hospitalization. Other predictors of poor outcome include older age, female sex, baseline disability and severity of index COVID-19.

9.
JACC Case Rep ; : 101644, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095537

ABSTRACT

A 35-year-old woman with history of cardiovascular disease presented with shortness of breath, lightheadedness, fatigue, chest pain, and premature ventricular contractions 3 weeks after her second COVID-19 vaccine. Symptoms subsided following catheter ablation and ibuprofen except for chest pain and fatigue, which persisted following ablation and subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The case suggests causal associations between COVID-19 vaccine/infection and recurrence of cardiovascular disease, including long-COVID-like symptoms. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.).

10.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604589, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089971

ABSTRACT

Objectives: While organ-specific pathophysiology has been well-described in SARS-CoV-2 infection, less is known about the attendant effects on functional status, mood state and leisure-time physical activity (PA) in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PASC). Methods: A case-control design was employed to recruit 32 women (n = 17 SARS-CoV-2; n = 15 controls) matched on age (54 ± 12 years) and body mass index (27 ± 6 kg/m2) that did not differ by smoking status or history of cardiopulmonary disease. Participants completed a series of assessments including Profile of Mood States (POMS), Modified Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire (PFSDQ-M), and Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time PA. Results: Significant between-group differences were detected for the POMS total mood disturbance with sub-scale analyses revealing elevated tension, confusion, and lower vigor among SARS-CoV-2 participants (all p-values < 0.05). The number of SARS-CoV-2 symptoms (e.g., loss of taste/smell, muscle aches etc.) were associated (r = 0.620, p = 0.008) with confusion. SARS-CoV-2 participants exhibited poorer functional status (p = 0.008) and reduced leisure-time PA (p = 0.004) compared to controls. Conclusion: The sequela of persistent SARS-CoV-2 symptoms elicit clear disturbances in functional status, mood state, and leisure-time PA among women with PASC. Ongoing symptom presentation affects recovery time-course and PA participation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Female , Functional Status , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 1007636, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089825

ABSTRACT

Patients with long COVID and acute COVID should benefit from treatment with H.E.L.P. apheresis, which is in clinical use for 37 years. COVID-19 can cause a severe acute multi-organ illness and, subsequently, in many patients the chronic illness long-COVID/PASC. The alveolar tissue and adjacent capillaries show inflammatory and procoagulatory activation with cell necrosis, thrombi, and massive fibrinoid deposits, namely, unsolvable microthrombi, which results in an obstructed gas exchange. Heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL/fibrinogen precipitation (H.E.L.P.) apheresis solves these problems by helping the entire macro- and microcirculation extracorporeally. It uses unfractionated heparin, which binds the spike protein and thereby should remove the virus (debris). It dissolves the forming microthrombi without bleeding risk. It removes large amounts of fibrinogen (coagulation protein), which immediately improves the oxygen supply in the capillaries. In addition, it removes the precursors of both the procoagulatory and the fibrinolytic cascade, thus de-escalating the entire hemostaseological system. It increases myocardial, cerebral, and pulmonary blood flow rates, and coronary flow reserve, facilitating oxygen exchange in the capillaries, without bleeding risks. Another factor in COVID is the "cytokine storm" harming microcirculation in the lungs and other organs. Intervention by H.E.L.P. apheresis could prevent uncontrollable coagulation and inflammatory activity by removing cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, and reduces C-reactive protein, and eliminating endo- and ecto-toxins, without touching protective IgM/IgG antibodies, leukocyte, or platelet function. The therapy can be used safely in combination with antiviral drugs, antibiotics, anticoagulants, or antihypertensive drugs. Long-term clinical experience with H.E.L.P. apheresis shows it cannot inflict harm upon patients with COVID-19.

