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1.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 506, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many patients who recovered from COVID are still suffering from pulmonary dysfunction that can be persistent even for months after infection. Therefore, treatment to prevent irreversible impairment of lung function is needed. Treamid (bisamide derivative of dicarboxylic acid, BDDA) was shown to have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of Treamid in the rehabilitation of patients after COVID pneumonia. The aim was to establish whether Treamid could be effective in ameliorating post-COVID sequelae. METHODS: The phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was done at 8 medical centers in Russia. Patients with a diagnosis of COVID in the past medical history (with the first symptoms of COVID appear no earlier than 2 months before screening) and having fibrotic changes in the lungs, decreased lung function (percentage of predicted FVC and/or DLCO < 80%), and moderate or severe dyspnea according to mMRC scale were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio (stratified by the initial degree of lung damage, age, and concomitant chronic diseases) by use of interactive responsive technology to peroral administration of Treamid 50 mg or placebo once a day for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who achieved clinically significant improvement in FVC and/or DLCO (defined as a relative increase in FVC of ≥ 10% or a relative increase in FVC in the range of ≥ 5 to < 10% plus a relative increase in DLCO of ≥ 15%) at week 4 compared with baseline. Secondary endpoints included changes from baseline in dyspnea scoring evaluated by the modified Borg and mMRC scales, pulmonary function (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, DLCO, TLC, FRC), 6-min walk distance, the overall score of the KBILD questionnaire, and the proportion of patients with a reduction in the degree of lung damage assessed by CT scores. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04527354). The study was fully funded by PHARMENTERPRISES LLC. RESULTS: 12 out of 29 patients (41%) in Treamid group achieved clinically significant improvement in FVC and/or DLCO compared to 5 out of 30 patients (17%) in placebo group (p = 0.036). There was a significant decrease of dyspnea according to modified Borg scale observed in the Treamid group (- 0.9 ± 0.7 vs. - 0.4 ± 0.8, p = 0.018). No significant differences in the adverse events were noted. Exploratory analysis of the female population indicated superiority of Treamid over placebo by decreasing dyspnea and the extent of lung damage as well as increasing TLC. CONCLUSIONS: 4 weeks oral administration of 50 mg Treamid was associated with clinically significant improvement in the post-COVID patients, evident by an increase in FVC and/or DLCO as well as decreasing dyspnea. Treamid was well tolerated and can be safely administered to patients discharged after COVID. Treamid was more effective in women visible by superior improvement of COVID sequalae after 4 weeks treatment. Considering that female gender is a risk factor associated with the development of post-COVID symptoms, Treamid might offer a pharmacological treatment for long-term sequalae after COVID and supports further investigation in future clinical trials in post-COVID patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung , Double-Blind Method , Respiratory Function Tests , Dyspnea , Treatment Outcome
2.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 158(9): 418-421, 2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105564

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pneumonia is the most frequent clinical manifestation of this disease, and its long-term sequelae and possible progression to pulmonary fibrosis are still unknown. The aim of this study is a mid-term review of the sequelae on plain chest radiography (CXR) in patients with a previous diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients and methods: Retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia, assessing the persistence of residual lesions in the control CXR and analysing their possible relationship with epidemiological factors, risk factors, treatments received and initial radiological patterns. Results: A total of 143 patients (52 women and 91 men) were analysed. Mean age was 64 years. Radiological complete resolution (CR) was observed in 104 (73%) and partial resolution (PR) in 39 (27%). Of the risk factors only age was significantly related to persistence of residual lesions (OR 1.06 CI95% (1.02,1.10). In relation to treatments, significant differences were found with tocilizumab and glucocorticoids, where treated patients had a higher risk of residual lesions (OR 2.44 (1.03,5.80) and 3.05(1.43,6.51) respectively. In the analysis of radiological patterns, significant differences were observed in patients with peripheral condensations in the acute course and a pattern of early radiological worsening. A clinical-radiological dissociation was evident: 83% of patients with residual lesions had no respiratory symptoms. Discussion: COVID19 pneumonias may have a slower radiological resolution in older patients with certain initial radiological patterns, but the development of pulmonary fibrosis in these patients is still questionable.


Introducción: La neumonía por la enfermedad por el coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) es la manifestación clínica más frecuente de esta afección, siendo aún desconocidas sus secuelas a largo plazo y la posible evolución a fibrosis pulmonar. El objetivo de este trabajo es una revisión a medio plazo de las secuelas en la radiografía simple de tórax (RxTx) de pacientes con diagnóstico previo de neumonía por la COVID-19. Pacientes y métodos: Revisión retrospectiva de pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía por la COVID-19 en la que hemos valorado la persistencia de lesiones residuales en la RxTx de control y hemos analizado su posible relación con factores epidemiológicos, factores de riesgo, tratamientos recibidos y patrones radiológicos iniciales. Resultados: Se analizan 143 pacientes (52 mujeres y 91 hombres). Edad media de 64 años. Se objetivó una resolución completa (RC) radiológica en 104 (73%) y resolución parcial (RP) en 39 (27%). De los factores de riesgo sólo la edad se relacionó significativamente con la persistencia de lesiones residuales (OR 1.06 IC95% (1.02,1.10). En relación con los tratamientos se encontraron diferencias significativas con el tocilizumab y glucocorticoides, donde los pacientes tratados tenían más riesgo de lesiones residuales (OR 2.44 (1.03,5.80) y 3.05(1.43,6.51) respectivamente. En el análisis de los patrones radiológicos se observaron diferencias significativas en los pacientes que presentaban en la evolución aguda condensaciones periféricas y un patrón de empeoramiento radiológico precoz. Se evidenció una disociación clínico-radiológica: de los pacientes con lesiones residuales un 83% no tenían síntomas respiratorios. Discusión: Las neumonías por COVID19 pueden tener una resolución radiológica más lenta en pacientes de mayor edad y con ciertos patrones radiológicos iniciales, pero el desarrollo de fibrosis pulmonar en estos pacientes es un hecho aún cuestionable.

