Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 84
Filter
1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2312-2315, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162882

ABSTRACT

We report 5 clustered acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in long-term care facilities in Utah, USA, that were linked to healthcare employees working at multiple facilities. Four outbreaks were caused by norovirus genotype GIX. We recommend continued norovirus surveillance and genotyping to determine contributions of this genotype to norovirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections , Norovirus , Humans , Norovirus/genetics , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , Utah/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genotype
2.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 6689-6693, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141132

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has greatly affected the older people who live in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Older people and those with underlying chronic conditions in LTCFs have experienced disproportionately high morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 vaccines plus a booster shot provide strong protection against severe illness, hospitalizations, and deaths, but new COVID-19 variants, such as Omicron, have a remarkable ability to evade immunity from vaccines, past infection, or both. Prevention is key to reducing the spread of COVID-19 in LTCFs. This study aims to investigate a prevention approach for protecting residents and staff from COVID-19. This paper first presents a case study of massive coronavirus outbreaks at a big nursing home facility and demonstrates how the facility incorrectly responded to COVID-19. It further investigates prevention measures, such as improving vaccination, early detection, isolation and intervention to prevent the spread of COVID-19. It concludes by discussing the implications of the study and directions of future research.

3.
Epidemiologiya i Vaktsinoprofilaktika ; 21(5):138-146, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146378

ABSTRACT

Objective. Of particular interest is the incidence of COVID-19 in closed groups, in institutions, in particular, in nursing homes, geriatric centers, veterans' homes and neuropsychiatric boarding schools. Methods. Analysis and description of COVID-19 foci in closed long-term care facilities was carried out using literature sources from the MEDLINE medical information database using the PubMed electronic search engine, using the search query CARE HOME OR NURSING HOME OR LONG-TERM CARE FACILITY AND COVID-19 AND OUTBREAK. The share of sick people as a percentage of the total number of residents and individual employees was considered only in those publications that described the outbreak of COVID-19 in a single institution. The absence of data on the number of hospitalizations and deaths, symptoms, and data on the time frame of the outbreak was not an exclusion criterion, but their presence was taken into account in the analysis. We selected mainly publications where people with a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 RNA were considered to be ill with COVID-19. However, it is worth considering that the authors describe outbreaks during the first rise in the incidence of COVID-19 in the world, when there was a shortage of test systems for a new coronavirus infection. Results. An overview of the incidence of COVID-19 in the world in closed long-term care institutions is presented. It has been shown that residents of closed communities are elderly people with many concomitant diseases, in connection with which a severe course of COVID-19 and high mortality are often noted. Conclusion. Convictions about the need to strengthen the quality of anti-epidemic measures in closed long-term care institutions, which are at risk, are summarized. © Akimkin VG, et al.

4.
Journal of Nursing Care Quality ; 38(1):19-25, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2135761

ABSTRACT

Purpose:To identify leadership styles and staffing strategies in Missouri long-term care (LTC) facilities that stood out among their peers as “positive deviants” with regard to COVID-19 infections and staffing shortages.Methods:Statewide survey of all LTC facilities to identify exemplar facilities with stable staffing and low rates of COVID-19. Interviews with senior leaders were conducted in 10 facilities in the state to understand the strategies employed that led to these “positive outliers.” A result-based educational program was designed to describe their actions and staff reactions.Results:Exemplar leaders used transformational leadership style. Top reasons for their success were as follows: (1) trusting and supportive staff relationships;(2) positive presence and communication;and (3) use of consistent staffing assignments. Strong statewide participation was noted in the educational programs.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116116

ABSTRACT

Older people and health care workers in residential care homes are particularly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. As COVID-19 has been spreading around the world for more than two years, the nature of care delivery has been substantially transformed. This study aims at understanding the long-term and ongoing impacts of COVID-19 on the delivery of care in residential care homes. It investigates how the delivery of care has been transformed by the COVID-19 pandemic and how health care workers adapted to these changes from the perspectives of frontline health care workers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted from February to December 2021 with a purposive sample of 30 health care workers from six residential care homes in Hong Kong. Thematic analysis identified three themes, including (1) enhancing infection prevention and control measures; (2) maintaining the psychosocial wellbeing of residents; and (3) developing resilience. Discussions and implications were drawn from these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homes for the Aged , Humans , Aged , Nursing Homes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Personnel
6.
Euro Surveill ; 27(40)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114752

