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1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1280, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967446

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: Prior studies have indicated the presence of hepatic inflammation (as signified by elevated liver function test (LFT) values), as conferring an escalated risk toward adverse outcomes in patients admitted with COVID-19. In line with this hypothesis, we study the various thresholds of LFTs and its associated prognostic risks toward COVID- 19 related hospital deaths Method: This was a single-center retrospective study involving patients admitted with COVID-19. Univariate Cox regression analysis identified the LFT variables significantly associated with our primary endpoint, in-hospital death. Subsequently, 500 iterations of thresholds were generated for each biomarker to estimate the prognostic relationship between biomarker and endpoint. Multivariate Cox regression and event-analyses were performed for each threshold to identify the minimal cutoffs at which the prognostic relationship was significant. Event curves were drawn for each significant relationship. Results: A total of 858 patients with COVID-19 were included with a median follow-up time of 5 days from admission. From the total, 90 patients passed away during admission (10.5%). The deceased cases were more likely to be older (66.2 vs 55.3y p<0.001);however, there was no difference in gender (male: 66 vs 56.2% p=0.11). Between the cases and controls (no-death), deceased cases had higher incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (7.78 vs 2.99% p=0.042), COPD (18.9 vs 7.80% p=0.001), lung cancer (4.44 vs 0.65% p= 0.009), ICU admissions (81.1 vs 26% p<0.001), and intubation events (84.4 vs 19.5% p<0.001), however there was no difference in alcohol use (21.1 vs 30.6% p=0.083) and alcoholic liver disease (5.56 vs 2.08% p=0.097). Upon univariate Cox analysis, the following LFT parameters were associated with in-hospital death: Bilirubin (p<0.001), AST (p<0.001), ALT (p<0.001). However, alkaline phosphatase (p=0.449) was not associated with the primary endpoint. The iterations of event regression analyses using 500 sequences of LFT thresholds showed the following cutoffs to be significantly associated with in-hospital death (minimally significant values): ALT (281.71 IU/L), AST (120.94 IU/L), bilirubin (2.615 mg/ dL). On the multivariate analysis, while controlling for demographics and cardiopulmonary/ medical comorbidities, the following adjusted hazard ratios were derived for each cutoff: ALT (aHR: 6.43 95%CI 1.85-22.40), AST (aHR: 3.35 95%CI 1.84-6.11), and bilirubin (aHR: 2.77 95%CI 1.15-6.65). Conclusion: The delineated cutoffs for AST, ALT, and bilirubin levels can serve as clinical benchmarks to help determine when a COVID-19 infection poses significant risk. Given this finding, the cutoffs can be used as part of a risk assessment for patients to support early preventative therapies and medical management. (Table Presented)

2.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1279-S-1280, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967445

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: While the relationship between elevated liver enzymes and COVID- 19 related adverse events is well-established, a liver-dependent prognostic model that predicts the risk of death is helpful to accurately stratify admitted patients. In this study, we use a bootstrapping-enhanced method of regression modeling to predict COVID-19 related deaths in admitted patients. Method: This was a single-center, retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed using 30-day mortality as the primary endpoint to establish associated hepatic risk factors. Regression-based prediction models were constructed using a series of modeling iterations with an escalating number of categorical terms. Model performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Model accuracy was internally validated using bootstrapping-enhanced iterations. Results: 858 patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 were included. 78 were deceased by 30 days (9.09%). Cox regression (greater than 20 variables) showed the following core variables to be significant: INR (aHR 1.26 95%CI 1.06-1.49), AST (aHR 1.00 95%CI 1.00- 1.00), age (aHR 1.05 95%CI 1.02-1.08), WBC (aHR 1.07 95%CI 1.03-1.11), lung cancer (aHR 3.38 95%CI 1.15-9.90), COPD (aHR 2.26 95%CI 1.21-4.22). Using these core variables and additional categorical terms, the following model iterations were constructed with their respective AUC;model 1 (core only): 0.82 95%CI 0.776-0.82, model 2 (core + demographics): 0.828 95%CI 0.785-0.828, model 3 (prior terms + additional biomarkers): 0.842 95%CI 0.799-0.842, model 4 (prior terms + comorbidities): 0.851 95%CI 0.809-0.851, model 5 (prior terms + life-sustaining therapies): 0.933 95%CI 0.91-0.933, model 6 (prior terms + COVID-19 medications): 0.934 95%CI 0.91-0.934. Model 1 demonstrated the following parameters at 0.91 TPR: 0.54 specificity, 0.17 PPV, 0.98 NPV. Bootstrapped iterations showed the following AUC for the respective models: model 1: 0.82 95%CI 0.765-0.882, model 2 0.828 95%CI 0.764-0.885, model 3 0.842 95%CI 0.779-0.883, model 4: 0.851 95%CI 0.808-0.914, model 5: 0.933 95%CI 0.901-0.957, model 6: 0.934 95%CI 0.901- 0.961. Conclusion: Model 1 displays high prediction performance (AUC >0.8) in both regression-based and bootstrapping-enhanced modeling iterations. Therefore, this model can be adopted for clinical use as a calculator to evaluate the risk of 30-day mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19. (Table Presented)

