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1.
Journal of Clinical and Basic Research ; 6(1):37-45, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2057220

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is one of the most important healthcare and social challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on depression and quality of life among women with chronic pain during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown.

2.
Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences ; 30(2), 2021.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2057029

ABSTRACT

The current study sought to examine the clinical, laboratory, and imaging aspects of COVID-19-positive critically sick patients who were admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) at three hospitals in Rash City, Iran. The goal of this retrospective study was to examine 138 COVID-19 patients who had been hospitalized to the intensive care unit. Data on the study participants' demographics, underlying diseases, laboratory and imaging results, and prognosis of the diseases were taken from their medical records. 138 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalised to the intensive care unit were the subject of this retrospective analysis. Patient records were used to extract information about the patient, including demographic details, underlying diseases, laboratory and imaging results, and disease outcomes. The majority of the patients in this study were male and between the ages of 55 and 69. The most prevalent underlying conditions were diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic heart disease;the most prevalent symptoms were shortness of breath, fever, and cough. The most prevalent lung Computer Tomography (CT) scan finding was ground glass opacities, and the most frequent laboratory findings in the study participants were an increase in LDH, ESR, CRP, neutrophil percentage, and lymphopenia. A 90.58% fatality rate was recorded. This study showed that the majority of patients with severe disease presentations were older, had a history of underlying disease, symptoms of shortness of breath, cough, and fever, substantial lung involvement in imaging, and altered laboratory findings. Despite medical treatment and mechanical ventilation, mortality remained high.

3.
African Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 16(2):55-62, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056736

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare providers have been at the frontline of the response to the COVID-19 disease. Many of them have contracted the disease, and some of them already dead. This study assessed the knowledge, compliance with preventive measures and determined the relationship between knowledge and practice of preventive strategies to COVID-19 among nurses working in a selected hospital in South-South Nigeria. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design guided the study. Census method guided the recruitment of all the 378 nurses in the hospital who met the study's inclusion criteria.

4.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):802-806, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2055475

ABSTRACT

Objective: To introduce the principle and method ofa-Sutte model, establish a a-Sutte model by using software R, compare the fitting and prediction effects of thea-Sutte model and multiple seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model, SARIMA model and provides reference for the application of thea-Sutte model in epidemic prediction.

5.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):850-854, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055474

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and explore source of infection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases imported through an inbound air flight from Kenya to Guangzhou, China.

6.
Economic Journal of Development Issues ; 29(30):59-80, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2054875

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the COVID-19 and its shocks on macro-economic variables in Nepalese economy based on the secondary data sets of macroeconomics variable pre- and post-COVID-19 by applying descriptive statistical methods. The growth of COVID-19 is unpredictably spreading all over the world. Its hot spot has been in the South Asia, particularly in Delhi and Nepal. Its correlation between COVID 19 cases and per capita GDP is positive. In South Asia, its growth rate is higher than its recovery indicating inefficiency of health system. Similarly, its shocks are so strong to influence trend, pattern and structure of macro-economic variables. Economic growth declined at 0.1percent in 2020 with falling outputs of agriculture, industry and service sectors. Unemployment rate reaches at 27.8 percent from 11.4 percent. The poor population increased by 7.47 percent. Besides, residential income and household income has fallen along with sharp decline in labor and remittance income. Lastly, its negative implication is found in foreign exchange reserve and balance of payment, trade and revenue. Thus, the COVID-19 and its shocks are undesired fluctuations and impose implications in Nepalese economy. Therefore, Nepal should improve health care system and vaccine availability for reducing the effects of pandemic and the lockdown for stability and recovery of the economy and also for welfare of the poor.