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCompliance with infection prevention and control (IPC) measures is critical to preventing COVID-19 transmission in healthcare settings.AimTo identify and explain factors influencing compliance with COVID-19-specific IPC measures among healthcare workers (HCWs) in long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Finland.MethodsThe study included a web-based survey and qualitative study based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). The link to the anonymous survey was distributed via email to LTCFs through regional IPC experts in December 2020. Outcome was modelled using ordinary logistic regression and penalised ridge logistic regression using regrouped explanatory variables and an original, more correlated set of explanatory variables, respectively. In-depth interviews were conducted among survey participants who volunteered during January-March 2021. Data were analysed thematically using qualitative data analysis software (NVIVO12).ResultsA total of 422 HCWs from 17/20 regions responded to the survey. Three TDF domains were identified that negatively influenced IPC compliance: environmental context and resources, reinforcement and beliefs about capabilities. Twenty HCWs participated in interviews, which resulted in identification of several themes: changes in professional duties and lack of staff planning for emergencies (domain: environmental context and resources); management culture and physical absence of management (domain: reinforcement), knowledge of applying IPC measures, nature of tasks and infrastructure that supports implementation (domain: beliefs about capabilities), that explained how the domains negatively influenced their IPC behaviour.ConclusionsThis study provides insights into behavioural domains that can be used in developing evidence-based behaviour change interventions to support HCW compliance with pandemic-specific IPC measures in LTCFs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Finland/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control
7.
J Aging Soc Policy ; : 1-15, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2120901

ABSTRACT

Long Term Care Facility (LTCF) residents are particularly vulnerable to infection and showed increased mortality during the COVID-19 epidemic. The pandemic presented multiple new challenges for LTCFs including considering and implementing new practices to protect residents and staff, and figuring out how to minimize the adverse effects of such practices. There are, however, very few reports addressing which public and private entities helped LTCFs meet these challenges. We examined the most important needs of Israeli LTCFs as the COVID-19 pandemic developed, the extent to which their needs were addressed, and by whom, using a survey specifically designed for this study, including open- and close-ended questions. Fifty-two LTCFs participated in the study. Shortages of nursing aids and personal protective equipment were often reported, as was the need for augmented budgetary support. Charitable organizations and the Israeli Army's Home Front Command were reported to provide significantly more assistance than the Israel Ministry of Health, the regulator of LTCFs. The most common type of support provided was distribution of personal protective equipment, followed by provision of training materials or training, and help in maintaining visiting policies. Findings highlight the need for a more coordinated, systematic and comprehensive approach to assist facilities.

8.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 835, 2022 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination varies widely across long-term care facilities (LTCFs) due to staff behaviors, LTCF practices, and patient factors. It is unclear how seasonal LTCF vaccination varies between cohabitating but distinct short-stay and long-stay residents. Thus, we assessed the correlation of LTCF vaccination between these populations and across seasons. METHODS: The study design is a national retrospective cohort using Medicare and Minimum Data Set (MDS) data. Participants include U.S. LTCFs. Short-stay and long-stay Medicare-enrolled residents age ≥ 65 in U.S. LTCFs from a source population of residents during October 1st-March 31st in 2013-2014 (3,042,881 residents; 15,683 LTCFs) and 2014-2015 (3,143,174, residents; 15,667 LTCFs). MDS-assessed influenza vaccination was the outcome. Pearson correlation coefficients were estimated to assess seasonal correlations between short-stay and long-stay resident vaccination within LTCFs. RESULTS: The median proportion of short-stay residents vaccinated across LTCFs was 70.4% (IQR, 50.0-82.7%) in 2013-2014 and 69.6% (IQR, 50.0-81.6%) in 2014-2015. The median proportion of long-stay residents vaccinated across LTCFs was 85.5% (IQR, 78.0-90.9%) in 2013-2014 and 84.6% (IQR, 76.6-90.3%) in 2014-2015. Within LTCFs, there was a moderate correlation between short-stay and long-stay vaccination in 2013-2014 (r = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.49-0.51) and 2014-2015 (r = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.51-0.54). Across seasons, there was a moderate correlation for LTCFs with short-stay residents (r = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.53-0.55) and a strong correlation for those with long-stay residents (r = 0.68, 95%CI: 0.67-0.69). CONCLUSIONS: In LTCFs with inconsistent influenza vaccination across seasons or between populations, targeted vaccination protocols for all residents, regardless of stay type, may improve successful vaccination in this vulnerable patient population.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Long-Term Care , Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Seasons , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Medicare , Vaccination
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082329