3.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1247, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967429

ABSTRACT

Introduction In a study involving > 10,000 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, we found that liver injury, which was present in ~70% of patients upon hospital admission, correlates with in-hospital mortality (Satapathy et al., Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021). Curiously, severe liver chemistry abnormalities (LCA) were seen less often in patients with diabetes or hypertension, although these diseases confer increased risk of severe disease. This raises the question whether home medications protect from COVID-19 associated liver injury. We now analyzed associations between LCA and twenty-six groups of antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and other common mediations. Results 9898 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 13 hospitals in New York between March 1 to August 31, 2020, who had an complete records on admission were retrospectively analyzed. LCA measured were alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin, and were defined as absent, mildmoderate (up to four times elevated), or severe. Diseases and socioeconomic factors were similar to the initial study. 67.2% had hypertension, and 40.8% had diabetes. The most common medications included insulin (12.2%), metformin (18.3%), sulfonylureas (6.8%), DDP4 inhibitors (6.3%), ACE inhibitors (14.8%), ARBs (18.6%), beta-blockers (33.2%), calcium-channel blockers (26.5%), diuretics (21.6%), statins (41.5%), PPIs (22.1%), H2- blockers (6.8%), antiplatelets (31.0%), anticoagulants (20.5%). Comparisons between groups were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-squared test, and Fisher's exact test. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed. Univariate analysis showed a higher risk for severe LCA in men, Asian and Black race, non-Hispanic ethnicity. As in our prior analysis, hypertension and diabetes were associated with less frequent severe LCA. In addition, hyperlipidemia, CAD, CHF, atrial fibrillation, CKD, ESRD, GERD, asthma, COPD, cancer, and liver disease were inversely associated with severe LCA. Medications that were associated with less frequent severe LCA included statins, ACE, ARBs, calcium-channel blockers, betablockers, diuretics, antiplatelet medications, insulin, biguanide, sulfonylureas, PPIs, H2- blockers, and anticoagulants, but not oral steroids. In multivariate analysis, male gender, Asian and Black race were associated with increased risk of severe LCA. Hypertension, ESRD and asthma were associated with less frequent severe LCA, but not diabetes. Among medications, only metformin showed a statistically significant correlation with severe LCA on admission, with a hazard ratio 0.57 (p 0.0002). Conclusions Metformin use was inversely associated with severe liver chemistry abnormalities upon hospital admission with COVID- 19 in a large cohort of patients during the initial pandemic in New York.

4.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-599, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967345

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can increase the risk of thrombosis, cardiovascular events, and kidney injury, but risks among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remain unknown. We aimed to characterize risk for these complications among patients with IBD who developed COVID-19. Methods We analyzed complications of COVID-19 in patients reported to the Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) database prior to November 15, 2021. Our primary outcome was a composite of thrombotic complications (peripheral venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, thrombotic stroke, and peripheral arterial thrombosis), cardiovascular complications (new arrhythmia, heart failure, myocarditis/pericarditis, and vasculitis), and renal complications (acute kidney injury). Covariates included cardiovascular disease (including stroke), cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or smoking), pulmonary disease (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or other chronic lung disease), thrombotic risk conditions (cancer), chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, “other” comorbidities, and COVID-19 vaccination with at least one dose. Multivariable analyses assessed the independent effect of variables significant in univariate analyses. Results Among 4,923 patients reported to SECURE-IBD, 79 (1.6%) had thrombotic, cardiovascular, and/or renal complications. There were 45 (0.9%) reports of acute kidney injury, 24 (0.5%) of arrythmias, 8 (0.2%) of peripheral venous thrombosis, 5 (0.1%) each of heart failure, myocarditis/pericarditis, and pulmonary embolism, and 1 (0.02%) each of vasculitis, peripheral atrial thrombosis, and thrombotic stroke. In univariate analyses, complications were more common in patients who were older (p < 0.01), black (p < 0.01), and on corticosteroids (p < 0.01) (Table 1). Patients with severe IBD were more likely to have complications than patients in remission (p < 0.01), as were those with more comorbidities (p < 0.01). Cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular risk factors, pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease were associated with increased risk (p < 0.01 each). There was no association with vaccination status (p = 1). In multivariate analyses, age (aOR 1.04 [1.03, 1.06]), black race (aOR 4.02 [1.53, 10.55]), severe IBD (aOR 3.21 [1.31, 7.86]), corticosteroid use (aOR 3.63 [1.85, 7.12]), and one (aOR 2.33 [1.10, 4.91]), two (aOR 4.24 [1.42, 12.65]), and three or more (aOR 13.36 [3.48, 51.32]) comorbidities were significant predictors of complications (Table 2). Discussion Thrombotic, cardiovascular, and renal complications from COVID-19 were uncommon among patients with IBD. Patients with older age, black race, corticosteroid use, severe IBD, and greater number of comorbidities may require closer monitoring if they develop COVID-19. (Table Presented)

