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1.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many U.S. youth experienced accelerated weight gain during the early COVID-19 pandemic. Using an ambulatory electronic health record dataset, we compared children's rates of BMI change in three periods: prepandemic (January 2018-February 2020), early pandemic (March-December 2020), and later pandemic (January-November 2021). METHODS: We used mixed-effects models to examine differences in rates of change in BMI, weight, and obesity prevalence among the three periods. Covariates included time as a continuous variable; a variable indicating in which period each BMI was taken; sex; age; and initial BMI category. RESULTS: In a longitudinal cohort of 241,600 children aged 2-19 years with ≥4 BMIs, the monthly rates of BMI change (kg/m2 ) were 0.056 (95%CI: 0.056, 0.057) prepandemic, 0.104 (95%CI: 0.102, 0.106) in the early pandemic, and 0.035 (95%CI: 0.033, 0.036) in the later pandemic. The estimated prevalence of obesity in this cohort was 22.5% by November 2021. CONCLUSIONS: In this large geographically-diverse cohort of U.S. youth, accelerated rates of BMI change observed during 2020 were largely attenuated in 2021. Positive rates indicate continued weight gain rather than loss, albeit at a slower rate. Childhood obesity prevalence remained high, which raises concern about long-term consequences of excess weight and underscores the importance of healthy lifestyle interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(8): e36798, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a chronic, complex, heterogeneous disease that affects millions and lacks both diagnostics and treatments. Big data, or the collection of vast quantities of data that can be mined for information, have transformed the understanding of many complex illnesses, such as cancer and multiple sclerosis, by dissecting heterogeneity, identifying subtypes, and enabling the development of personalized treatments. It is possible that big data can reveal the same for ME/CFS. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the protocol for the You + ME Registry, present preliminary results related to participant enrollment and satisfaction, and discuss the limitations of the registry as well as next steps. METHODS: We developed and launched the You + ME Registry to collect longitudinal health data from people with ME/CFS, people with long COVID (LC), and control volunteers using rigorous protocols designed to harmonize with other groups collecting data from similar groups of people. RESULTS: As of September 30, 2021, the You + ME Registry had over 4200 geographically diverse participants (3033/4339, 69.9%, people with ME/CFS; 833/4339, 19.2%, post-COVID-19 people; and 473/4339, 10.9%, control volunteers), with an average of 72 new people registered every week. It has qualified as "great" using a net promotor score, indicating registrants are likely to recommend the registry to a friend. Analyses of collected data are currently underway, and preliminary findings are expected in the near future. CONCLUSIONS: The You + ME Registry is an invaluable resource because it integrates with a symptom-tracking app, as well as a biorepository, to provide a robust and rich data set that is available to qualified researchers. Accordingly, it facilitates collaboration that may ultimately uncover causes and help accelerate the development of therapies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04806620; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04806620. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/36798.

3.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):4941, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837412

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes in relation to changes in frequency and amount of alcohol consumption. This study investigated associations between changes in alcohol consumption and the risk of both conditions. This study included 96,129 individuals without hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus aged ≥ 20 years between 2006 and 2008, with follow-up until 31 December 2015. This study identified 29,043 and 18,784 incident cases of hypertension and type 2 diabetes, respectively, during an average follow-up period of 6.2 ± 2.6 and 6.9 ± 1.9 years. This study measured changes in frequency and amount of alcohol consumption using standardized self-administered questionnaires over approximately 2 years. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for the respective risks of the two conditions. Repeated occasional or frequent binge drinking was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (HR: 1.16 or 1.32;95% CI: 1.11, 1.21 or 1.16, 1.51) and type 2 diabetes (HR: 1.14 or 1.36;95% CI: 1.09, 1.20 or 1.17, 1.58) compared with continuous nondrinking. Reductions as well as increases in frequency of alcohol consumption among binge drinkers were associated with higher hypertension (HR: 1.29 or 1.30;95% CI: 1.11, 1.49 or 1.13, 1.49) and type 2 diabetes (HR: 1.26 or 1.56;95% CI: 1.06, 1.49 or 1.34, 1.81) risk. This study demonstrated that repeated binge drinking, even with a reduction of weekly alcohol consumption frequency, was associated with a higher risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac027, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While several demographic and clinical correlates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcome have been identified, their relationship to virological and immunological parameters remains poorly defined. METHODS: To address this, we performed longitudinal collection of nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples from a cohort of 58 hospitalized adults with COVID-19. Samples were assessed for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load, viral genotype, viral diversity, and antibody titer. Demographic and clinical information, including patient blood tests and several composite measures of disease severity, was extracted from electronic health records. RESULTS: Several factors, including male sex, higher age, higher body mass index, higher 4C Mortality score, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels, were associated with intensive care unit admission. Of all measured parameters, only the retrospectively calculated median Deterioration Index score was significantly associated with death. While quantitative polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold (Ct) values and genotype of SARS-CoV-2 were not significantly associated with outcome, Ct value did correlate positively with C-reactive protein levels and negatively with D-dimer, lymphocyte count, and antibody titer. Intrahost viral genetic diversity remained constant through the disease course and resulted in changes in viral genotype in some participants. CONCLUSIONS: Ultimately, these results suggest that worse outcomes are driven by immune dysfunction rather than by viral load and that SARS-CoV-2 evolution in hospital settings is relatively constant over time.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High vaccine uptake requires strong public support, acceptance, and willingness. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study gathered survey data every four weeks between 1 October 2020 and 9 November 2021 in Victoria, Australia. Data were analysed for 686 participants aged 18 years and older. RESULTS: Vaccine intention in our cohort increased from 60% in October 2020 to 99% in November 2021. Vaccine intention increased in all demographics, but longitudinal trends in vaccine intention differed by age, employment as a healthcare worker, presence of children in the household, and highest qualification attained. Acceptance of vaccine mandates increased from 50% in October 2020 to 71% in November 2021. Acceptance of vaccine mandates increased in all age groups except 18-25 years; acceptance also varied by gender and highest qualification attained. The main reasons for not intending to be vaccinated included safety concerns, including blood clots, and vaccine efficacy. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination campaigns should be informed by understanding of the sociodemographic drivers of vaccine acceptance to enable socially and culturally relevant guidance and ensure equitable vaccine coverage. Vaccination policies should be applied judiciously to avoid polarisation.

6.
Alzheimers Dement ; 18(5): 1038-1046, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555440

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 causes lasting neurological symptoms in some survivors. Like other infections, COVID-19 may increase risk of cognitive impairment. This perspective highlights four knowledge gaps about COVID-19 that need to be filled to avoid this possible health issue. The first is the need to identify the COVID-19 symptoms, genetic polymorphisms and treatment decisions associated with risk of cognitive impairment. The second is the absence of model systems in which to test hypotheses relating infection to cognition. The third is the need for consortia for studying both existing and new longitudinal cohorts in which to monitor long term consequences of COVID-19 infection. A final knowledge gap discussed is the impact of the isolation and lack of social services brought about by quarantine/lockdowns on people living with dementia and their caregivers. Research into these areas may lead to interventions that reduce the overall risk of cognitive decline for COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Caregivers/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1418, 2021 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the continuation of the first wave of the Covid-19 outbreak in Denmark, unprecedented restrictions with great impact on the citizen's everyday life were implemented. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of the Covid-19 pandemic on mental and physical health in the Danish population during the spring 2020 first wave outbreak and lockdown. METHODS: A sample from the adult Danish population (n = 2190) were included. Self-reported measures of illness worry (Whiteley-6-R), emotional distress (SCL-90), and physical symptom load (SLC-90) were obtained before and during the first wave of the pandemic and compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Impact of covariates on physical and mental health was evaluated with ordinal regression analyses. Results from a tailored questionnaire regarding the Covid-19 pandemic were presented to explore the direct impact of the pandemic. RESULTS: We only found minor increases in illness worry, emotional distress and physical symptom load (0-1 points difference, p ≤ 0.007) during the Covid-19 pandemic compared to before the pandemic. Sex, age, education, and physical disease were not associated with illness worry, emotional distress, or physical symptom load. Overall, the participants were trustful in the authorities' recommendations and felt that they managed the pandemic and the restrictions to a great extent despite that some expected great/major future consequences of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic only had minor impact on mental and physical health in the Danish general population. Future studies should address the impact of the second wave of the pandemic and the renewed implementation of the concomitant restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 58(6): 646-649, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 serological testing has seen extensive academic and clinical use from investigating correlates of immunity to seroprevalence, convalescent plasma and vaccine trials. Interpretation of these studies will depend on robust validation of the longitudinal sensitivities of these assays, especially in the context of mild disease which makes up the majority of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caseload. METHODS: Hospital staff (n = 94) returning to work following polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 were offered antibody testing to assist with laboratory verification. Initial specimens were collected at median 29 days post-symptom onset and run on the Roche, Abbott, Siemens and DiaSorin platforms. Re-sampling occurred at median 142 days from a subset of the initial cohort (n = 62) that had volunteered to provide further serum samples to assist in longitudinal sensitivity analysis. Samples that were not run across all four platforms were excluded from analysis. RESULTS: Comparative sensitivity analysis was conducted on 89/94 of the initial specimens and 55/62 of the repeat specimens. Sensitivity at initial sampling ranged from 78 to 87% across platforms. At re-sampling, sensitivities were: 100% (Roche), 45% (Abbott), 100% (Siemens), and 80% (DiaSorin). Paired analysis using the longitudinal cohort (n = 55) demonstrated stable or increasing median assay values on three platforms, with a clear reduction seen only on the Abbott platform (4.78 to 1.34) with corresponding sensitivity drop-off (81.8% to 45.4%). CONCLUSION: The Abbott assay demonstrated sensitivity drop-off and decrease in median assay signal below detection threshold at four to five months. This has implications on the interpretation and design of future studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Personnel, Hospital , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Hospitals, Convalescent , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(6): 917-929.e4, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213083

ABSTRACT

Understanding antibody-based SARS-CoV-2 immunity is critical for overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic and informing vaccination strategies. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 antibody dynamics over 10 months in 963 individuals who predominantly experienced mild COVID-19. Investigating 2,146 samples, we initially detected SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 94.4% of individuals, with 82% and 79% exhibiting serum and IgG neutralization, respectively. Approximately 3% of individuals demonstrated exceptional SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, with these "elite neutralizers" also possessing SARS-CoV-1 cross-neutralizing IgG. Multivariate statistical modeling revealed age, symptomatic infection, disease severity, and gender as key factors predicting SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activity. A loss of reactivity to the virus spike protein was observed in 13% of individuals 10 months after infection. Neutralizing activity had half-lives of 14.7 weeks in serum versus 31.4 weeks in purified IgG, indicating a rather long-term IgG antibody response. Our results demonstrate a broad spectrum in the initial SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody response, with sustained antibodies in most individuals for 10 months after mild COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
10.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 62-71, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the COVID-19 spring 2020 pandemic peak in Spain, prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of 578 randomly selected health care workers (HCWs) from Hospital Clínic de Barcelona was 11.2%. METHODS: A follow-up survey 1 month later (April-May 2020) measured infection by rRT-PCR and IgM, IgA, and IgG to the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein by Luminex. Antibody kinetics, including IgG subclasses, was assessed until month 3. RESULTS: At month 1, the prevalence of infection measured by rRT-PCR and serology was 14.9% (84/565) and seroprevalence 14.5% (82/565). We found 25 (5%) new infections in 501 participants without previous evidence of infection. IgM, IgG, and IgA levels declined in 3 months (antibody decay rates 0.15 [95% CI, .11-.19], 0.66 [95% CI, .54-.82], and 0.12 [95% CI, .09-.16], respectively), and 68.33% of HCWs had seroreverted for IgM, 3.08% for IgG, and 24.29% for IgA. The most frequent subclass responses were IgG1 (highest levels) and IgG2, followed by IgG3, and only IgA1 but no IgA2 was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous and improved surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in HCWs remains critical, particularly in high-risk groups. The observed fast decay of IgA and IgM levels has implications for seroprevalence studies using these isotypes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
11.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1780832, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the current COVID-19 pandemic, the people in Europe are exposed to self-isolation, quarantine, job loss, risk of contracting COVID-19, or grief of loved ones. Such a complex array of stressors may lead to symptoms of adjustment disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder. This research protocol describes a study launched by the European Society of Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on symptoms of adjustment disorder across European countries. OBJECTIVE: The longitudinal online cohort study aims (1) to explore psychosocial reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic across ten European countries; (2) to examine the relationships between risk and resilience factors, stressors and symptoms of adjustment disorder during the pandemic; and (3) to investigate whether these relationships are moderated by coping behaviours. METHOD: In ten countries (Austria, Croatia, Georgia, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Sweden), between 1,000 and 2,000 participants will be recruited, depending on the size of the country. Participants will be assessed at two timepoints with a six-month interval. Following a conceptual framework based on the WHO's social framework of health, an assessment of risk and resilience factors, COVID-19 related stressors and pandemic-specific coping behaviours will be measured to estimate their contribution to symptoms of adjustment disorder. The Adjustment Disorder New Module 8 (ADNM-8) will be used to assess symptoms of adjustment disorder. As a secondary measure, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder will be measure using the Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5 (PC-PTSD-5). DATA ANALYSIS: The relative contribution of risk factors, resilience factors, and stressors on symptoms of adjustment disorder or symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder will be estimated using multilevel analysis. To determine the moderating effects of different types of coping behaviours on these relationships, a multilevel mediation analysis will be carried out.


Antecedentes: Durante la actual pandemia de COVID-19, las personas en Europa están expuestas a autoaislamiento, cuarentena, pérdida de empleo, riesgo de contraer COVID-19 o duelo de sus seres queridos. Un conjunto tan complejo de factores estresantes puede provocar síntomas de trastorno de adaptación o trastorno de estrés postraumático. Este protocolo de investigación describe un estudio lanzado por la Sociedad Europea de Estudios de Estrés Traumático (ESTSS) para investigar el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 en los síntomas del trastorno de adaptación en países europeos.Objetivo: El estudio longitudinal de cohorte en línea tiene como objetivo (1) explorar las reacciones psicosociales a la pandemia de COVID-19 en diez países europeos; (2) examinar las relaciones entre los factores de riesgo y resiliencia, estresores y síntomas de trastorno de adaptación durante la pandemia; e (3) investigar si estas relaciones son moderadas por comportamientos de afrontamiento.Método: En diez países (Austria, Croacia, Georgia, Alemania, Italia, Lituania, Países Bajos, Polonia, Portugal y Suecia) serán reclutados entre 1,000 y 2,000 participantes, dependiendo del tamaño del país. Los participantes serán evaluados en dos momentos con un intervalo de seis meses. Siguiendo un marco conceptual basado en el marco social de salud de la OMS, una evaluación de los factores de riesgo y resiliencia, factores estresantes relacionados con COVID-19 y el comportamiento de afrontamiento específico de la pandemia serán medidos para estimar su contribución a los síntomas de trastorno de adaptación. El nuevo módulo de trastorno de adaptación 8 (ADNM-8) se utilizará para medir los síntomas del trastorno de adaptación. Como medida secundaria, se evaluarán síntomas de trastorno de estrés postraumático usando el cribaje de TEPT en atención primaria para DSM-5 (PC-PTSD-5).Análisis de datos: La contribución relativa de los factores de riesgo, factores de resiliencia y los estresores sobre los síntomas de trastorno de adaptación o síntomas de trastorno de estrés postraumático se estimará mediante análisis multinivel. Para determinar los efectos moderadores de diferentes tipos de conductas de afrontamiento en estas relaciones, se llevará a cabo un análisis de mediación multinivel.

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