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exerted tremendous effects on the residents of and caregivers at long-term care facilities (LTCF). The combination of a vulnerable, aged population, staffing shortages, and inadequate resources in LTCF will cause a great negative impact in these sectors. Addressing the caregiver's lack of interest in providing care for patients with COVID-19 is a great challenge for institutional managers. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the factors related to the willingness of personnel at LTCF to provide care to patients with COVID-19. This was a cross-sectional study in which personnel from 10 LTCF were recruited as participants through convenience sampling and completed structured questionnaires. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed and 385 valid questionnaires were recovered, posting a response rate of 77%. A statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. The results of the survey revealed that only 30% of the participants were willing to provide care to patients with COVID-19; 23% more of the participants were willing to provide such care if their institutions provided sufficient PPE. Regarding other conditions, 31.5% and 76% of the participants expressed that they would be willing to provide such care if their compensation were increased and working hours were reduced. In the univariate analysis, the willingness of participants with different characteristics (job categories, years of holding a professional certificate, job location type, monthly income, experience with caring for patients with confirmed COVID-19, and completion of training related to communicable disease control) varied significantly (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in the logistic regression analysis, several demographic and professional characteristics (education level, job category, number of patients served daily, and monthly income) were significantly correlated with willingness to provide care to patients with COVID-19 (p < 0.05). On the basis of these findings, the LTCF should securitize the associated factors of care wiliness in personnel to eliminate the difference of the willingness to provide care to patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Health Facilities
10.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 203, 2022 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic with serious consequences for the residents. Some LTCFs performed better than others, experiencing lower case and death rates due to COVID-19. A comprehensive understanding of the factors that have affected the transmission of COVID-19 in LTCFs is lacking, as no published studies have applied a multidimensional conceptual framework to evaluate the performance of LTCFs during the pandemic. Much research has focused on infection prevention and control strategies or specific disease outcomes (e.g., death rates). To address these gaps, our scoping review will identify and analyze the performance factors that have influenced the management of COVID-19 in LTCFs by adopting a multidimensional conceptual framework. METHODS: We will query the CINAHL, MEDLINE (Ovid), CAIRN, Science Direct, and Web of Science databases for peer-reviewed articles written in English or French and published between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021. We will include articles that focus on the specified context (COVID-19), population (LTCFs), interest (facilitators and barriers to performance of LTCFs), and outcomes (dimensions of performance according to a modified version of the Ministère de la santé et des services sociaux du Québec conceptual framework). Each article will be screened by at least two co-authors independently followed by data extraction of the included articles by one co-author and a review by the principal investigator. RESULTS: We will present the results both narratively and with visual aids (e.g., flowcharts, tables, conceptual maps). DISCUSSION: Our scoping review will provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors that have affected the performance of LTCFs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This knowledge can help inform the development of more effective infection prevention and control measures for future pandemics and outbreaks. The results of our review may lead to improvements in the care and safety of LTCF residents and staff. SCOPING REVIEW REGISTRATION: Research Registry researchregistry7026.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Facilities , Humans , Long-Term Care/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Review Literature as Topic , Skilled Nursing Facilities
11.
Vaccine ; 40(43): 6218-6224, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031733

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Long term care facilities for elderly (LTCFs) in Europe encountered a high disease burden at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, these facilities were the first to receive COVID-19 vaccines in many European countries. A limited COVID-19 vaccine supply early 2021 resulted in a majority of residents and healthcare workers (HCWs) in LTCFs being vaccinated compared to a minority in the general population. This study exploits this imbalance to assess the efficiency of COVID-19 vaccination in containing outbreaks in LTCFs. METHODS: Exploratory statistics were performed using data from a COVID-19 surveillance system covering all 842 LTCFs in Flanders (the northern region of Belgium). The number and size of COVID-19 outbreaks in LTCFs were compared (1) before and after introducing vaccines and (2) with the status of the pandemic in the general population. Based on individual data from 15 LTCFs, the infection rate and symptoms of vaccinated and unvaccinated residents and HCWs were compared during a COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: 95.8% of the residents and 90.9% of the HCWs in Flemish LTCFs were vaccinated before May 30, 2021. Before vaccine introduction, residents in LTCFs were 10 times more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than the general population of Flanders. This ratio reversed after vaccination. Furthermore, after vaccination fewer and shorter outbreaks were observed involving fewer residents. During these outbreaks, vaccinated and unvaccinated residents were equally likely to test positive, but positive vaccinated residents were less likely to develop severe symptoms. In contrast, unvaccinated HCWs were more likely to test positive. CONCLUSION: In the first half of 2021, two-dose vaccination was highly efficient in preventing and containing outbreaks in LTCFs, reducing COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths. The high likelihood of unvaccinated HCWs to be involved in COVID-19 outbreaks in vaccinated LTCFs emphasizes the importance of vaccinating HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Aged , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Long-Term Care , Pandemics , Vaccination
12.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017922