3.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 44(10): 4735-4747, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071253

ABSTRACT

(1) Background/Aim: People infected with SARS-CoV-2 may develop COVID-19 in a wide range of clinical severity. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by several grades of chronic inflammation and collagen deposition in the interalveolar space. SARS-CoV-2 infection has been demonstrated to cause lung fibrosis without a currently elucidated mechanism. Some studies emphasize the role of proinflammatory cytokines. This research studies the correlation of the released cytokines with mortality or lung injury in COVID-19 patients. (2) Methods: Electronic medical record data from 40 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the COVID-19 Department, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel, were collected. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables were analyzed. The cytokine levels were measured upon admission and discharge. A correlation between cytokine levels and severity and mortality or lung involvement was undertaken. (3) Results: IFN-gamma and IL-10 are the most powerful risk factors for mortality in the COVID-19 patient groups in a multivariate analysis. However, in a univariate analysis, TGF-ß, CXCL-10, IFN gamma, and IL-7 affected mortality in COVID-19 patients. MMP-7 was significantly correlated with a cytokine storm and a high 4-C (severity) score in COVID-19 patients. MMP-7, TGF-ß, IL-10, IL-7, TNF-α, and IL-6 were correlated with high lung involvement in COVID-19 patients. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 were significantly increased upon discharge, but MMP-7 was decreased. (4) Conclusions: Proinflammatory cytokines predict clinical severity, lung fibrosis, and mortality in COVID-19 patients. High concentrations of TGF-ß, CXCL-10, IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-α are correlated to severity and lung injury. However, certain cytokines have protective effects and higher levels of these cytokines increase survival levels and lower lung damage. High levels of INF-γ, IL-7, MMP-7, and IGF-1 have protection probabilities against lung injury and severity.

4.
Wound Repair and Regeneration ; 30(5):A7, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063959

ABSTRACT

Background: Matrix therapy is a newly coined name emphasizing the importance of the extracellular matrix in regenerative medicine. Heparan sulfates (HS) are key elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold which store and protect most growth factors/ cytokines controlling the cell migration and differentiation required for healing processes. We have engineered biodegradable nanopolymers (alpha 1-6 polyglucose carboxymethyl sulfate) mimicking (RGTA) to replace destroyed HS in the damaged ECM scaffolding and to protect cytokines produced by healthy neighboring cells, thereby restoring the ECM microenvironment and tissue homeostasis and, if needed, provide a homing niche for cell therapy. This matrix therapy approach has considerably improved the quality of healing in various animal tissue injury models including skin, cornea, digestive mucosa, muscle lung and brain tissues showing tissue protection with reduction or absence of fibrosis resulting in a regeneration process. Due to the ubiquity of HS, numerous clinical developments have been identified and over 200 000 patients have been treated in the last 10 years for skin and corneal wounds with dedicated products based on this technology. Material(s) and Method(s): RGTA OTR4120 and 4132 have been designed to optimize binding and protection of several chemokines and growth factors, are produced in GMP facilities and fulfill all preclinical requirements for quality, safety and pharmacological data for human clinical trials. Result(s): In this short presentation we shall describe some preclinical data supporting brain ischemia protection, lung fibrosis and skin scar reduction, as well as clinical data on going trials aiming at reducing stroke sequala (safety phase 1/2*), pilot study on 13 patients with Covid (showing safety and efficacy on reduction of fibrosis, time to recovery from dyspnoea and fatigue* *). Skin scar reduction studies and submitted RCT proposal. Conclusion(s): Matrix therapy using the RGTA strategy has taken time before optimizing molecules and dosages but is now mature for a wide variety of developments and treatments. In all the cases safety was assessed and efficacy needed to be supported by RCT which are now in progress.

5.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):348, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063374

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Lung transplant may be a viable treatment option for select patients with non-recoverable COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and COVID-19-associated pulmonary fibrosis. This study aims to characterize the utilization and outcomes of lung transplant among patients with COVID-19- associated ARDS and pulmonary fibrosis. Method(s): We analyzed the Organ Procurement Transplant Network database to characterize the prevalence and characteristics of patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS and pulmonary fibrosis who were added to the waiting list and/or received a lung transplant between March 13, 2020 and July 31, 2021. Result(s): We found that 207 lung candidate registrations were added to the waiting list and 182 lung transplants were conducted for patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS or pulmonary fibrosis. The majority of lung candidates and lung transplant recipients with COVID-19-associated diagnoses were male, had private insurance, were disproportionately Hispanic and had a higher lung allocation scores (LAS) compared to patients with non-COVID-19 diagnoses. There was no significant difference in 30-day post-transplant survival among recipients with COVID-19- associated diagnoses compared to non-COVID-19 diagnoses. Conclusion(s): Future research on post-transplant outcomes among lung transplant recipients with COVID-19-associated diagnoses is warranted. Further study of outcomes may assist in refining the appropriate LAS waitlist mortality and posttransplant survival scoring for these patients. (Figure Presented).