5.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-597, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967342

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), either Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), treated with immunosuppressants and/or biotherapy might have an altered immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of COVID-19 in a French cohort of IBD patients treated with infliximab or vedolizumab during the first epidemic wave and to identify factors associated with the risk of infection. Methods: All patients with IBD treated with infliximab or vedolizumab from March to June 2020 in 16 French centres were included and followed for 6 months. At baseline, clinical, demographic, family and socio-professional data were collected. At each of their day hospitalization, patients reported the occurrence of symptoms of COVID-19, and the performance of a diagnostic test, if so. Serum was collected at each visit to detect immunisation by SARS-CoV-2 at the end of follow-up and to measure trough levels. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were frozen at each visit for 50% of patients to further analyse the immunological changes associated with COVID-19. Results: 1079 patients were included (CD n=690, mean age 41.6 years, mean disease duration 13.3 years). Clinical and demographic data at baseline are detailed in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. 143 patients (13.3%) had one or more co-morbidities associated with a risk of severe COVID-19 (hypertension 5.6%, chronic lung disease 5%, diabetes 2.4%, obesity 0.3%). Over the 6 months of followup, 458 patients (42%) had active disease defined by an HBI score >4 or Mayo score >2 and/or treatment optimisation (dose increase, shortening of infusion interval, addition of an immunosuppressant or change of biotherapy). 111 patients (10.2%) received corticosteroids at least occasionally (self-medication was not excluded). 341 patients (32%) were tested for COVID-19 by nasal swab, of whom 23 were positive. Three patients were hospitalized. Regarding serology, in the first 13 centres analysed hitherto (886 patients), 20 patients were seropositive at the end of follow-up before the start of the vaccination campaign (January 2021), i.e. 2.2%, compared to 4.5% in the general population at the same period according to Santé Publique France data. Conclusion: The preliminary analysis of this French cohort confirms that patients with IBD are not at higher risk of severe COVID-19 despite the use of biotherapy and repeated hospital stays. This population was significantly less infected than the general population. Clinical, demographic and immunological factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection are being analysed as well as factors associated with a lower incidence of infection compared to the general population. (Table Presented) (Table Presented)

6.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-564-S-565, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967331