12.
Curr Pediatr Rev ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic spares no nation or city, and the virus is responsible for the escalating incidence and mortality all around the world. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the impact of "Long Covid" on Children. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted in December 2021 in Clinical Queries using the key terms "COVID-19" OR "long COVID". The search was restricted to children and adolescent aged < 18 years, and English literature. RESULTS: Many large-scale studies have provided strong scientific evidence as to the detrimental and irreversible sequelae of COVID-19 on the health, psychology, and development of affected children. Many insights to the management of this disease can be obtained from comparing the management of influenza disease. COVID-19 is generally a mild respiratory disease in children. Several syndromes such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and COVID toe are coined but are probably not specific to SARS-CoV-2. "Long COVID" or the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection, or the prolonged isolation and containment strategies on education and psychosocial influences on children associated with the pandemic, are significant. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare providers must be aware of the potential effects of quarantine on children's mental health. More importantly, health care provides must appreciate the importance of the decisions and actions made by governments, non-governmental organizations, the community, schools, and parents in reducing the possible effects of this situation. Multifaceted age-specific and developmentally appropriate strategies must be adopted by health care authorities to lessen the negative impact of quarantine on the psychological wellbeing of children.

13.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 322, 2022 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that iatrogenic dehydration is associated with a shift to organic osmolyte production in the general ICU population. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the validity of the physiological response to dehydration known as aestivation and its relevance for long-term disease outcome in COVID-19. METHODS: The study includes 374 COVID-19 patients from the Pronmed cohort admitted to the ICU at Uppsala University Hospital. Dehydration data was available for 165 of these patients and used for the primary analysis. Validation was performed in Biobanque Québécoise de la COVID-19 (BQC19) using 1052 patients with dehydration data. Dehydration was assessed through estimated osmolality (eOSM = 2Na + 2 K + glucose + urea), and correlated to important endpoints including death, invasive mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury, and long COVID-19 symptom score grouped by physical or mental. RESULTS: Increasing eOSM was correlated with increasing role of organic osmolytes for eOSM, while the proportion of sodium and potassium of eOSM were inversely correlated to eOSM. Acute outcomes were associated with pronounced dehydration, and physical long-COVID was more strongly associated with dehydration than mental long-COVID after adjustment for age, sex, and disease severity. Metabolomic analysis showed enrichment of amino acids among metabolites that showed an aestivating pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Dehydration during acute COVID-19 infection causes an aestivation response that is associated with protein degradation and physical long-COVID. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered à priori (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04316884 registered on 2020-03-13 and NCT04474249 registered on 2020-06-29).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Dehydration/etiology , Sodium , Urea , Potassium , Amino Acids , Glucose
14.
Transfusion ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported Blood type O to confer a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, while secretor status and other blood groups have been suspected to have a similar effect as well. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To determine whether any other blood groups influence testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 severity, or prolonged COVID-19, we used a large cohort of 650,156 Danish blood donors with varying available data for secretor status and blood groups ABO, Rh, Colton, Duffy, Diego, Dombrock, Kell, Kidd, Knops, Lewis, Lutheran, MNS, P1PK, Vel, and Yt. Of these, 36,068 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 whereas 614,088 tested negative between 2020-02-17 and 2021-08-04. Associations between infection and blood groups were assessed using logistic regression models with sex and age as covariates. RESULTS: The Lewis blood group antigen Lea displayed strongly reduced SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility OR 0.85 CI[0.79-0.93] p < .001. Compared to blood type O, the blood types B, A, and AB were found more susceptible toward infection with ORs 1.1 CI[1.06-1.14] p < .001, 1.17 CI[1.14-1.2] p < .001, and 1.2 CI[1.14-1.26] p < .001, respectively. No susceptibility associations were found for the other 13 blood groups investigated. There was no association between any blood groups and COVID-19 hospitalization or long COVID-19. No secretor status associations were found. DISCUSSION: This study uncovers a new association to reduced SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility for Lewis type Lea and confirms the previous link to blood group O. The new association to Lea could be explained by a link between mucosal microbiome and SARS-CoV-2.

15.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087789

ABSTRACT

Interferon (IFN)-specific autoantibodies have been implicated in severe COVID-19 and have been proposed as a potential driver of the persistent symptoms characterizing Long COVID, a type of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). We report than only two of 215 SARS-CoV-2 convalescent participants tested over 394 timepoints, including 121 people experiencing Long COVID symptoms, had detectable IFN-α2 antibodies. Both had been hospitalized during the acute phase of the infection. These data suggest that persistent anti-IFN antibodies, although a potential driver of severe COVID-19, are unlikely to contribute to Long COVID symptoms in the post-acute phase of the infection.