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A2552-A2553, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060959

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Issues in Transplantation Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Fibrotic interstitial lung disease (fILD) can be idiopathic or associated with several underlying conditions and in response to various types of injury. Post COVID-19 fILD is an increasingly recognized clinical entity with the potential for a large burden of morbidity and mortality.[1] We present a series of 6 patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis as sequela of COVID-19 requiring lung transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: Four of the 6 patients had known underlying chronic ILD prior to COVID-19 infection (2 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis [IPF] and 1 each with scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis associated ILD). The other 2 patients had no prior history of lung disease and asymptomatic before infection. One of these had a strong family history of IPF. The presentations involved signs of progressive respiratory failure after the initial lung injury from COVID-19. 4 patients were hospitalized during their acute COVID-19 illness and had varying treatments including steroids, antibiotics, anti-virals, convalescent plasma, Tocilizumab, and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. At the time of transplant evaluation, CT imaging showed prominent interstitial thickening, honeycombing consistent with fibrotic processes for all our patients;PFT revealed severe restrictive ventilatory defect with reduced diffusion capacity ranging 24%-53%;3 patients required venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to transplantation for 14 and 93 days. The remainder required 6-10 L of supplemental oxygenation at rest. Two patients underwent initial transplant evaluation while in respiratory failure.5 patients received bilateral lung transplantation and one single left lung transplantation.Duration of time between initial COVID-19 induced lung injury and transplantation ranged from 3-13 months, with a median 6-7 months.Lung explant pathology showed advanced usual interstitial pneumonia in all. Superimposed diffuse alveolar damage was noted in 3 cases. Post-transplant to discharge ranged 10-31 days and at 2 months follow-up, all patients were liberated of oxygen needs. All subjects remain alive at a median 11-12 months, with no evidence of allograft dysfunction. DISCUSSION: Since the emergence of SARS-COV2 in 2019, histopathological fibrotic anomalies have been found to be present in up to one-third of those who recover from ARDS due to COVID-19 [2] and their incidence increases as duration of ARDS increases [3]. Further work is required to understand the pathogenesis of the fibrotic process following acute COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight this syndrome with our case series of 6 patients who showed progressive fibrotic disease after COVID-19. Patients with pre-exiting ILD appear to be particularly at risk but this entity may occur in those without pre-existing ILD. Lung transplantation offers a viable treatment option for selected patients with an otherwise poor prognosis. Reference #1: 1.Bharat, A., Querrey, M., Markov, N. S., Kim, S., Kurihara, C., Garza-Castillon, R., Manerikar, A., Shilatifard, A., Tomic, R., Politanska, Y., Abdala-Valencia, H., Yeldandi, A. V., Lomasney, J. W., Misharin, A. V., & Budinger, G. (2020). Lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis secondary to severe COVID-19. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences, 2020.10.26.20218636. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.26.20218636 Reference #2: 2. Rai DK, Sharma P, Kumar R. Post covid 19 pulmonary fibrosis. Is it real threat?. Indian J Tuberc. 2021;68(3):330-333. doi:10.1016/j.ijtb.2020.11.003 Reference #3: 3. Williamson EJ, Walker AJ, Bhaskaran K, Bacon S, Bates C, Morton CE, Curtis HJ, Mehrkar A, Evans D, Inglesby P, Cockburn J, McDonald HI, MacKenna B, Tomlinson L, Douglas IJ, Rentsch CT, Mathur R, Wong AYS, Grieve R, Harrison D, Forbes H, Schultze A, Croker R, Parry J, Hester F, Harper S, Perera R, Evans SJW, Smeeth L, Goldacre B. Factors associated with C VID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY. Nature. 2020 Aug;584(7821):430-436. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4. Epub 2020 Jul 8. PMID: 32640463;PMCID: PMC7611074. DISCLOSURES: no disclosure on file for Philip Camp;research relationship with United Therapeutics Please note: 2016- ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research research relationship with Pfizer Please note: 2014-2020 by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Boehringher Ingelheim Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Genentech Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria No relevant relationships by Ryan Hadley No relevant relationships by Sheila Krishnan No relevant relationships by Sheetal Maragiri No relevant relationships by Edward Murphy No relevant relationships by Jay Patel No relevant relationships by Keval Ray No relevant relationships by Gayathri Sathiyamoorthy No relevant relationships by Neel Shah No relevant relationships by Subhan Toor