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2, the causative organism for COVID-19, uses ACE2 to enter human cells. Pancreatic ductal, acinar and islet cells also express ACE-2;therefore, involvement of the pancreas is plausible. Elevated lipase and cases of acute pancreatitis related to COVID-19 have been reported in previous studies. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) have a low-grade inflammatory state and pancreatic parenchymal fibrosis, which may predispose them to pancreatic injury and worse COVID-19 outcomes. However, large studies reporting the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with chronic pancreatitis are lacking. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using TriNetX (a multiinstitutional research network). Prevalence and Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) (cases/ personday) of COVID-19 were charted for patients with CP between January 2020 and July 2021. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 during this period were stratified into two groups based on the presence of CP (CP cohort and non-CP cohort). Outcomes of COVID-19 in the CP cohort were compared to the non-CP cohort after 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) for age, gender, race, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, lung disease, cirrhosis, smoking, and alcohol abuse. Results: A total of 4420 patients with CP diagnosed with COVID-19 were identified and compared to 1,169,773 patients without CP. A large proportion of patients with CP were diagnosed with COVID-19 and the IRR peaked between December 2020-January 2021 and then declined subsequently (Figure 1). Patients in the CP cohort were older and had a higher prevalence of multiple comorbidities (Table 1). In crude, unmatched analysis, COVID-19 patients with CP had higher mortality (4.96% vs 2.16%;RR: 2.29, 95% CI:2.02-2.61), need for hospitalization (RR: 3.64, 95% CI:3.47-3.83), critical care need (RR: 3.16, 95% CI:2.86-3.50), and acute kidney injury (AKI) (RR: 3.96, 95% CI:3.71-4.24) compared to patients without CP (Table 1). No residual imbalance was noted (SMD <0.1 for all covariates) after PSM. After PSM, no difference in mortality or rate of mechanical ventilation was noted, however, patients with CP had a significantly higher risk of hospitalizations (RR: 1.51, 95% CI:1.39-1.64) and AKI (RR: 1.28, 95% CI:1.16-1.42) (Table 1). No difference in mortality, hospitalization, and critical care was noted for patients with alcohol-induced CP vs other etiologies. Conclusion: Patients with CP have high mortality and risk of poor outcomes after COVID-19 due to the presence of a significant burden of comorbidities and risk factors for severe COVID-19. In addition, CP is independently associated with higher healthcare utilization and complications such as AKI in patients with COVID-19. (Figure Presented) Figure 1: Prevalence and Incidence rate (cases/person-day) of COVID-19 in patients with chronic pancreatitis (Table Presented) Table 1. Characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in matched and unmatched Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) and non-CP cohorts

7.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-462-S-463, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967307

ABSTRACT

Background: In COVID-19, hospitalized patients are at high risk for malnutrition upon admission due to intense catabolic processes coupled with comorbidities. Malnutrition has been strongly linked to adverse health economic outcomes in the hospital setting and society guidelines recommend early intervention to preserve lean body mass and mitigate adverse health economic outcomes. We have previously reported that malnourished African Americans (P=0.014) and females (P<0.001) were less likely to receive oral nutrition supplement (ONS) orders in a cohort of 8,713 adult malnourished patients hospitalized in a tertiary care center over a one-year period. We determined if there were disparities in the ordering of ONS in hospitalized COVID-19 patients during the height of the pandemic in 2020. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study consisting of 3,431 COVID-19 adult (18 years and older) inpatient encounters at five Johns Hopkins affiliated hospitals between March 1, 2020, and December 3, 2020. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were identified as those who were assigned an ICD-10 billing code of U07.1 for COVID-19. Malnourishment among patients was identified as those who risk screen positive upon admission by use of the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) and confirmed by registered dietitians. Patient feeding status was identified as those who had a record of diet orders placed. Patient data was derived from JH-CROWN: The COVID-19 Precision Medicine Analytics Platform (PMAP) Registry and extracted using Python 3, version 3.7.5, kernel in JupyerLab, version 1.1.4. Statistics were conducted with SAS (version 9.4) software to examine the effect of malnutrition on mortality and hospital length of stay among COVID-19 inpatient encounters while accounting for possible covariates. Results: Older patients were more likely to have received ONS (P<0.001) (Table 1). Patients with diabetes (P=0.0410), hypertension (P=0.0296), COPD (P=0.0013), and malnutrition (P=0.0106) were also more likely to have received ONS (Table 1). Males were more likely to receive ONS than females (0.0089) (Table 1). Whites were more likely to receive ONS than Blacks, Asian, or Other races (P=0.0037) (Table 1). In the logistic regression model, females (P=0.0079), blacks (P=0.0026), and Other races (P=0.0143) were less likely to receive ONS (Table 2). Patients with diabetes were more likely to receive ONS (P=0.0255) (Table 2). Older (P=0.059) patients and those with COPD (P=0.0709) are suggestive of an increased likelihood of receiving ONS (Table 2). Conclusions: Gender and race disparities exist in the ordering of ONS was in a robust cohort of COVID-19 adult inpatients from five US hospitals. Further studies should be conducted to determine if there is a widespread racial and gender bias in the ordering of ONS.(Table Presented)(Table Presented)

8.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-292, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967289

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the life of people worldwide. We used a cross-sectional survey to evaluate the effects of pandemic on inflammatory bowel disease patients registered with Johns Hopkins. We assessed the methods used to minimize the risk of infection, coping mechanisms, changes in disease activity and management in the first 6 months of pandemic. Of the 405 patients who completed the questionnaire, 240 (58.8%) had Crohn's disease, 132 (32.6%) ulcerative colitis and 35 (8.6%) unclassified IBD.The median (IQR) age was 49 (28, 71). Two hundred seventy-three (67.4%) received biologics including patients on hospital-based (4.2%) infusions, outpatient-based infusions (26.7%) and home infusion (22.2%). Majority had other comorbidities, either heart (142/35.1%) or lung disease (19/ 4.7%), diabetes (22/5.4%), hypertension (77/19%), or obesity (13/3.2%). Most patients were at low risk for infection as they lived in a non-metropolitan area (291 patients, 71.8%), did not report close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 individual (373, 92.1%), did not travel to an area with high rates of COVID-19 (381, 94.1%) and did not use public transportation (379, 93.6%). All but 2 were taking protective measures such as use of N-95 mask (90, 22.2%), commercially (271, 66.9%) or homemade mask (208, 51.4%), sanitizer (363, 89.6%) or gloves (96, 23.7%). Additionally, patients used dietary/herbal supplements (55, 13.6%), dietary modifications (98, 24.2%) to support immunity (35, 8.6%), prevent an IBD flare (28, 6.9%), or minimize medications (48, 11.9%). The most common supplement used was Vitamin C (28, 50.9%), and D (42, 76.4%). Most (344, 84.7%) had no adjustments to their medications during pandemic, 31 (7.7%) discontinued their medication and 31 (7.7%) had to add a medication. Pandemic had, reportedly, no effect to the lives of 44 (20.9%) patients but 28 (13.3%) felt depressed, 70 (33.2%) anxious, 9 (4.3%) lost their income and 60 (28.4%) had other non-specified effects. The most common stress reduction techniques used were exercise (261, 64.4%), yoga (76, 18.8%), art therapy (23, 5.7%), music therapy (40, 9.9%), journaling (28, 6.9%), and guided Imagery (18, 4.4%). Fifty-eight (14.3%) used stress reduction medications. Eight (2%) reported SARS-CoV-2 infection. Median (IQR) age was 39 years (22,50)(Table 1). The majority had CD (6, 75%) and the infection was treated at home (6, 75%). One required admission to ICU. Infection led to worsening of the disease in 2 (25%). One (12.5%) discontinued IBD treatment. Our data suggest that most IBD patients followed low risk activities and were adherent to personal protective equipment and used stress reduction techniques and dietary supplements to cope with pandemic and avoid flares. Infection rates were low and the majority did not require admission to the hospital. In the majority infection did not cause an IBD exacerbation. (Table Presented)

9.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-279, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967268

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Initial reports on US COVID-19 showed different outcomes in different races. In this study, we use a diverse large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients to determine predictors of mortality. Methods: We analyzed data from hospitalized COVID- 19 patients (n=5,852) from 8 hospitals. Demographics, comorbidities, symptoms and laboratory data were collected. Results: The cohort contained 3,662 (61.7%) African Americans (AA), 286 (5%) American Latinx (LAT), 1,407 (23.9%), European Americans (EA), and 93 (1.5%) American Asians (AS). Survivors and dead patients' mean ages were 58 and 68 for AA, 58 and 77 for EA, 44 and 61 for LAT, and 51 and 63 for AS. Mortality rates for AA, LAT, and EA were 14.8%, 7.3%, and 16.3%. Mortality increased among patients with the following characteristics: age, male gender, New York region, cardiac disease, COPD, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, history of cancer, immunosuppression, elevated lymphocytes, CRP, ferritin, D-Dimer, creatinine, troponin, and procalcitonin. Use of mechanical ventilation, respiratory failure, shortness of breath (SOB) (p<0.01), fatigue (p=0.04), diarrhea (p=0.02), and increased AST (p<0.01), significantly correlated with death in multivariate analysis. Male sex and EA and AA race/ethnicity had a higher frequency of death. Diarrhea was among the most common GI symptom amongst AAs (6.8%). When adjusting for comorbidities, significant variables were age (over 45 years old), male sex, EA, patients hospitalized in Indiana, Michigan, Georgia, and District of Columbia. When adjusting for disease severity, significant variables were age over 65 years old, male sex, EA as well as having SOB, elevated CRP, and D-dimer. Glucocorticoid usage was associated with an increased risk of COVID- 19 death in our cohort. Conclusion: Among this large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients enriched for African Americans, predictors of mortality include male gender, diarrhea, elevated AST, comorbidities, respiratory symptoms and failure, and elevation of inflammatory- related biomarkers. These findings may reflect the extent of systemic organ involvement by SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent progression to multi-system organ failure. High mortality in AA in comparison with LAT is likely related to a high frequency of comorbidities and older age among AA.

10.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-171, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967254

ABSTRACT

Background. Malnutrition has been linked to longer hospital stays and adverse health economic outcomes. In COVID-19, there is a paucity of data on whether malnutrition is associated with adverse outcomes in the hospital setting. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study consisting of 4,311 COVID-19 adult (18 years and older) inpatients at five Johns Hopkins affiliated hospitals between March 1, 2020, and December 3, 2020. Patient data were derived from their COVID-19 database JH-CROWN: The COVID-19 Precision Medicine Analytics Platform (PMAP) Registry and extracted using Python 3, version 3.7.5, kernel in JupyterLab, version 1.1.4. Malnourishment among patients was identified as those who were malnutrition nutrition risk screen positive upon admission by use of the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) and confirmed by registered dietitians, Statistics were conducted with SAS v9.4 (Cary, NC) software to examine the effect of malnutrition on mortality and hospital length of stay among COVID-19 inpatient encounters while accounting for possible covariates in linear regression analysis predicting log-transformed length of stay. Results. COVID-19 patients who are older, male, or have lower BMIs have a higher likelihood of mortality (Table 1). In the linear regression model, for every 1% increase in BMI, the length of stay decreased by 0.38% (p<0.001) (Table 2). Differences in race (p=0.001) (Table 1), were associated with differences in the likelihood of mortality and length of stay;being Asian (p=0.0029), Black (p<0.001), or Other (p<0.001) were associated with decreased length of stay compared to Whites (Table 2). Patients with diabetes, hypertension, diarrhea, COPD, and malnutrition were more likely to have higher mortality (p<0.001) (Table 1) and more likely to have a longer hospital length of stay (p<0.001) (Table 2). Overall, 12.9% (555/4,311) of adult COVID-19 patients were diagnosed with malnutrition and were associated with an 87.9% (p<0.001) (Table 2) increase in hospital length of stay. Differences in the source of admission to the hospital affected the likelihood of mortality (p<0.001) (Table 1) and length of stay (Table 2). Conclusions. In a cohort of COVID-19 adult inpatients, malnutrition was associated with a higher likelihood of mortality and increased hospital length of stay. In the linear regression model, malnutrition was associated with an increase in the length of stay by 87.9%. Interestingly, decreases in BMI were associated with increased hospital length of stay. Race and admission source also plays a key role in affecting a patient's hospital length of stay and mortality. These results support the idea that malnutrition appears to be a predictor for COVID-19 inpatient outcomes similar to that of other known highrisk comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, and COPD.(Table Presented)(Table Presented)

11.
Open Respiratory Archives ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1966975
12.
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders ; : 104086, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1966959

ABSTRACT

Background Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are a group of primary immunodeficiencies characterized by impaired immunoglobulin production and dysregulated immune response. Neurological manifestations have been described in a few patients, and little is known about its clinic and therapeutic approach. Thus, this work aimed to review the literature on it and to help differentiate CVID from its mimics, especially sarcoidosis. Methods We described a case report and included a literature review of inflammatory neurological involvement in CVID. Results A 32-year-old female patient with a medical history of recurrent bacterial infections, temporal focal epilepsy and granulomatous lung disease under study, and cervix squamous cell carcinoma, was initially admitted to the emergency department due to intracranial hypertension. After excluding infectious and neoplastic etiologies, the most likely hypothesis was that granulomatous pulmonary, cerebral, and leptomeningeal inflammatory involvement were associated with sarcoidosis. Two years later, a diagnosis of CVID was made, and the patient was secondarily diagnosed with Granulomatous and Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung Disease (GLILD) and related inflammatory brain disease – both complications of CVID. After starting targeted treatment with immunoglobulin replacement and pulse glucocorticoids followed by a chronic taper, the patient became stable. However, three consecutive failures in immunoglobulin intake during the COVID-19 pandemic led to disease recurrence with relapse of neurological manifestations. Conclusion This case illustrates the complex multiple organ manifestations of CVID. When granulomatous conditions arise in these patients, a rare lung disease arising in the context of CVID, the GLILD disease with multisystem involvement, should be taken into consideration. Early treatment with combined steroids and immunotherapy seems to be effective in controlling CVID's neurological manifestations.

13.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(4):677-686, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1965501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease (COVID 19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. While most people who were infected experienced mild to moderate symptoms and recovered without any specific treatment, only some acquired serious infection that required In-Hospital admission and intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess and describe the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality in COVID 19 Patients in a tertiary care ICU. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective Cross sectional study A total of 140 COVID19 infected patients with definite outcomes in the period between March-May 2021 were identified and their medical records were obtained from Department of Medical Records,Saveetha Medical College and Hospital. Univariate and Multiple Logistic regression techniques were used to identify the association between potential risk factors, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 140 COVID 19 positive patients were included in the study, out of which 101 expired and 39 were discharged from the Hospital.There was male predominance in the mortality group(71%). The mean age of the mortality group was 58 years. Increased risk of in hospital mortality was found in patients who were not vaccinated (p value-0.008) and in those who were vaccinated, vaccination with single dose (p value-0.022) had higher risk of mortality. Other independent risk factors were increasing age (p value-0.017),CT chest Severity(p value-0.000),CRP(p value-0.000),D-Dimer(p value-0.001), Serum Ferritin(0.002), LDH Levels(p value-0.01), Co-morbidities like Diabetes Mellitus (p value-0.015),Hypertension(p value-0.028),COPD and Asthma(p value-0.032). CONCLUSION: Age, male sex, Vaccination status, CT chest Severity, CRP and D-Dimer levels, Co-morbidities like Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, COPD and Asthma were found to be significant independent risk factors for morbidity and mortality among COVID 19 patients admitted in the tertiary care ICU.

14.
Medicina (Argentina) ; 82(4):487-495, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1965451

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the information regarding characteristics and ventilatory results comparing the first (W1) and the second wave (W2) in Argentina are limited. The main objective of this study was to describe general characteristics and ventilatory variables in COVID-19 patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and compare differences between waves. Secondarily, factors associated with mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) were studied. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study that included patients older than 18 years infected with SARS-CoV-2 consecutively admitted to ICU with IMV between August 1, 2020, and June 30, 2021. We included 412 patients. Results: We found statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) in age [W1 64(55-72) vs W2 59 (50-66) years], presence of COPD [W1 n = 42 (19.8%) vs. W2 n = 13(6.3%)], plateau pressure [W1 27(25-30) cm H2 O vsW2 24 (22-27) cmH2O], driving pressure (ΔP) [W1 15 (13-17) cmH2 O vs. W2 12 (11-14) cm H2O] compliance [W1 40 mL/cmH2O (32-46) vs. W2 = 33 mL/cm H2O (27-40)];reintubation [W1 30.4% (n = 63/207) vs. W2 13.7% (n = 28/205)]. We identified as independent factors associated with mortality the following variables: age [OR 1.07(95% CI 1.05-1.09)], the ΔP in the first 24 hours [OR 1.19(95% CI 1.10-1.28)] and W2 [OR 1.81 (95% IC1.12-2.93);p = 0.015. Discussion: During W2 the patients were younger. It was possible to achieve ventilatory mechanics more adjusted to a protective ventilation strategy. In conclusion, in the patients studied, age and ΔP were independent predictors of mortality.

15.
Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics ; 27(3):204-214, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1965315
16.
Respirol Case Rep ; 10(9): e01013, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966109

ABSTRACT

Cystic lung formation secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was described during coronavirus disease pandemic, but with relatively low prevalence. A rare yet under-recognized complication is that these cystic areas may progress to bullae, cavities and pneumothorax. We reported two cases of ruptured bullae with pneumothorax following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two patients were discharged following SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, which did not require invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). However, both patients presented again a month later with shortness of breath. Repeated computed tomography (CT) thorax showed development of bullous lung disease and pneumothorax. The first patient underwent surgical intervention whilst the second patient was treated conservatively. Development of bullous lung disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection is rare but may be associated with serious morbidity. Patients whose general condition permits should be offered surgical intervention whilst conservative management is reserved for non-surgical candidates.

17.
Applied Sciences ; 12(14):7141, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963687

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationship between chronic inflammatory diseases and their comorbidities and correlation with periodontal diseases has become an increasing focus of research. Objectives: The aim of this case-control study was to conclude if patients suffering from COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) tend to have more AP (Apical Periodontitis) than non-COPD patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 patients assigned as cases, associated with 30 control patients linked by age (+/−5 years) and sex. Results: A total of 60 patients were recorded, and a total of 12 radiographic variables were analyzed. A total of 43 (71.7%) patients were registered with PAI (Periapical Index) ≥ 3, and there was a slightly tendency in the patients from the control group 22 (73.3%) compared to those from the cases 21 (70%), respectively (p > 0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that there was not a significant association between the levels of PAI (Periapical Index) ≥ 3 per patient in those suffering from COPD. In fact, it could be concluded that patients diagnosed with COPD tend to have more teeth with PAI ≥ 3, more endodontic treatments and their periodontitis tended to accumulate more caries. Clinical Significance: This study establishes, in a case-control study, some specific aspects of oral health in patients with COPD, as well as analyzing the importance of oral health in this disease.

18.
Polish Annals of Medicine ; 28(2):244-249, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957648

ABSTRACT

I nt r o duc t i o n: First cases of a disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19), caused by a novel virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) of the coronavirus family, were detected in December 2019. The disease is manifested by a variety of symptoms and can run a different course: from oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic to the development of acute respiratory failure and even death. Ai m: The aim of this paper is to provide critical analysis of the potential pulmonary complications after COVID-19 infection. Ma t e r i a l a nd me t ho ds: We have provided the systematic literature review based on which we have discussed the pathophysiology of COVID-19, its outco-mes, risk factors and pulmonary complications. R e s u l t s a n d d i s c u s s i o n: The organs that are most often affected by a SARS--CoV-2 infection are the lungs. An infection with this virus can lead to a severe respiratory tract illness, both in the acute phase and as a complication after a rela-tively mild case. There are numerous observations of patients convalescing from COVID-19 who suffer from the interstitial pulmonary disease with fibrosis. There are also reported cases of spontaneous pneumothorax after COVID-19. Co nc l us i o ns: It should be borne in mind that other late complications may appear with time.

19.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e254-e255, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956709

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with a blistering skin eruption 5 days after the administration of the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Examination revealed tense bullae in a localized distribution confined to the dorsal aspect of her hands, forearms and ears only. This was preceded by severe pruritus. She had no mucosal involvement and was otherwise systemically well. She had a background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercholesterolaemia with no previous history of COVID-19. Skin biopsy revealed a subepidermal bulla containing numerous eosinophils in keeping with bullous pemphigoid (BP). The diagnosis was confirmed with a positive direct immunofluorescence (IF) which showed linear IgG and C3 deposition at the basement membrane zone. Indirect IF was positive for anti-BP180 and anti-BP230. The patient was treated with oral prednisolone and doxycycline to good effect She proceeded to have the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine while on treatment and did not experience a flare of BP. However, a week later, she developed erythematous annular plaques with milia over the dorsi of her hands. Skin biopsy revealed multiple milia within the papillary dermis in keeping with milia en plaque. To to our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient developing BP with subsequent milia en plaque following the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Damiani G, Pacifico A, Pelloni F, Iorizzo M. The first dose of COVID-19 vaccine may trigger pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid flares: is the second dose therefore contraindicated? J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021;35: e645-7). She has since been weaned off systemic treatment for BP;however, she continues to require ongoing input for the management of milia en plaque.

20.
Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology ; 19(4):17-18, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955684

ABSTRACT

Association of the Clinical Cell-Cycle Risk Score With Metastasis After Radiation Therapy and Identification of Men With Prostate Cancer Who Can Forgo Combined Androgen Deprivation Therapy Tward and colleagues examined the ability to identify individuals with localized prostate cancer with such a low risk for metastasis following dose-escalated radiation therapy that there is no benefit to adding ADT ( 195). A combined clinical cell-cycle risk score (CCR) combines the cell cycle progression score (CCP) with the UCSF Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment score (CAPRA). The CCR was found to be a significant predictor of metastasis (HR, 2.21;95% CI, 1.70-2.87;P=5.6×10–9). The CCR score continued to be highly predictive for metastasis in bivariate analyses when comparing ADT use vs none (HR, 2.19;95% CI, 1.68-2.84;P=1.0 × 10–8) or ADT duration as a continuous variable (HR, 2.11;95% CI, 1.59-2.79;P=3.0×10–7). Patients with CCR scores below the identified threshold of 2.112 had less than a 5% risk for 10-year metastasis regardless of ADT use (overall, sufficient ADT, radiation therapy with any duration of ADT, or radiation therapy alone with no ADT) or National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (favorable intermediate risk, unfavorable intermediate risk, or high/very high risk).

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