7.
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare ; 15(3):257-275, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2051860

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Ostracism is being socially ignored or excluded by others. Ostracism leads to serious psychological distress and health issues in the young adults being ostracized. However, there are no psychometrically designed instruments to measure this phenomenon in young adults. This study aims to develop a scale that measures ostracism efficiently and establishes the scale's psychometric properties. Design/methodology/approach: The research design used for the study is "a mixed-method study using non-experimental research with an exploratory sequential approach and instrument development design." For the formation of the item pool, theoretical evidence was collected and focus group discussions were conducted. Afterward, content validity was established with the help of subject matter experts, followed by Velicer's minimum average partial method and maximum likelihood factor analysis to form the instrument's factorial structure. Findings: Velicer's minimum average partial method and maximum likelihood factor analysis made two factors as follows: ostracism experience and psychological effect. The instrument developed has a high value of alpha reliability i.e. a = 0.97 and a = 0.96, a = 0.92 for the subscales, respectively. Research limitations/implications: The sample used for the research was enough to run the analysis, but future studies can go for a more extensive and more diverse sample. The sample was based solely on university students. The current research focused only on the target of the phenomenon, and the whole research process was conducted online because of the Covid-19 pandemic going on. The scale developed can be used in several settings to find out if the individual is being ostracized or not. Practical implications: The scale's most important implication is in the colleges and universities where young adults are found and face this problem daily. Likewise, psychologists can also use it in clinical settings. The other important implication of this scale is that it is opening a route to future research as different variables can be studied in ostracism such as depression, physical health and anxiety. Social implications: Ostracism is a hidden evil in societies that is not usually talked about. When people are not given equal importance in groups or settings, it leads to serious psychological issues in those individuals. This scale will in the identification of the problem that will lead to a proper solution to this evil. Originality/value: This work is original and not copied from anywhere. The research was conducted with the sole purpose of developing a scale on the ostracism experiences in young adults. The data is collected in the form of online surveys. The current scale is an attempt at developing a more reliable and valid scale that can be used in social settings.

8.
Gender and Development ; 30(1/2):217-246, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050957

ABSTRACT

India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), in the last 15 years, has evolved as the world's largest employer of the last resort. This social protection, specifically designed as a demand-driven automatic employment stabiliser to enable households to cope with livelihood shocks, offers 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to all rural households. The budget for this unique legislative entitlement in a developing country was nearly doubled from US$8 billion in 2019-20 to $15 billion in 2020-21 to partially offset the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns. After the first pandemic wave, NREGA provided employment to 76 million households - more than a third of all rural Indian families. Even though women have consistently worked more than half the NREGA person-days annually, in the midst of the pandemic women's share of employment declined by 2 per cent in 2020-21. However, this may have been a temporary decrease due to the unprecedented mass reverse exodus of urban migrants to their rural villages. Still, state-level analysis in this research highlights the persistent under-utilisation of NREGA by women in the poorer states of the Indo-Gangetic plain. On the other hand, the southern states have higher participation of women due to a combination of factors including better human development outcomes, higher wages, and sometimes better child-care facilities at worksites, which are necessary nationwide remedies. In particular, in the state of Kerala the novel integration of the government-initiated Kudumbashree community self-help women's groups with NREGA has led to the feminisation of the programme. This convergence provides important insights on the significance of women's participation in the decentralised management of NREGA to dilute both gender-intensive and gender-exclusive barriers, which could be fruitfully replicated nationwide.

9.
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 70(February):20-22, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2046405

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines have been rolled out recently in several parts of the world. Little is known about the post-vaccination experience outside of clinical trial conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse effects and infection rate of vaccinated people in a community scenario. It will help to educate the public, dispel misinformation and reduce vaccine hesitancy. Aim and Objectives: Assessing total beneficiaries of COVID-19 vaccination and finding among them COVID-19 infection and AEFI after vaccination. Subject and Methods: Cross sectional Study at COVID-19 Vaccination centre at DCH in Mumbai, since 1st February2021-31st July 2021, Data was collected by calling telephonically the registered beneficiaries in Vaccination Centre, data was collected and analysed in MS-excel sheet and SPSS using CHI-square test.

10.
Africa Health ; 43(3):10-11, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046311

ABSTRACT

In Africa, there is frequently an extreme need for nurses and other healthcare professionals. Overcrowding, a lack of administrative oversight, and a lack of resources are all problems in health settings. Health professionals may develop psychological damage referred to as "insufficient resource trauma" as a result of these difficulties, which can lower morale and motivation. Such trauma reduces the standard of treatment provided and causes professional "burn-out," a problem that has become more significant in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. One of the nurses who received training in PSBH-N in 2006 was promoted to the position of MoH Nursing Director by 2019. This nurse reflected on her personal experience and said, "The nurses trained in PSBH are among the top nurses in the country today," when she learned of the new PSBH training for MoH QAU employees. In order to train all 877 registered nurses and 373 licensed practical nurses (LPNs) in the nation during the following three to five years, the director requested that LeBoHA host PSBH-N workshops. The countrywide rollout's training and evaluation are now under progress. Priority setting may result from centralized, "top-down," problem-solving techniques that are not always appropriate for the district. A poll of healthcare professionals in South African hospitals revealed that administrators of hospitals were regarded as effective leaders if their leadership style encouraged engagement and problem-solving. An emphasis on a decentralised and egalitarian (equity-fostering) approach, where problem-solving is the duty of all health workers, is emphasized in a national quality assurance plan that includes PSBH.

11.
JCO Global Oncology ; 7(1286-1305):1286-1305, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046267

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There are scarce data to aid in prognostication of the outcome of critically ill cancer patients with COVID-19. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the mortality of critically ill cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We searched online databases and manually searched for studies in English that reported on outcomes of adult cancer patients with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) or those with severe COVID-19 between December 2019 and October 2020. Risk of bias was assessed by the Modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. We also determined the odds of death for cancer patients versus noncancer patients, as also outcomes by cancer subtypes, presence of recent anticancer therapy, and presence of one or more comorbidities. Random-effects modeling was used. RESULTS: In 28 studies (1,276 patients), pooled mortality in cancer patients with COVID-19 admitted to an ICU was 60.2% (95% CI, 53.6 to 6.7;I2 = 80.27%), with four studies (7,259 patients) showing higher odds of dying in cancer versus noncancer patients (odds ratio 1.924;95% CI, 1.596 to 2.320). In four studies (106 patients) of patients with cancer and severe COVID-19, pooled mortality was 59.4% (95% CI, -39.4 to 77.5;I2 = 72.28%);in one study, presence of hematologic malignancy was associated with significantly higher mortality compared with nonhematologic cancers (odds ratio 1.878;95% CI, 1.171 to 3.012). Risk of bias was low. CONCLUSION: Most studies were reported before the results of trials suggesting the benefit of dexamethasone and tocilizumab, potentially overestimating mortality. The observed mortality of 60% in cancer patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU is not prohibitively high, and admission to the ICU should be considered for selected patients (registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020207209).

12.
Nature and Technology Review ; 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046190

ABSTRACT

During an epidemic/pandemic caused by an unknown virus such as SRAS-CoV-2, the aetiological agent of COVID-19, health practitioners cannot predict the behavior of the virus and therefore the course of the disease. They also cannot predict how patients will react to different treatments. In this paper, authors propose a distributed system's architecture for predicting the course of the disease and patient reactions for treatments, using real-time data of patients with the same disease from all over the world. The system uses geographic and the "Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome/s" (PICO) questions classification of patients. It shares information with inspiration from peer-to-peer download model and uses a semantic model to save and compare clinical questions. The system also proposes to generate personalized self-tests that can be made available to the population to reduce the panic caused by the epidemic. The operation of the system is illustrated by an example of a patient with COVID-19.

13.
Forced Migration Review ; 67:33-35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046152

ABSTRACT

Significant variations in access to fundamental public health services during the COVID-19 epidemic have been revealed by recent study conducted in a number of different nations. States have an obligation to apply what they have learned from the present pandemic to remove existing obstacles. In many aspects, the COVID-19 pandemic fostered cooperation across nations and within communities in an effort to address dangers to the public's health and lessen the socioeconomic effects of the virus. Some good practices have emerged as a result of extensive advocacy and engagement with governments by a variety of actors. These include expanding free access to COVID-19 testing, treatment, and vaccines for all migrants, regardless of status, and allowing stranded migrants and those without visas to access basic services. They must consider the impact of this extraordinary situation and global public health emergency on those who continue to face barriers to accessing basic services, such as COVID-19 vaccines, as well as how this intersects with both individual and public health, even though these policy developments are to be welcomed, championed, and replicated. Public health initiatives could be jeopardized by enduring access impediments as well as fresh difficulties brought on by movement restrictions and lockdowns. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies conducted the study in eight nations: Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Sudan, Sweden, and the UK (and data from the Sahel region was also taken into consideration). The findings suggest that, in order to end the pandemic and guarantee that everyone has the chance to receive assistance in a respectful and supportive manner, inclusive approaches for connecting with and supporting migrants and refugees must be incorporated into national and local pandemic preparedness, response, and recovery plans. Public health hazards will persist if inclusive policies are not accompanied by operational guidelines to overcome barriers in practice.

14.
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 70(February):14-19, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2045936

ABSTRACT

Background: Preliminary data highlights the importance of anticoagulation therapy in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism in SARS CoV-2 infection. There is insufficient data comparing the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and subcutaneous enoxaparin in the prophylactic management of COVID-19 associated thromboembolic disease, particularly in mild to moderate cases of COVID-19 infection. Objectives: The study was designed to investigate the efficacy of oral rivaroxaban as a prophylactic anticoagulant in mild to moderate SARS CoV-2 infection.

15.
Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research ; 13(3):709-719, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2045618

ABSTRACT

Background: World health organization declared covid-19 pandemic worldwide. Efforts are being made to increase the awareness about covid-19 in the general public and as well as in patients through various health education programs. Material and Methods: The study included 1000 individuals and was conducted by The Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Government Medical College, Patiala during the 6-month period from January 2021 to June 2021. Patient intentions, apprehensions, and reasons for not getting vaccinated were be assessed by questionnaire. All walk-in patients above 18yr of age were included. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the participants, 18 questions (including for knowledge, attitude, for practice) were included. The questions were directly asked from patients in their vernacular language along with demographic details and responses noted. Need of study: To spread the Knowledge about vaccination and the need for getting vaccinated so that hesitancy for covid-19 vaccination can be decreased and the severity of infection can be controlled. Awareness about vaccination is vitally important for developing effective control measures in a public health crisis.

16.
Industria Saccarifera Italiana ; 113(1/2):6-8, 2020.
Article in Italian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045458

ABSTRACT

Eight years of steady increases in hunger and malnutrition have reversed decades of advancement. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that in 2020, between 720 and 811 million people worldwide would experience chronic hunger, the highest number since 2014. The difficulties facing the world food system in feeding an expanding population sustainably have been made even more apparent by climate change and the Covid-19 outbreak. The threat of a global food crisis as bad as or even worse than the one the world experienced in 2007 to 2008 has gained broad international attention in response to Russia's military intervention against Ukraine. Together, Russia and Ukraine are important exporters of almost 12% of the food calories traded globally and major suppliers of staple agrocommodities like wheat, maize, and sunflower oil. Additionally, Russia is the largest exporter of fertilizers worldwide. To ensure their basic food supply, a number of regions are heavily reliant on imports from these two nations. For example, eastern African countries import 72% of their cereals from Russia and 18% from Ukraine, while North African and Middle Eastern countries receive over 50% of their imports of cereal from Russia and Ukraine combined. The EU is dedicated to advancing its Farm to fork agenda and changing the way that food is produced around the world. In order to do this, the Commission stated that it will join eight international coalitions on food security and nutrition. These coalitions bring together a wide range of stakeholders.

17.
Africa Health ; 43(3):15-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045412

ABSTRACT

This is a brief account of a community project that the medical staff of an urban primary care institution carried out. The goal was to spread knowledge and raise awareness about COVID-19 prevention among the Ghanaian communities that are a part of the Manna Mission Hospital's catchment area in the Ledzokuku Municipality. It has been discovered that community-based health education has a larger effect on the prevention of newly emerging infectious diseases, resulting in a decrease in the occurrence of such diseases. The pandemic caused by COVID-19 is not an exception. Results of a community outreach effort carried out by employees of a Ghanaian urban primary care hospital were emphasised in this paper. Increased health education is required to raise community residents' understanding of COVID-19's impact on public health. This community outreach initiative has raised awareness of COVID-19 prevention and control, handwashing, and facemask use. Many patients who attended the hospital wore face masks, frequently washed their hands with soap and water while it was running, and frequently used alcohol-based hand sanitisers, all signs of increased awareness. To stop the spread of COVID-19 in their communities, the primary healthcare workforce has a crucial role to play.

18.
Central African Journal of Medicine ; 67(1/6):14-18, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045204

ABSTRACT

Background: Anxiety is one of the commonest mental health challenges facing medical students. Levels of anxiety have not been estimated among medical students in Zambia. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of anxiety disorders and its associated factors among pre-clinical students during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Copperbelt province of Zambia. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 398 students was sampled using a 1 in 2 systematic random sampling technique. The Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to determine levels of anxiety. Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) and their 95% Confidence Interval (CI) are reported.

19.
Working Paper - Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University 2022. (22-WP 637):29 pp. many ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044960

ABSTRACT

We analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated policy responses on the global economy and food security in 80 low- and middle-income countries. We use a global economy-wide model with detailed disaggregation of agricultural and food sectors and develop a business as usual baseline for 2020 and 2021 called "But-for-COVID" (BfC). We then shock the model with aggregate income shocks derived from the IMF World Economic Outlook for 2020 and 2021. We impose total-factor productivity losses in key sectors as well as consumption decreases induced by social distancing. The resulting shocks in prices and incomes from the CGE model simulations are fed into the USDA-ERS International Food Security Assessment model to derive the impact of the pandemic on food security in these 80 countries. The main effect of the pandemic was to exacerbate the existing declining trend in food security. Food insecurity increases considerably in countries in Asia through income shocks rather than prices effects. We also review trade policies that were put in place to restrict imports and exports of food, and we evaluate their potential for further disruption of markets focusing on the food-security implications.

20.
Journal of ISSAAS ; 28(1):152-153, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044831

ABSTRACT

Prior to the pandemic, agri-tourism was on its rise in the Philippines. It is known as a fusion of Agriculture and tourism, linked to other sectors, including hospitality and transportation. However, travel bans and other restrictions amid the COVID-19 pandemic have adversely affected tourism. This study aimed to describe the pandemic effects on agri-tourism enterprises in the province of La Union, Philippines, and their adaptation strategies. A survey of 16 enterprises was conducted in May 2021. Descriptive and content analysis was employed to analyze the data and information gathered. The pandemic was found to have significantly affected the enterprises' marketing function, resulting in financial losses and adjustments to their business models. Their adaptation strategies were categorized as either survival or sustaining. Survival strategies were the farms' initial coping mechanisms like shifting to a new market, lowered prices, and switching to online marketing. On the other hand, sustaining strategies were also known as long-term solutions like diversification and expansion. The enterprises that adopted both strategies had wider offerings and possessed more than one accreditation. It is recommended that agri-tourism enterprises continue strategizing as the pandemic remains a threat. They should consider employing sustaining strategies for post-pandemic.

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