7.
Chest ; 162(4):A2258, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060923

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Autoimmune Diseases Gone Wild: Rare Cases of Pulmonary Manifestations SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a complex entity related to autoimmune dysfunction and inflammation that can cause mass-like lesions and fibrosis of a variety of organs, including pancreas and/or lungs. IgG4-RD in the lung can have diverse clinical and radiographic presentations. We present a case of suspected IgG4-RD that manifested as idiopathic pancreatitis and interstitial lung disease that mimicked coal workers' pneumoconiosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72 year-old male with a decades-long coal mining history and a presumptive diagnosis of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis was admitted to the hospital for necrotizing pancreatitis. There was no evidence of gallstones, elevated triglycerides, history of alcohol use or medication known to precipitate pancreatitis. Two years prior, a presumptive diagnosis of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis had been reached largely on the basis of history and chest imaging (Figure 1) showing a progressive massive pulmonary fibrosis pattern. His hospital course was protracted and complicated by nosocomial COVID-19 treated with remdesivir and a 10-day course of dexamethasone. He then had persistent hypoxemia that worsened after dexamethasone was discontinued. Empiric high-dose methylprednisolone was given and the hypoxemia improved dramatically. However, the hypoxemia and pancreatitis repeatedly worsened with significant dose decrease. Inpatient CT chest showed worsening interstitial reticulation and ground-glass opacities superimposed on prior fibrosis (Figure 2). Serum IgG subclass levels were checked;IgG4 and IgG4:IgG ratio were mildly elevated at 93mg/dL and 0.09, respectively. In the setting of idiopathic pancreatitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and steroid-sensitive hypoxemia, he was diagnosed with probable IgG4-RD involving pancreas and lungs. An association between inhaled occupational exposures and development of IgG4-RD has been observed. To confirm the diagnosis of pulmonary IgG4-RD, a tissue biopsy will be necessary. He is now discharged from hospital on a long steroid taper. DISCUSSION: A serum IgG4 level >125mg/dL or an IgG4:total IgG ratio >0.08 support the diagnosis, as does clinical response to steroids. However, these criteria are nonspecific and will be in the normal range in a substantial minority of cases. Lymphocytes and a predominance of IgG4-positive plasma cells infiltrating fibrotic tissue in involved organs are pathologic hallmarks of IgG4-RD. Lung involvement in patients with pancreatitis due to IgG4-RD is common and likely under recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary involvement in IgG4-RD can show a wide array of radiographic patterns, but that seen in this case with pseudotumor and fibrosis is among the most commonly reported. Given the overlap in risk factors and radiographic appearance between IgG4-RD and pneumoconiosis, vigilance for IgG4-RD is warranted. Reference #1: Hirano K., Kawabe T., Komatsu Y., et al. High-rate pulmonary involvement in autoimmune pancreatitis. Internal Medicine Journal. 2006;36(1):58–61. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2006.01009.x Reference #2: Kamisawa T, Zen Y, Pillai S, Stone JH. IgG4-related disease. Lancet. 2015 Apr 11;385(9976):1460-71. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60720-0. Epub 2014 Dec 4. PMID: 25481618. Reference #3: de Buy Wenniger, L. J., Culver, E. L., & Beuers, U. (2014). Exposure to occupational antigens might predispose to IgG4-related disease. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 60(4), 1453–1454. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.26999 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Jordan Minish, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Robert Ousley, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Meagan Reif, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Derek Russell, source=Web Response

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A1990-A1991, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060882

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Dirty Jobs: Occupational Lung Diseases SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) is a group of immunologically mediated lung diseases. It develops in susceptible individuals with exposure to provoking antigens along with influence from genetic and environmental factors. There remains no standardized approach for assessing the various forms of HP and the diverse nature of the disease makes it difficult and often underdiagnosed. Cystic disease is not uncommon in HP, but the advanced cystic disease seen in our young patient was unique and likely compounded by her pregnancy as well as a previous illness with COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old female construction worker at 12 weeks gestation, with a past medical history of polysubstance abuse and previous COVID-19 infection ten months prior, presented with progressively worsening dyspnea of 9 months. She was admitted with acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to recurrent right pneumothorax requiring multiple thoracenteses and eventually chest tube placement. CT Chest demonstrated severe cystic interstitial fibrosis with emphysematous changes. Initial lung biopsy showed interstitial fibrosis as a possible sequela of COVID-19. Due to her pregnancy and medical complications, she was transferred to a transplant center where she continued to have recurrent pneumothoraces requiring video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Autoimmune workup, HP panel, and extended myositis panel were negative. However, a repeat lung biopsy pointed to subacute HP. Despite steroid and immunosuppressant initiation, her hospital course was complicated by cardiac arrest and brain death. She went on to become an organ donor. DISCUSSION: Diffuse cystic lung diseases are characterized by parenchymal destruction of the airway walls leading to expansion of the distal airspaces forming multi-lobular cysts. A broad differential diagnosis for this exists including infection, Langerhans histiocytosis, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, interstitial pneumonia, and HP. The first step to evaluate HP is a detailed history of potential exposures. Our patient worked in construction and was exposed to commonly demonstrated antigens used in paint, plastic, and wood manufacture. Pregnancy appears to trigger symptoms in some patients, seen in prior case reports. Our patient's symptoms began after her COVID infection. Though not clearly studied, some studies have proposed that dysregulation of COVID - 19 immune response triggers interstitial fibrosis as a long-term sequela. Early diagnosis and treatment with steroids are vital to the treatment and prevention of complications such as recurrent pneumothorax. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 is an emerging risk factor for the propagation of various immune-mediated diseases. Progression of disease may occur even after the infection has been cured and limited data is available regarding its relation. Early recognition and treatment can be effective life-saving measures in these patients. Reference #1: Baldi BG, Carvalho CRR, Dias OM, Marchiori E, Hochhegger B. Diffuse cystic lung diseases: differential diagnosis. J Bras Pneumol. 2017;43(2):140-149. Reference #2: Densem C, Niven R, Barber P, Bishop P. Development of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis during pregnancy. J R Soc Med. 1998;91(11):591-593. Reference #3: Ambardar SR, Hightower SL, Huprikar NA, Chung KK, Singhal A, Collen JF. Post-COVID-19 Pulmonary Fibrosis: Novel Sequelae of the Current Pandemic. J Clin Med. 2021;10(11):2452. Published 2021 Jun 1 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Anastasia Brit No relevant relationships by Steven Colby No relevant relationships by Patrick Koo No relevant relationships by Vishruth Vyata No relevant relationships by Harika Yadav

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A1866, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060877

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Drug-Induced and Associated Critical Care Cases Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Interstitial pneumonitis (ILD) is inflammation of lung interstitium leading to scarring and pulmonary fibrosis. Various etiologies include idiopathic, connective tissue disorders, sarcoidosis and drug induced1. Many chemotherapy agents have been implicated in drug related ILD such as bleomycin, taxanes. However, newer chemotherapeutic drugs such as molecular agents such as anti-VEGF, anti-EGFR (panitumumab) could be causative of drug induced ILD. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old female with stage IV sigmoid colon cancer treated with surgery, adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy and Panitumumab. She presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath and hypoxia after known COVID-19 exposure. Initial imaging with chest radiography showed bilateral ground glass opacities. A chest CT pulmonary embolism protocol was negative for pulmonary embolism but showed bilateral ground glass opacities (GGOs) and some interstitial thickening (L>R) not typical of COVID-19 infection. She was treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone, however her oxygen requirements continued to rapidly escalate. A repeat CT chest without contrast showed bilateral asymmetric interstitial thickening and GGOs. Given persistence of CT chest abnormalities, workup for interstitial lung disease was initiated. The results include ANA titer 1:80, otherwise negative ANCA profile, rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP, Scl-70, Sjogren antibodies. Given clinical history and imaging findings, diagnosis of ILD was suspected, and she was started on solumedrol 1 mg/kg. Her oxygen requirements decreased significantly over the next 2 days, and she was discharged home on oral steroid taper and pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis. DISCUSSION: Panitumumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody against EGFR. Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2006 for advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer exhibiting wild-type KRAS mutation.2 ILD is rarely reported with panitumumab monotherapy, but higher incidence when used as a combination treatment such as with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. A Japanese post-marketing surveillance study from 2010-2015 showed an ILD incidence of 1.3% but mortality rates of 51.3%.2 EGFR is expressed on basal cells and non-cilia cells of the bronchioles and type II cells of the alveolus. EGFR mediated mechanisms are important in tissue repair.3 Therefore inhibition of this pathway has been postulated to play a role in development of ILD. Another mechanism was decreased surfactant production by type II cells in pre-clinical study.4,5 ILD secondary to Panitumumab can occur at any point during therapy and up to 1 year after administration of drug.6 The role of infectious processes, in this case, COVID-19 pneumonia, could synergistically worsen ILD presentation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence of ILD is low, the mortality rate is high, therefore early recognition and treatment is associated with improved clinical outcomes. Reference #1: Mudawi D, Heyes K, Hastings R, Rivera-Ortega P, Chaudhuri N. An update on interstitial lung disease. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). Jul 2 2021;82(7):1-14. Reference #2: Osawa M, Kudoh S, Sakai F, et al. Clinical features and risk factors of panitumumab-induced interstitial lung disease: a postmarketing all-case surveillance study. Int J Clin Oncol. Dec 2015;20(6):1063-1071. Reference #3: The FASEB Journal - 2000 - Puddicombe - Involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor in epithelial repair in asthma.pdf. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Navitha Ramesh No relevant relationships by Uba Udeh

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A1854-A1855, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060873