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Targeted social distancing measures were widely implemented for nursing home residents when the extremely high COVID-19 mortality in this setting became apparent. Still, there is still scarce rigorous research examining how the pandemic and accompanying social distancing measures impacted loneliness in this group. This prospective nation-wide Swedish study of nursing home residents aimed to examine the impact on loneliness of the early phase of the pandemic and of a national visiting ban at nursing homes. METHODS: A panel was selected from a total population survey of all nursing home residents in Sweden March-May 2019 and 2020 (N=11,782; age range 70-110 years; mean age 88.2 years; 71% women). Prospective pretest-posttest and controlled interrupted time series designs were employed, with time trends estimated by date of returned questionnaire. Generalized linear models were used for estimation of effects, adjusting for demographic, survey-, and health-related covariates. RESULTS: Loneliness prevalence increased from 17 to 19% from 2019 to 2020 (Risk Ratio, RR (95% confidence interval, CI)=1.104 (1.060; 1.150)), but which was explained by self-reported health (RR(95%CI)=1.023 (0.982; 1.066)). No additional impact of the visiting ban on loneliness trends was found in the interrupted time series analyses (RR(95%CI)=0.984 (0.961; 1.008)). DISCUSSION: The moderate but health-dependent increased risk of loneliness, and the lack of impact of the nation-wide visiting ban at nursing homes, suggest that this ostensibly vulnerable group of nursing home residents also show signs of resilience, at least during the early phase of the pandemic.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017799

ABSTRACT

During July-August 2021, a COVID-19 outbreak involving 21 residents (all fully vaccinated) and 10 staff (9 fully vaccinated) occurred in a Connecticut nursing home. The outbreak was likely initiated by a fully vaccinated staff member and propagated by fully vaccinated persons. Prior COVID-19 was protective among vaccinated residents.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017774

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition among health care workers (HCWs) of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). METHODS: This prospective study, in the framework of "Senior Shield" program in Israel, included routine, weekly nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing from all LTCF HCWs since July 2020. All residents and 75% of HCWs were immunized between December 2020 and January 2021. The analysis was limited to HCWs adhering to routine testing. Fully vaccinated (14+ days after second dose; n=6960) and unvaccinated HCWs (n=2202) were simultaneously followed until SARS-CoV-2 acquisition, or end of follow-up, April 11, 2021. Hazard ratios (HRs) for vaccination vs. no vaccination were calculated (Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for socio-demographics and residential-area COVID-19 incidence). VE was calculated as [(1- HR)×100]. RT-PCR cycle threshold values (Cts) were compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated HCWs. RESULTS: At >14 days post second dose, 40 vaccinated HCWs acquired SARS-CoV-2 (median follow-up, 66 days; cumulative incidence 0.6%) vs. 84 unvaccinated HCWs (median follow-up 43 days; cumulative incidence, 5.1%); HR=0.11 (95% CI 0.07, 0.17), unadjusted VE=89% (95% CI 83%, 93%). Adjusted VE beyond seven days and >14 days post second dose were similar. The median PCR Cts targeting ORF1ab gene among 20 vaccinated and 40 unvaccinated HCWs was 32.0 vs. 26.7, respectively, p=0.008. CONCLUSIONS: VE following two doses of BNT162b2 against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition in LTCF HCWs was high. The lower viral loads among SARS-CoV-2 positive HCWs suggests further reduction in transmission.

15.
Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics ; 70(2):134-143, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1912711

ABSTRACT

Background. Since the start COVID-19 epidemic, 9154 deaths have been registered in Italian Long-Term Care Facilities (LTCF). Half of them were COVID 19-related. Objective. In this review we analyzed the management of COVID-19 outbreak in Italian LTCF, in the most affected regions. Results. In the Italian Institute of Health (ISS) report, 1356 LTCF (41.3%) answered to questionnaires on COVID-19 infection in LTCF. Only 7.4% of deaths was related to Coronavirus (confirmed by swab), while 33,8% of deceased presented flu-like symptoms without confirmation by swab. 77.2% of structures reported the lack of Personal Protective Equipment. The autonomous management policies of the regions cannot be negligible in this assessment, above all Lombardia Region that diverted patients from hospital to extra-structures, like LTCF. Conclusions. The elderlies represent high-risk patients for developing COVID-19 with rapid clinical deterioration. Containment measures should be particularly optimized, especially in anticipation of another possible pandemic recurrence. Surely a comparison among different systems could help to achieve more information in the standardization of procedures. Identifying flaws in this system is necessary to perfect and optimize epidemic management as much as possible. © by Società Italiana.