16.
Scand J Prim Health Care ; : 1-8, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087491

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the prevalence of long-COVID symptoms in patients with a history of mild or asymptomatic infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the factors associated with developing long-COVID. DESIGN: A nationwide cohort study. Using a centralized database, we have identified patients with and without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection 1-6 months before data collection. Patients were asked to fill out an online questionnaire through text messages. SETTING: Israeli general practice. SUBJECTS: 2755 persons participated in the study in September 2021 (a response rate of 7.5%): 819 with and ,936 without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We asked patients to provide details about their demographic status, medical history, COVID-related variables and the presence of long-COVID symptoms. RESULTS: Most prevalent long-COVID symptoms were decreased smell sensation (35.1% vs. 4.3%, p < 0.001), decreased taste sensation (25.2% vs. 3.2%, p < 0.001), memory disturbances (36.9% vs. 14.4%, p < 0.001), dyspnea (24.2% vs. 10.7%, p < 0.001) and arthralgia (33% vs. 16.3%, p < 0.001). Risk factors associated with long-COVID included female gender, symptomatic COVID-19, overweight or obesity and the presence of dyslipidemia. About 34.6% of participants reported not returning to their baseline health condition after the acute illness. CONCLUSION: Long-COVID is frequently seen following a mild symptomatic COVID-19 infection and, to a lesser extent, following an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Primary care physicians should be aware of these symptoms and consider this option in their differential diagnosis. Health policymakers should expect a significant impact of this syndrome on public health.Key PointsLong-COVID has emerged as a significant health problem with a serious impact on normal daily function• Long-COVID symptoms were evident in patients with mild symptomatic disease and in asymptomatic patients to a lesser extent.• Risk factors for having Long-COVID symptoms include female gender, symptomatic disease, increased BMI, and the presence of dyslipidemia.• Fatigue, dyspnea, weakness, decreased libido, weight changes, memory, and sleep disturbances were associated with not returning to the baseline health state.

17.
Pathogenic Coronaviruses of Humans and Animals ; CHAP: 173-273,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2083148

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, a new, highly pathogenic human coronavirus emerged in Wuhan, China. Due to its similarity with SARS-CoV, it was named SARS-CoV-2, and the disease that it causes was designated COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spread throughout the world and was designed as a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. As of mid-January 2022, infection with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in 328,532,929 cases and 5,542,359 deaths worldwide. COVID-19 causes respiratory diseases, including pneumonia, but also affects many other organ systems, including the nervous, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, digestive, urinary, integumentary, and reproductive systems. This chapter also describes the effects of COVID-19 on coagulation and the special senses (smell, taste, and vision) as well as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children, and Long COVID Syndrome. Potential animal reservoir hosts, such as bats, and potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV are also covered. A section compares the various diagnostic tests, including the detection of SARS-CoV-2 proteins (antigen tests), viral RNA (genetic tests), and infectious viruses (viral neutralization tests). Another section describes treatment options, including traditional and nontraditional drugs, micronutrients such as zinc, copper, selenium, and iron, as well as vitamin D supplementation. The variety of preventative measures that were implemented is also described, including personal protective equipment, social distancing, decontamination of infected surfaces, quarantine, and closure of businesses and schools. Different vaccine options are also compared. These include vaccines based on RNA, viral vectors, and inactivated viruses.

18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID-19 is associated with long-term gastrointestinal sequelae; however, prospective longitudinal data are sparse. We prospectively studied the frequency, spectrum and risk factors of post infection functional gastro-intestinal disorders/disorders of gut-brain interaction (PI-FGID/DGBI) following COVID-19. METHODS: 320 cases with COVID-19 and two control groups: (Group-A) 320 healthy spouses/family controls and (Group B) 280 healthy COVID serology-negative controls were prospectively followed up at 1,3 and 6 months using validated Rome IV criteria to evaluate the frequency of PI-FGID/DGBI. RESULTS: Of 320 cases, at 1 month, 36 (11.3%) developed FGID symptoms. Persistent symptoms were noted in 27 (8.4%) at 3 months, and in 21 (6.6%) at 6 months. At 3 months, 8 (2.5%) had irritable bowel syndrome, 7 (2.2%) had functional diarrhea, 6 (1.9%) had functional dyspepsia, 3 (0.9%) had functional constipation, 2 (0.6%) had FD-IBS overlap, and 1 (0.3%) had functional abdominal bloating/distension. Among symptomatic individuals at 3 months, 8 (29.6%) were positive for isolated carbohydrate malabsorption, 1 (3.7%) was positive for post infection malabsorption syndrome (PI-MAS) and 1 (3.7%) was positive for Intestinal methanogen overgrowth (IMO). None of the healthy controls developed FGID up to 6 months of follow up (p<0.01). Predictive factors at 3 and 6 months were severity of infection (p<0.01) and presence of GI symptoms at the time of infection (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 led to significantly higher number of new onset PI-FGID/DGBI compared to healthy controls at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. If further investigated some patients can be diagnosed with underlying malabsorption.

19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082151

ABSTRACT

Little is known on the characteristics of headaches associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of headache in post-COVID-19 patients, and its impact on the patients' quality of life (QoL), as well as to determine the associated determinants of the poor QoL. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms of COVID-19, characteristics of headache, and the QoL were collected and assessed. Headache was diagnosed and characterized using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, version 3 (ICHD-3). QoL was assessed using a Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) tool. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associated determinants of poor QoL in post-COVID-19 patients. A total of 215 post-COVID-19 patients were included in the final analysis, and 21.4% (46/215) of them had a poor QoL due to headache following COVID-19. Those who were unemployed and who contracted COVID-19 less than three months prior to the study had higher odds of having poor QoL compared to those who were employed and who contracted COVID-19 more than three months prior to the study. Low QoL was also related to headache that occurred less than one month after recovering from COVID-19 (compared to that which occurred longer than one month after); had a high frequency; had a combination sensation of pulsating, pressing, fiery, and stabbing pain; had a high severity score; and had additional symptoms accompanying the headache. In conclusion, headache related to COVID-19 is associated with low QoL among post-COVID-19 patients. A guideline on prevention measures of headache on COVID-19 patients, therefore, needs to be established to avoid long-term consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Headache/etiology , Logistic Models
20.
Embase; 26.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-346543

ABSTRACT

While significant attention has been paid to the immunologic determinants of disease states associated with COVID-191,2, their contributions to post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) remain less clear3-5. Due to the wide array of PASC presentations6, it is critical to understand if specific features of the disease are associated with discrete immune processes, and whether those processes may be therapeutically targeted. To this end, we performed wide immunologic and serological characterization of patients in the early recovery phase of COVID-19 across a breadth of symptomatic presentations. Using high-parameter proteomics screening and applied machine learning (ML), we identify clear signatures of immunologic activity between PASC patients and uncomplicated recovery, dominated by inflammatory cytokine signaling, neutrophil activity, and markers of cell death. Consistent with disease complexity, heterogeneity in plasma profiling reveals distinct PASC subsets with striking divergence in these ongoing inflammatory processes, here termed plasma quiescent (plaq) and inflammatory (infl) PASC. In addition to elevated inflammatory blood proteomics, inflPASC patients display positive clinical tests of acute inflammation including C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, increased B cell activity with extrafollicular involvement coupled with elevated targeting of viral nucleocapsid protein and clinical autoreactivity. Further, the unique plasma signatures of PASC patients allowed for the creation of refined models with high sensitivity and specificity for the positive identification of inflPASC with a streamlined assessment of 12 blood markers. Additionally, refined ML modeling highlights the unexpected significance of several markers of potential diagnostic or therapeutic use for PASC in general, including the peptide hormone, epiregulin. In all, this work identifies clear biological signatures of PASC with potential diagnostic and therapeutic potential and establishes clear disease subtypes that are both easily identifiable and highly relevant to ongoing efforts in both therapeutic targeting and epidemiological investigation of this highly complex disease. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.

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