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Diagnosis of Lung Disease through Pathology Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: This report describes the case of a patient presenting with pneumothorax and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus-2 (SARS-cov-2) infection leading to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, with worsening presentation, later found to have underlying Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis (PPFE). CASE PRESENTATION: A 68 year old male with a past medical history of hypertension and type 2 diabetes presented to his primary care clinic with shortness of breath. He underwent a Chest X-Ray as an outpatient which revealed a moderate right-sided pneumothorax (PTX), and he was sent to the Emergency Department by his primary care provider. He was found to be COVID positive on initial workup, also requiring supplemental oxygen. Other routine laboratory tests did not reveal any significant abnormalities. His shortness of breath worsened and on repeat X-rays his pneumothorax increased in size therefore a chest tube was placed by Cardiothoracic Surgery. Computerized Tomography of the chest revealed moderate right pneumothorax, bilateral diffuse ground glass opacities and pulmonary micronodules [Figure 1]. The patient had mild initial improvement and the chest tube was removed but he had recurrence of the PTX and he underwent urgent Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS), with right upper lobe wedge resection and talc pleurodesis. A biopsy of the resected lung revealed a benign lung with fibroelastotic scarring, diffusely involving subpleural tissue and prominently extending into and entrapping areas of underlying alveolated tissue, with no inflammation, granulomas or pneumonia noted. Workup for tuberculosis, autoimmune disorders, HIV was negative. He eventually was discharged home with close pulmonology and cardiothoracic surgery follow ups, planned for disease surveillance and malignancy workup. DISCUSSION: PPFE is a rare entity, and classified amongst rare causes of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) [1]. It is characterized by upper lobe fibrosis, supleural and parenchymal scarring. It can occur at any age, and the usual presentation is of pneumothorax in a thin male, with a shortened anteroposterior diameter of the chest. Radiographic findings typically include subpleural nodular or reticular opacities in the upper lobes, usually sparing the middle and lower lobes. Pathology reveals increased elastic tissue and dense collagen fibers, along with subpleural fibrosis [2]. Pulmonary function testing reveals a restrictive pattern with reduced diffusion capacity and it is usually resistant to steroids [3]. CONCLUSIONS: PPFE is an uncommon cause of insidious, slowly progressive fibrotic lung disease often limited to the upper lobes. It should be suspected in any person presenting with recurrent pneumothorax or blebs without other known inciting causes. Lung biopsy helps establish the diagnosis. Patients with this condition need close pulmonology follow up to assess progression. Reference #1: Travis WD, Costabel U, Hansell DM, King TE Jr, Lynch DA, Nicholson AG, Ryerson CJ, Ryu JH, Selman M, Wells AU, Behr J, Bouros D, Brown KK, Colby TV, Collard HR, Cordeiro CR, Cottin V, Crestani B, Drent M, Dudden RF, Egan J, Flaherty K, Hogaboam C, Inoue Y, Johkoh T, Kim DS, Kitaichi M, Loyd J, Martinez FJ, Myers J, Protzko S, Raghu G, Richeldi L, Sverzellati N, Swigris J, Valeyre D;ATS/ERS Committee on Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: Update of the international multidisciplinary classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Sep 15;188(6):733-48. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201308-1483ST. PMID: 24032382;PMCID: PMC5803655. Reference #2: Frankel SK, Cool CD, Lynch DA, Brown KK. Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: description of a novel clinicopathologic entity. Chest. 2004 Dec;126(6):2007-13. doi: 10.1378/chest.126.6.2007. PMID: 1559 706. Reference #3: Watanabe K. Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis: Its Clinical Characteristics. Curr Respir Med Rev. 2013 Jun;9(4):299-237. doi: 10.2174/1573398X0904140129125307. PMID: 24578677;PMCID: PMC3933942. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by FNU Amisha No relevant relationships by Perminder Gulani No relevant relationships by Hyomin Lim No relevant relationships by paras malik No relevant relationships by Divya Reddy

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A1810, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060868

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Diagnosis of Lung Disease through Pathology Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare pulmonary disease often resulting in diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. The majority of diagnoses present in infanthood with limited studies demonstrating late onset disease in patients older than 30 years. The mainstay of treatment is immunosuppressive therapy including systemic corticosteroids. Here we present a unique case of IPH in an unvaccinated individual with COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was a 31 year-old male with a history of IPH diagnosed in early childhood with past hospitalizations for DAH and progressive pulmonary fibrosis for which he was treated with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide years prior to this admission. He presented with six days of progressive shortness of breath and respiratory distress. He tested positive for COVID-19 four days prior to presentation. He was unvaccinated for COVID-19. Initial oxygen saturation was found to be 56% and non-invasive mechanical ventilation was started. CT angiography of the chest revealed diffuse ground glass opacities, bilateral consolidative changes, and redemonstration of pulmonary fibrosis with extensive honeycombing. Lab results were remarkable for elevated inflammatory enzymes including ferritin 1,335 ng/mL, lactate dehydrogenase 1,369 units/L, and C-reactive protein 6.5 ml/dL. Patient was started on intravenous glucocorticoids, IL-6 inhibitor, remdesivir. Work up for bacterial superinfection was unremarkable. His hospitalization was complicated by acute kidney injury, elevated liver enzymes, and anxiety. Despite the immunosuppressive therapy, the patient continued to have refractory hypoxemia. Due to his persistent hypoxemia, the family was contacted regarding the impending need for endotracheal intubation. They ultimately declined and the patient succumbed to his respiratory failure. DISCUSSION: Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis remains to be a largely unstudied and rare disease with catastrophic respiratory sequela. There remains a scarcity of evidence surrounding the most effective treatment of these patients, although limited studies have shown mortality benefit with immunosuppressive therapy. In patients with IPH an insult such as COVID-19 infection could prove fatal. Preventative measures such as vaccination is vital in the protection of these patients. Further research regarding pathogenesis and treatment mechanisms for IPH is an aim of future study. CONCLUSIONS: Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis is a rare but deadly disease often complicated by diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and pulmonary fibrosis. Considering the underlying pulmonary compromise in these patients, secondary insult from infection can have catastrophic outcomes. Reference #1: Saha B. K. (2021). Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis: A state of the art review. Respiratory medicine, 176, 106234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106234 Reference #2: Ioachimescu, O. C., Sieber, S., & Kotch, A. (2004). Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis revisited. The European respiratory journal, 24(1), 162–170. https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.04.00116302 Reference #3: Thornton, G. & Alotaibi, M. (2016). 979: IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY HEMOSIDEROSIS IN ADULT PATIENTS: AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS. Critical Care Medicine, 44 (12), 321-321. doi: 10.1097/01.ccm.0000509655.03624.6e. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Allison Kunze No relevant relationships by Mohammed Siddiqui

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A1778, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060860

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Drug-Induced Lung Injury and Disease SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Lomustine, a nitrosurea, inhibits DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis by carbamylation and alkylation, leading to cytotoxic effects 1, 3. Its concentration is high in the central nervous system (CNS) and therefore is commonly used for the management of CNS tumors including recurrent glioblastoma. While known side effects include pancytopenia, few pulmonary toxicities have been reported. This case is a rare example of lomustine induced pneumonitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old female with a history of glioblastoma, treated with a combination of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and temozolomide followed by stereotactic surgery and bevacizumab after disease recurrence, developed progressive dyspnea after initiating lomustine. She had received one dose of lomustine 90 mg/m2 two months prior to developing dyspnea upon exertion. At baseline, she was an active individual who played sports. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan preformed ten months prior was without any parenchymal abnormalities, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) two months prior were normal with an adjusted DLCO of 15.4 mL/mmHg/min (88%). Repeat chest CT revealed diffuse ground glass opacities, and repeat PFTs showed a moderately impaired adjusted DLCO of 10.4 mL/mmHg/min (60%). Other lab evaluation, CBC, BNP, troponin, and COVID PCR, were negative. After receiving six weeks of steroids, there was resolution of CT findings, improvement of DLCO, and relief from symptoms. DISCUSSION: More common adverse effects of lomustine are GI discomfort and pancytopenia. It is less widely documented to cause pulmonary toxicity compared to its chemical relative carmustine 1, 3. This is perhaps due to decreased alkylation ability and penetration into the lung tissue by lomustine7. There have been few case reports revealing pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Lomustine induced pneumonitis induces acute parenchymal changes of the lung demonstrated by characteristic symptoms and imaging/biopsies abnormalities after initiation of a drug. 2 Findings include breathlessness, dyspnea upon exertion, cough, hypoxia, crackles upon lung auscultation. PFT's may show a restrictive pattern with decreased FEV1/FVC ratio and DLCO. Imaging may reveal diffuse groundglass opacities, traction bronchiectasis, interlobular septal thickening, and honeycombing. Bronchoscopy with lavage would rule out infection. Management involves discontinuation of culprit medication, immunosuppression, and supportive therapies to alleviate respiratory discomfort. Lack of treatment may produce complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome and fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Lomustine is an essential treatment drug for recurrent CNS tumors. Toxicities such as pneumonitis have been rarely demonstrated. Timely recognition of pneumonitis features is key to treat this complication, improve quality of life, and prevent permanent lung compromise. Reference #1: Dent RG. Fatal pulmonary toxic effects of lomustine. British medical journal. 1982;DOI:10.1136/thx.37.8.627 Reference #2: Skeoch S, Weatherley N, Swift AJ, Oldroyd A, Johns C, Hayton, C, et al. Drug-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease: A Systemic Review. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2018;doi 10.3390/jcm7100356 Reference #3: Weiss RB, Issell BF. The nitrosureas: carmustine and lomustine. Cancer treatment reviews. 1982;https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-7372(82)80043-1 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sukhdeep Kaur No relevant relationships by Chelsea Kennedy-Snodgrass No relevant relationships by Sarun Thomas

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A1601, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060848

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Outcomes in Pneumonia and NTM SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 1:15 pm PURPOSE: The number of patients with respiratory symptoms who underwent computed tomography (CT) for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia is high. In this study, we decided to investigate the incidental non-COVID 19 related pulmonary findings due to a large number of CT scans. METHODS: It was retrospective study in Funda Hospital of Heath Ministry of Azerbaijan, Baku city and the number of enrolled patients to the study was 2567 from 1st of October 2020 to 10 30 th of March 2021.In all patients the positive RT-PCR test for COVID-19 were confirmed.Depending on COVID-19 viral pneumonia findings in lung there were two groups :1) 1589 patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia;2) 978 pateins with COVID-19 viral pneumonia RESULTS: In our study CT screening for COVID-19 viral pneumonia has detected typical viral pneumonia in 38.1%(978 of 2567) patients and in 61.9%(1689 of 2567 ) was not found CT abnormalities accordingly COVID-19 viral pneumonia.Among typical CT suggested COVID19 viral pneumonia patients the incidental pulmonary findings were found in 197(20,15%) cases, was significantly common compared to non- CT suggested viral pneumonia (OR 5.34 [0.94-12.57]95%CI;p<0.001).Common CT incidental pulmonary finding was solitary pulmonary nodule (56[28.43%] vs 21[29.58%];p<0.01) and further histopathological evaluation has detected lung cancer(primary and metastatic) in 19 patients(24.68%). Bronchectasis (commonly small size syctic and tubular bronchectasis) which was also commonest in patients with viral pneumonia (OR 2.78[0.75-6.43]95%CI;p<0.004). Emphysema was found in 69(2.69%) and was common in patients with pulmonary viral manifestation(p<0.01).Lung tuberculosis with further histological and mycobacterial confirmation was as incidentally finding in 49 cases (1.87%)( focal changes, lung inflitrate,cavitation) and commonly was found in patients with CT suggested viral pneumonia (OR 2.11[0.69-5.86]95%CI;p=0.006).Pulmonary sarcoidosis was found totally in 38(1.48%) and was common in patients with viral pneumonia (p<0.01).Idiopatic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF) with typical features of usual interstitial pneumonia(UIP) was found in 31(1,21%) patients and was commonly in male with smoking history and older age (>60 years).Common risk factors for incidental pulmonary findings were:male gender(p<0.01);tobacco smoke (p<0.01);older age(p<001);previous history of lung tuberculosis(p<0.05) comorbidities such as DM and autoimmune disorders(p<0.01) CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for COVID-19 related viral pneumonia and incidental pulmonary findings in CT scan are similar and so incidental pulmonary findings are common in CT screening for COVID-19 related viral pnemonia.Incidental pulmonary abnormalities were not associated with increased risk for ICU admission and mortality of patients. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians in paracitce with COVID-19 patients,for pulmonologists,radiologists, respiratory educators, thoracic oncologists DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Alizamin Sadigov