16.
Mobile Networks and Applications ; 27(2):822-835, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1899245

ABSTRACT

Given the complexity and uncertainty of the current COVID-19 risks, the elderly people in long-term care facilities are at the highest risk for infection. In order to study the prevention and control strategies of COVID-19 risks in long-term care facilities, this paper uses the prospect theory to construct the decision-making model of COVID-19 risk behavior of long-term care facilities, analyses the risk behavior strategies of the caregivers and managers, and reveals the impact of risk management cost, risk loss and external supervision on the risk behavior decision-making of the caregivers and managers. Furthermore, from the perspective of long-term care facilities, this paper analyzes the constraints that enable it to achieve optimal risk management strategy. Combined with the simulation analysis, it is found that the decision of risk behavior of the caregivers and managers is positively related to the risk behavior choice, risk loss, and supervision. Then, only when the incentives set by the supervision are within a reasonable range can the caregivers and managers be motivated to take proactive risk management strategies. The study has important theoretical and practical significance for the management of COVID-19 risks in long-term care facilities.

17.
Gerontological social work and COVID-19: Calls for change in education, practice, and policy from international voices ; : 211-213, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1887948

ABSTRACT

This reprinted chapter originally appeared in Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 2020, 63[6-7], 520-528. (The following of the original article appeared in record 2020-51139-001.) The COVID-19 pandemic challenges us to think outside of the box to respond to this unprecedented global crisis. In this letter, we propose a pilot study to use a socially assistive robot to help meet social needs for older adults with cognitive impairment residing in long-term care facilities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

18.
Health Technol (Berl) ; 12(2): 583-596, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885500

ABSTRACT

As telecommunications technology progresses, telehealth frameworks are becoming more widely adopted in the context of long-term care (LTC) for older adults, both in care facilities and in homes. Today, robots could assist healthcare workers when they provide care to elderly patients, who constitute a particularly vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous work on user-centered design of assistive technologies in LTC facilities for seniors has identified positive impacts. The need to deal with the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic emphasizes the benefits of this approach, but also highlights some new challenges for which robots could be interesting solutions to be deployed in LTC facilities. This requires customization of telecommunication and audio/video/data processing to address specific clinical requirements and needs. This paper presents OpenTera, an open source telehealth framework, aiming to facilitate prototyping of such solutions by software and robotic designers. Designed as a microservice-oriented platform, OpenTera is an end-to-end solution that employs a series of independent modules for tasks such as data and session management, telehealth, daily assistive tasks/actions, together with smart devices and environments, all connected through the framework. After explaining the framework, we illustrate how OpenTera can be used to implement robotic solutions for different applications identified in LTC facilities and homes, and we describe how we plan to validate them through field trials.

19.
HERD ; 15(4): 287-298, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883475

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to review available literature for evidence-based impact of the built environment upon the prevention and management of COVID-19 with a view to emphasizing lessons learned for future infection control of pandemics. BACKGROUND: This is urgently needed given the devastation brought upon long-term care residents worldwide. Long-term care (LTC) facilities face a battle to protect their residents. Previous studies of infection control design issues have focused generally on Fomites: that is, contaminated objects and surfaces. As COVID-19 has been shown to be largely spread through the air, this article will broaden the focus to include engineering controls that effect this type of transmission. METHOD: A literature search was conducted using key words such as long-term care facilities, built environment, COVID-19, infection control, and nursing homes. RESULTS: Results were sorted using an engineering controls pyramid developed by the author to stratify approaches to LTC infrastructure. Basically, six elements were supported: ventilation, spatial separation, physical barriers, hand hygiene stations, resident room zones, and private rooms. IMPLICATIONS: Conclusions were that the built environment has a major impact on infection control that can be deleterious or beneficial. Substantial changes need to be made to protect the very vulnerable LTC population from future pandemics and infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Built Environment , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Long-Term Care , Pandemics/prevention & control
20.
J Infect Dis ; 226(11): 1877-1881, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883018

ABSTRACT

General population studies have shown strong humoral response following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination with subsequent waning of anti-spike antibody levels. Vaccine-induced immune responses are often attenuated in frail and older populations, but published data are scarce. We measured SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibody levels in long-term care facility residents and staff following a second vaccination dose with Oxford-AstraZeneca or Pfizer-BioNTech. Vaccination elicited robust antibody responses in older residents, suggesting comparable levels of vaccine-induced immunity to that in the general population. Antibody levels are higher after Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination but fall more rapidly compared to Oxford-AstraZeneca recipients and are enhanced by prior infection in both groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , Long-Term Care , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , England
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL