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1.
WIDER Working Papers 2021. (94):34 pp. 44 ref. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965131

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the state of emergency implemented by the Government of Mozambique on household consumption poverty. To predict changes in income and the associated effects on poverty and inequality, we rely on macroeconomic impacts estimated by Betho et al. (2021) using a social accounting multiplier model. We assume two main impact channels are at work leading to higher consumption poverty: direct income/wage and employment losses. To estimate the direct income/wage losses, we use the information from Betho et al. (2021) on the impact on wages, on gross domestic product by industry, and on household income;to estimate the employment losses, we use the information on the impact on employment from Betho et al. (2021). The two impact channels are then combined to assess the final impact on consumption and poverty. Our simulations suggest that consumption decreased by between 7.1 and 14.4 per cent, and that poverty increased by between 4.3 and 9.9 percentage points in 2020, depending on the specification. This corresponds to about 2 million people entering poverty in less than a year and to a reversal of the positive poverty reduction trend observed during the period 2008/09-2014/15. While the COVID-19 shock affected urban areas the most, our results indicate that rural areas experienced a higher increase in poverty rates due to the already low levels of consumption. Poverty most certainly increased in the pre-COVID 2015-20 period due to other shocks, so Mozambique finds itself in an intense and deepening struggle against poverty.

2.
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes ; 14(4):365-373, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1961358

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to consider the ways in which transportation could be more sustainable in North Cyprus, which is mostly dependent on tourism and higher education as a small island destination. Second, to investigate current issues in the transportation sector related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: This study employed a qualitative approach, and a descriptive analysis technique was used to analyse semi-structured interviews, conducted by telephone and face-to-face. To investigate current problems in the North Cyprus transportation sector - one of the most affected by the pandemic - travel agencies were chosen as the study's population and research participants were selected purposively. Findings: The findings indicate that the unpredictability of domestic policies combined with the structural challenges confronting North Cyprus contribute to unsustainable current transportation policies. North Cyprus transport and tourism both suffered significant losses during the pandemic but travel agencies were disproportionately impacted. Our study results showed that exorbitant ticket prices, taxes and transportation costs have emerged as the most significant issues in the transportation sector. Research limitations/implications: More efficient and accurate policies that meet the needs of the sector and give opportunity for development are required. This is a critical issue for policymakers to address, as they also represent a significant barrier to the sector's long-term competitiveness. Originality/value: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to look at North Cyprus' transportation problems from the perspective of travel agencies and the impact of the pandemic. It is thought that this study will contribute to the development of solutions for transportation problems and sustainable practices in small island developing states.

3.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development ; 18(2):412-418, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955543

ABSTRACT

The present study assessed the multi-dimensional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dairy farmers based on primary data collected from 200 farmers of Kozhikode district, Kerala. A drop in milk prices and dry fodder shortage emerged as the major problem during the pandemic. The dairy farmers suffered an average loss of 7175 per milch animal. Farmers were selling milk directly to the consumer households, and those with larger herd sizes incurred comparatively higher losses. Search for new consumers, conversion of surplus milk to ghee and preparation of feed mix at home were the main coping strategies adopted by the farmers. © 2022 The Society of Economics and Development, except certain content provided by third parties.

4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 859751, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952796

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemic of COVID-19 has been shaping economic developments of the world. From the standpoint of government measures to prevent and control the epidemic, the lockdown was widely used. It is essential to access the economic losses in a lockdown environment which will provide government administration with a necessary reference for decision making in controlling the epidemic. Methods: We introduce the concept of "standard unit incident" and an economic losses assessment methodology for both the standard and the assessed area. We build a "standard unit lockdown" economic losses assessment system and indicators to estimate the economic losses for the monthly lockdown. Using the comprehensive assessment system, the loss infected coefficient of monthly economic losses during lockdown in the 40 countries has been calculated to assess the economic losses by the entropy weighting method (EWM) with data from the CSMAR database and CDC website. Results: We observe that countries in North America suffered the most significant economic losses due to the epidemic, followed by South America and Europe, Asia and Africa, and Oceania and Antarctica suffered relatively minor economic losses. The top 10 countries for monthly economic losses during lockdown were the United States, India, Brazil, France, Turkey, Russia, the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, and Germany. The United States suffered the greatest monthly economic losses under lockdown ($65.3 billion), roughly 1.5 times that of China, while Germany suffered the least ($56.4 billion), roughly 1.3 times that of China. Conclusion: Lockdown as a control and mitigation strategy has great impact on the economic development and causes huge economic losses. The economic impact due to the pandemic has varied widely among the 40 countries. It will be important to conduct further studies to compare and understand the differences and the reasons behind.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Pandemics , United States
5.
6th International Conference on Transportation Information and Safety, ICTIS 2021 ; : 669-673, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948787

ABSTRACT

The high demand for Covid-19 vaccines due to the pandemic increases the need for vaccine transportation and storage worldwide, and a cold chain is often required for many vaccines. The existing cold chains are confronting some obstacles today but are facing many great opportunities at the same time with the emerging new technologies. This paper aims to address the trend of modern cold chain management of vaccine logistics through a literature review on the topic of Covid-19 vaccine transportation and storage. Empirical studies are needed in future research. The transportation and storage of the Covid-19 vaccines are important for the overall vaccine administrations and can save large amounts of money and lives when improved. Failures of the cold chain can lead to great economic loss and damage of the vaccine potency;therefore, it is essential to study the characteristics of the current cold chain and how related innovations influence its development. © 2021 IEEE.

6.
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management ; 148(9), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1947745

ABSTRACT

Construction project delays are costly to stakeholders. Therefore, extensive research has been carried out in various countries covering different types of construction projects to identify delay factors and mitigation strategies. However, the literature has not documented the impact of a once-in-a-century event such as the COVID-19 pandemic on construction projects' schedules and costs. The present study uses a case study approach to examine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on three lift irrigation projects' construction programs and the financial implications for the contractor in the Indian construction industry. The findings reveal that the main factors responsible for delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic were fear of an outbreak, imposition of a nationwide lockdown, late return of workers, resource shortages, and changes in operating procedures. Furthermore, the study found that the contract conditions and government directives allowed for time extensions in construction projects by recognizing the pandemic as a force majeure. However, such provisions did not protect contractors' financial interests. This study evaluates the financial implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for the contractor in terms of worker compensation during the lockdown, idling of resources, overhead costs, cost escalation, and liquidity. © 2022 American Society of Civil Engineers. Practical Applications The public health crisis from the COVID-19 pandemic led to a series of preventive measures from the government and organizations worldwide that caused severe disruptions in construction projects and disturbed the construction supply chain. This study recommends rethinking the scope and coverage of force majeure and excusable delay clauses in standard construction contracts beyond provisions for an extension of time to protect the financial interests of different stakeholders. The vagueness in assessing and compensating for the losses from unprecedented events such as the COVID-19 pandemic could expose construction organizations to significant financial risks and threaten their existence in a highly competitive industry. Therefore, construction organizations should carefully review the contract provisions of future projects for proper risk allocations to accommodate unprecedented events and pandemics to help them recover successfully from various disruptions and associated financial losses. Moreover, proper communication and negotiation, a supportive and collaborative project culture, and early government interventions are crucial in dealing with such events and avoiding disputes among project stakeholders. © 2022 American Society of Civil Engineers.

7.
Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology ; 43(10):5-16, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929196

ABSTRACT

The current study is the reviews of the work done for pest infestation in different legume pulse grains Pulse grains have been found to have different susceptibility for the attack of pulse beetle. An insect has varied fecundity on different varieties of pulses. India is agriculture based country and agriculture is the key sector of Indian economy. Including many kharif and rabbi crops, pulses are cultivated in all parts of country. Pulse cultivation has its own significant place in agriculture as it has been considered as complimentary to cereal crop in many aspects and positioned as a second most important crop plant [1]. Study indicates 20-40% of dry matter of pulse grains is made up of beneficial dietary proteins [2]. Insufficiency of adequate amount of protein in diet may lead to protein energy malnutrition. Like poverty and hunger, to combat PEM is another great provocation for agriculture and nation. Pulse grains legumes are good source of protein and other nutrient materials. Crop plant of Arhar has its own advantage for agriculture. The leguminous plants are used in crop rotation to improve the fertility of soil as the root nodules harbor the nitrogen fixing bacteria;fixes atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogen compound about 72-350 kg/hectare/year . The current study emphasizes the different facts of pulse beetle and their infestation in arhar seed grains. About eight months of the year have been found to be susceptible for infestation;remarkable growth and development of pests continue during six months of the year. Arhar pulse grains are most suitable for pest infestation. Bold variety of arhar was identified to be the most preferred for maximum oviposition having larger and smooth surface area. Temperature suitable for oviposition was noticed between 28-370c. Developmental period was found to be of lesser duration and survival of adults was more in bold varieties as compared to the smaller variety. Developmental period was recorded as 24-30.3 days in bold legume grains and 26-32.3 days in smaller size grains. Survival of male and female insect pest was also different as male survived for 7-10.6 days and females for 8.3-12.6 days. Increased growth rate of insect population was there with the increase in temperature and humidity. Significant Weight loss, content loss and percent germination loss have been found in the pulse grains of both varieties in the current studies. Indian economy relies significantly on agriculture and loss and damage of complementary crop plant certainly affect it. At this point there is need to consider the condition of Mass poverty of India after pandemic covid -19 which has been ascertained after more than 45 years The outcome of pandemic recession is more than 2 fold increase in the number of poor from 60 million in a year to 134 million (Reports of downtoearth.org.in). Furthermore any rise in price would snatch the accessibility of the easily available protein diet from people living in indigence.

8.
ITTO Tropical Forest Update ; 29(1):30-31, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929149

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the impact of COVID-19 on the tropical timber sector. An ITTO survey of stakeholders shows that the measures are having devastating impacts on the tropical timber sector. Correspondents in Brazil, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Viet Nam were asked in April to use their networks to seek answers to questions on the impacts of the pandemic. Highlights of the responses are: (1) unemployment;(2) economic decline;(3) low output production in the forestry and timber sector;and (4) financial losses in timber sector.

9.
Contabilidad y Negocios ; 17(33):57-76, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1924827

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the incidence in our country of the recommendations provided by the OECD in its Guide on the implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic on transfer pricing Guidance on the transfer pricing implications of the COVID-19 pandemic published on December 18, 2020 and which represents the consensus perspective of the more than 137 members of the BEPS Inclusive Framework, among which is Peru, regarding the application of the arm's length principle for problems generated or exacerbated by the pandemic. In particular, the problem of comparability analysis is evaluated in a scenario of lack of comparable transactions and companies in the 2020 and subsequent years affected by the pandemic. Likewise, the issue of losses is addressed from two perspectives, those as a comparable result and the generation of losses in business models with limited risk. It is concluded that several of the measures recommended by the Inclusive Framework can be materialized through the flexibility and openness of the Tax Administration in audits;however, allowing the modification of the transfer pricing analysis reflected in the Local Report based on information of comparable companies obtained later requires the issuance of a legal norm that does not condition the rectifying return to the verification of SUNAT and temporarily avoid the application of infractions and sanctions for the declaration of false data. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] En el presente trabajo, se analiza la incidencia en Perú de las recomendaciones brindadas por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) en su Guía sobre las implicancias de la pandemia del COVID-19 en los precios de transferencia (Guidance on the transfer pricing implications of the COVID-19 pandemic), publicada el 18 de diciembre de 2020. Este documento representa la perspectiva en consenso de los más de 137 miembros del Marco Inclusivo de BEPS, entre los que se encuentra Perú. La investigación se centra en la aplicación del principio de libre concurrencia para problemas generados o exacerbados por la pandemia. En particular, se analiza la problemática del análisis de comparabilidad en un escenario de carencia de transacciones y empresas comparables de información del ejercicio 2020 y periodos siguientes afectados por la pandemia. Igualmente, se aborda el tema de las pérdidas desde dos perspectivas: como transacción o empresa comparable, y como la generación de pérdidas en los modelos de negocios de riesgo limitado. Se concluye que varias de las medidas recomendadas por el Marco Inclusivo pueden materializarse a través de la flexibilización y apertura de la administración tributaria en las fiscalizaciones. No obstante, permitir la modificación del análisis de los precios de transferencia reflejado en el reporte local en función a información de transacciones y empresas comparables obtenida con posterioridad requiere la emisión de una norma legal que no condicione la declaración rectificatoria a la verificación de la SUNAT, y que suspenda la aplicación de infracciones y sanciones por la declaración de datos y cifras falsos. (Spanish) [ FROM AUTHOR] Este artigo analisa a incidência em nosso país das recomendações fornecidas pela Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE) em seu Guia sobre as implicações da Pandemia COVID-19 sobre preços de transferência "Orientações sobre as implicações dos preços de transferência da pandemia COVID-19" publicado em 18 de dezembro de 2020 e que representa a perspectiva consensual dos mais de 137 membros do Marco Inclusivo BEPS, entre os quais está o Peru, a respeito da aplicação do princípio da livre concorrência para os problemas gerados ou agravados pela pandemia. Em particular, o problema da análise de comparabilidade é analisado em um cenário de falta de transações e empresas de informações comparáveis em 2020 e anos subsequentes afetados pela pandemia. Da mesma forma, a questão das perdas é tratada sob duas perspectivas, a de uma transação ou empresa comparável e a da geração de perdas em modelos de negócios com risco limitado. Conclui-se que várias das medidas preconizadas pelo Marco Inclusivo podem ser materializadas através da flexibilidade e abertura da Administração Tributária nas auditorias;No entanto, permitir a modificação da análise dos preços de transferência refletidos no Relatório Local com base em informações sobre transações e empresas comparáveis obtidas posteriormente requer a emissão de norma legal que não condicione a declaração retificativa à verificação da SUNAT e que supenda a aplicação de infrações e sanções para a declaração de dados e números falsos. (Portuguese) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Contabilidad y Negocios is the property of Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

10.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism ; 19(2):1-15, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1897919

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose a way to minimize the negative impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the activities of mini-breweries. Research questions: Has pandemic affected the decrease in mini-breweries production? Can tourism help to save mini-breweries? What specific problems has the pandemic caused to mini-breweries? How do mini-breweries solve their problems? Research Methods: The paper presents a comparative analysis of the results of primary sources obtained through a questionnaire survey. The research tool used was an online survey conducted between 10 September and 10 October 2020 capturing answers from 59 mini-breweries in the Czech Republic. The survey examined effects of the pandemic, views on the changing beer market, mitigation measures, effects on demand for beer and other services and evaluation of government measures. Minibreweries were contacted in writing or in person. There were three categories for the length of operation of the minibrewery on the market. 33 microbreweries have been on the market for more than 5 years, 23 for a period of 2 to 5 years and the remaining 3 have been on the market for less than 2 years. It was also examined where mini-breweries have their headquarters. The majority of respondents was from municipalities with less than 2,000 inhabitants, a total of 14. Cities of 2 - 5 000 habitants were represented by 6 microbreweries, 5 - 10 000 by 8, 10 - 50 000 by 9, 50 - 100 000 by 1 and larger than 100 000 by 9. The second largest group consisted of breweries from Prague with 12 responses. Results and Discussion: The pandemic negatively or rather negatively affected the economy of mini-breweries (75%). The pandemic did not affect the economy at all (10%). It is too early to assess effects of the pandemic (10%). The economy of mini-breweries has improved (5%). The pandemic caused a dramatic drop in sales (67.8%). The mini-brewery lost customers (40.7%). The mini-brewery sustained economic losses due to the wastage of already brewed beer (25.4%). The mini-brewery lost employees (22.0%). The pandemic had no impact (16.9%). The mini-brewery reported higher sales (1.7%). Mini-breweries responded to the situation: 76.3% opened a takeaway window;59.3% distributed beer to clients;52.5% changed the structure of beer bottling;45.8% started using social media more;42,4% increased Internet advertising;40.7% started online sales;10.2% reduced the range of products. Brewers perceive tourism as a possible starting point. The role of off-trade is often mentioned, as well as the price of beer as factors influencing the demand for beer. The research clearly confirmed the need to strengthen the role of tourism as a tool to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on microbreweries. It demonstrates the need for a specific focus on a specific tourist segment coming to the Czech Republic, not only in beer or gastronomic tourism but also in experiential, cultural-historical and educational tourism in deeper cooperation with destination management organizations. Implications: The pandemic has an impact on the activities of mini-breweries, beer production has been reduced, employees have lost their jobs, premises have been closed and the number of customers dropped. Most mini-breweries have introduced product and marketing innovations. Renewed tourism can revive the activities of mini-breweries with their original products (tourist brewery tours, tastings, sale of souvenirs) and new ones (opening a beer museum, social and entertainment events, beer brewing experience courses, etc.). The research suggests the cooperation of several entities - mini-breweries with a specific DMO of the region in which the mini-brewery is located - the CzechTourism national tourism centre - by selected travel agencies or offices focusing on experiential gastronomy, beer, educational and cultural-historical tourism. As part of the proposed cooperation, it will be possible to streamline national and foreign marketing projects to raise the profile of mini-breweries and increase tourists' awareness of the ex

11.
6th International Conference on Compute and Data Analysis, ICCDA 2022 ; : 111-115, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891924

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been one of the most highly discussed topics throughout its entire lifespan. This pandemic has caused huge losses throughout the world, ranging from economic losses to a massive death toll of over five million that is still growing. One aspect has not been touched on nearly as much as the impact on mental health worldwide. We decided to study the pandemic's impact on peoples' mental health, specifically depression and the many symptoms that come with it. Twitter was used for this study as it has many raw and unfiltered personal sentiments from its many users. Twitter also has a helpful developer API that allows tweets to be queried at a massive scale. Throughout our research, we found that the number of people discussing COVID-19 depression was much higher during the first six months of the pandemic. However, during the following six months, those still suffering from such depression were experiencing worse symptoms with greater frequency. © 2022 ACM.

12.
Journal of Communication in Healthcare ; 15(1):44-53, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1890698

ABSTRACT

Background: Health advice in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic has called upon the public to re-evaluate risk associated with recently routine behavior. However, differences in demographics, situational circumstances, and psychological dispositions create inequities in how people are able to respond to risks presented by the virus. Method: Within a sample of 482 Americans, we examined the frequency of behavior reconceptualized as 'risky' by CDC public health guidelines released on 30 March 2020. We applied a cluster analysis using a data-driven persona framework from the field of user-design research, using only situational and dispositional (i.e. psychological) variables to identify profiles of individuals.

13.
Cultivos Tropicales ; 42(4), 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887748

ABSTRACT

An update of the karstic morphogenesis in San Jose de las Lajas polje is carried out, with the objective of making a quantitative evaluation of the of karstic-erosive process advance. It is from a baseline of more than three decades in reference localities, in accordance with the conditions of use and management to which soils have been subjected. It demonstrates the effects of intensive anthropogenesis on the Red Ferrallitic soils, as a result of a multifactorial process, conditioned not only by the intrinsic properties of the soil cover and conditions of use, but also dependent on the geological-geomorphological conditions. The application of the Integrating System of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods allowed characterizing the complex influence of the relief in the evolution of the main morphometric parameters of the dolines with losses between 12.33-15.95 t ha-1 year-1. It converted into length units show reductions in the A+B horizons between 0.98-1.20 mm year-1, which exceed the permissible threshold values in terms of erosion proposed by the USLE and the rates of formation of soils derived from limestone rocks in Cuba. It has a marked tendency to increase, which confirm the need for protection and improvement so that their "immunity" to erosion ceases to be a myth and becomes a priority issue for Food Security in the post Covid-19 development programs in Cuba. These soils represent the maximum potential to satisfy the country's current demand for agricultural and livestock productions.

14.
Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf ; 111: 102850, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885853

ABSTRACT

School closures induced by the COVID-19 pandemic have negatively impacted on 1.7 billion children, resulting in losses of learning time and a decline of learning scores. However, the learning losses of students exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic at the country level have been quantitatively unaddressed. Here we model the global learning losses of students due to the COVID-19 in 2020. Our results reveal a global average Harmonized Test Scores (HTS) loss of 2.26 points. Learning continuity measures reduce the global average HTS loss by 1.64 points. South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have high HTS losses (5.82 and 2.94 points), while Europe & Central Asia and North America have low HTS losses (0.85 and 0.93 points). Compared with South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, North America and Europe & Central Asia implement more effective learning continuity measures. HTS losses in low-income and lower-middle-income countries are higher (3.35 and 3.13 points) than those in high-income and upper-middle-income countries (0.99 and 2.31 points). Learning losses of global female students are higher than their male counterparts, and there is significant heterogeneity across national regions. Our results reveal both global learning losses and gender inequality in learning scores due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Global disparities highlight the importance of the need to mitigate education inequality.

15.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; 34(7):2535-2558, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1878891

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The COVID-19 pandemic intensifies the high turnover rate in the restaurant industry. Applying the conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study aims to examine the factors influencing US restaurant frontline employees’ organizational and occupational turnover intention with an emphasis on the three-way interactions between job stress, fear of COVID-19 (FC) and resilience.Design/methodology/approach>A sample of 243 US restaurant frontline employees participated in this study. PROCESS macro was used for hypothesis testing.Findings>Organizational turnover intention fully mediated the relationship between job stress and restaurant employees’ occupational turnover intention. FC intensified the positive relationship between job stress and organizational turnover intentions. Job stress, FC and resilience interacted to affect restaurant frontline employees’ organizational turnover intention such that when resilience is high, FC strengthened the positive relationship between job stress and organizational turnover intention, and the indirect effect of job stress on occupational turnover intention via organizational turnover intention.Practical implications>Restaurants should take measures to reduce frontline employees’ fear and continue implementing practices to alleviate job stress during a crisis to reduce employees’ turnover intentions. Training on building employee resilience could also be provided by restaurant operators.Originality/value>This study added to the limited knowledge of factors that are associated with restaurant employees’ organizational and occupational turnover intentions in the context of a global crisis and expanded the current knowledge of how fear and resilience may impact restaurant employees’ behavioral intentions.

16.
Staff Paper Series - Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota|2021. (P21-02):viii + 85 pp. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876358

ABSTRACT

The average net farm income for the 108 farms included in the 2020 annual report of the Southwest Minnesota Farm Business Management Association was $322,402, up more than 100% from the preceding year. Much of this increased profitability resulted from improved crop prices in the third and fourth quarters of 2020 as well as improved profitability for livestock producers. Government payments related to the impacts of the COVID pandemic were also a big factor. Profits for association members were at their highest levels since 2012. Crop producers saw higher earnings based on above average yields, higher harvest season prices, and increased government payments. Livestock markets were severely impacted by the pandemic especially in the second quarter of the year. Earnings for all types of livestock operations were up primarily because of COVID related government payments. Without those payments, many livestock producers would have suffered severe losses.

17.
INRA Productions Animales ; 35(1):21-42, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876330

ABSTRACT

This article offers an analysis of the economic situation of several animal sectors (cow's milk, beef, pork, poultry meat and the equine sector) in France, two years after the start of the Covid-19 pandemic. Starting from the latest statistical data available for the period 2020 to 2021 and while taking into account historical trajectories, it seeks to highlight how this crisis has had implications for production, prices, consumption, foreign trade and, in the case of the equine sector, the various activities (horse betting, equestrian centres, etc.). The production of agricultural goods was generally little impacted by the health crisis because farmers continued to produce, sometimes despite certain difficulties, such as the lack of labor, temporary loss of outlets, etc. Faced with a significant change in the structure of demand (increase in products purchased by households to the detriment of those favored in out-of-home catering), the sudden measures imposed by the State and the difficulties sometimes encountered in maintaining the number of employees, processors have been able to adapt quickly to provide consumers with the goods demanded. Trade flows were also disrupted in 2020, before picking up again in 2021, according to trends that were ultimately fairly consistent with those preceding the crisis. Under the influence, on the one hand, of the increase in the price of energy (even before the war in Ukraine which began on February 24, 2022) and, on the other hand, fluctuating imports from China into global animal product markets, producer prices increased in late 2021 and early 2022, but this increase is offset by a sharp increase in production costs. In the equine sector, turnover losses were temporarily significant due to the interaction of this sector with the public. After the shock of 2020, and subject to adaptation by the players in the sector, activities are gradually resuming.

18.
SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization ; 60(2):S221-S245, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874687

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a distributed optimal control epidemiological model is presented. The model describes the dynamics of an epidemic with social distancing as a control policy. The model belongs to the class of continuous-time models, usually involving ordinary/partial differential equations, but has a novel feature. The core model-a single integral equation-does not explicitly use transition rates between compartments. Instead, it is based on statistical information on the disease status of infected individuals, depending on the time since infection. The approach is especially relevant for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in which infected individuals are infectious before onset of symptoms during a relatively long incubation period. Based on the analysis of the proposed optimal control problem, including necessary optimality conditions, this paper outlines some efficient numerical approaches. Numerical solutions show some interesting features of the optimal policy for social distancing, depending on the weights attributed to the number of isolated individuals with symptoms and to economic losses due to the enforcement of the control policy. The general nature of the model allows for inclusion of additional epidemic features with minor adaptations in the basic equations. Therefore, the modeling approach may contribute to the analysis of combined intervention strategies and to the guidance of public health decisions. © 2022 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

19.
1st International Conference on Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, ICCSAI 2021 ; : 230-235, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874269

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease has dealt the Food and Beverage industry a great blow. Restaurants have to reduce their open hours and customers allowed to follow with the regulations, and it leaves them at a huge financial loss. We conduct this research to find the optimal possible way for restaurant to stay open and still have customer on this pandemic era. We propose that restaurant should make their reservation and booking system online as we have seen that online booking and ordering became popular lately. The purpose of this application is to reduce the contact needed between the customer and the staff to as little as possible, while also avoid creating waiting time for the customer. Our application is consisted of reservation system and ordering system. The reservation system enables customers to book a table online and check in via QR Code. The ordering system enables customers to pick a menu using their Smartphone and confirm their order, as well as paying it directly using electronic money. © 2021 IEEE.

20.
Sport, Business and Management ; 12(3):342-362, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1874142

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This paper analyses the effectiveness of UEFA's Financial Fair Play (FFP) under the break-even requirement.Design/methodology/approach>Data was collected from English and French football clubs competing in the English Premier League (EPL) and in Ligue 1 (L1) for the financial years 2008–2018. Our sample includes 395 club-year observations. Relevant statistical tests have been conducted with the aim of analysing the effects of pre (2008–2012) and post (2012–2018) FFP enforcement under both profitability and cost-efficiency assumptions.Findings>In the EPL, an increase is observed in clubs' profitability through both operating and break-even results. In L1, this improvement is only significant for break-even results of clubs not participating regularly in European competitions (non Euro-oriented clubs). Player expenditures, measured through two wage-to-revenue ratios excluding trading activity for one and including it for the other, have significantly decreased in the EPL except for the Euro-oriented clubs for this latter. Conversely, in L1, this decrease is only significant in both wage-to-revenue ratios for non Euro-oriented clubs and for the whole sample when trading is included.Practical implications>In addition to evidencing contrasting results in FFP effectiveness across countries, our results suggest it is not the sole cause of such an improvement in clubs' finances. We suggest that UEFA should pursue its efforts to scrutinise the level of clubs' player expenditures and that there is a need for a wider look at the FFP regulations.Originality/value>This article provides further contribution to empirical studies on FFP effectiveness that have often been focused on a single country.

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