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A1262, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060790

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Global Pulmonary Cases SESSION TYPE: Global Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (PF-ILD) consist of a group of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) showing similar clinical phenotype of accelerated respiratory failure, frequent disease exacerbation with earlier mortality. CASE PRESENTATION: 48 year old male patient, smoker for 20 years (smoking index 20),presented with severe COVID pneumonia 9 months back where he has been admitted to ICU for 7 days. CTPA excluded PE but revealed severe covid pneumonia. inflammatory markers were consistent with cytokine storm. he has been commenced ono2 therapy with HNNC, steroid therapy(dexamethasone 6 mg for 15 days ), tocilizumab & remdisivir. he discharged from hospital after 15 days with o2 sat around 90 % on RA but still he has dyspnea on mild exertion. discharged on 40 mg steroid and tapered according to his repsonce.3 months later during his FU FVC was 55% of predicted with o2 sat on RA 84, 90 % on 2 L/M.HRCT chest showed diffuse reticulation with starting traction bronchiectasis more in both upper lobes occupying more than 10 % of lung parenchyma. he continued on CS 30 MG and with consideration of antifibrotic medications.after 2 months he developed pneumothorax on the right side where ICT was inserted for 7 days.4 months later he presented with gradual progressive SOB and gradual increase o2 requirement up to 6 L/M to maintain o2 sat around 90%.he became wheelchair bound during all his daily activities. FVC BECAME 40 %.ABG showed PO2 around 54 mmHg. evidence of irreversible lung disease, such as severe bullous destruction or evidence of established fibrosis.HRCT chest showed extensive reticulation with fibrotic changes, interstitial thickening associated with lung architecture distortion, with multiple bilateral bullous destruction on left and right upper lobe.(figure 1-2).MDT decide to start nintadanibe with discussion with lung transplantation team for possible listing. DISCUSSION: we reported a case of post covid lung fibrosis who is fulfilling criteria for being progressive and being fibrotic, as he showed decrease in FCV over 6 months more than 10%, progressive of respiratory symptoms and progression of lung fibrosis with development of bullous changes in both upper lobes. initially we know that it is too Early to address the POST COVID ILD in full details but there are many cases have been progressed and developed end sage fibrotic lung diseases.(1-2). then, the 2nd question that should be there, is "there any role of smoking for this rapid progression with development of this pattern".as there some reports about this risk but no clear evidence on large patient population CONCLUSIONS: is post covid lung fibrosis will be one of causes for progressive fibrosing lung pathology& what are the risk factors?the answer of these questions should be addressed as it may affect morbidity and mortality especially with increasing number of COVID cases. Reference #1: 1-Udwadia ZF, Pokhariyal PK, Tripathi AK, Kohli A. Fibrotic interstitial lung disease occurring as sequelae of COVID-19 pneumonia despite concomitant steroids. Lung India 2021;38:S61-3. Reference #2: 2-Kayhan S, Kocakoç E. Pulmonary fibrosis due to COVID-19 pneumonia. Korean J Radiol 2020;21:1273. Reference #3: 3-Vardavas CI, Nikitara K (2020) COVID-19 and smoking: a systematic review of the evidence. Tob Induc Dis. 18:20, DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Usama Abu Elhassan No relevant relationships by Safwat Ali Mohammed Eldaaboo

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A1205, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060789

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Autoimmune Diffuse Lung Disease Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) present with varying degrees of severity and functional impairment. Patients with CTD-ILD may often initially present for pulmonary evaluation. Pulmonologists must be familiar with the spectrum of CTD syndromes, the associated serologic testing, and referral criteria to rheumatology. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old never-smoking female with prior mild COVID-19 infection, previously vaccinated, presented to clinic with a diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis. She endorsed three years of progressive shortness of breath and dyspnea on exertion walking only eight blocks and with light household chores. The patient had worked as a professional chef in poorly ventilated kitchens. Review of systems was notable for morning stiffness and pain in bilateral hand joints with associated difficulty opening medication bottles secondary to symptoms. Previous computed tomography (CT) of the chest demonstrated peripheral, subpleural, and basal predominant reticulations accompanied by bronchiectasis and bronchioloectasis consistent with probable usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Envisia® genomic testing was performed and results were negative for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Extensive serologic testing for CTD was performed, including rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides which were normal. The patient was referred to rheumatology, and hand x-rays demonstrated diffuse MCP joint narrowing. The patient was diagnosed with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with RA-ILD and started on treatment. DISCUSSION: Multiple society guidelines recommend serologic testing to rule out CTD-ILD in patients with new ILD. ILD has been reported to occur in 20-60% of patients with RA with multiple patterns. Patients with seronegative RA are more likely to develop extraarticular manifestations of RA including fibrotic lung disease. Patients who are asymptomatic from RA-ILD may be monitored clinically for worsening RA-ILD. The selection of patients for treatment with an immunosuppressive agent or glucocorticoids should be done with a multidisciplinary team. Patients with RA-ILD and a UIP pattern may not respond to immunosuppressive medications but are typically trialed on treatment for worsening lung disease. Randomized controlled trials that included patients with RA-ILD with fibrosis have suggested a role for nintedanib, an anti-fibrotic agent, in slowing the progression of forced vital capacity decline. CONCLUSIONS: CTD-ILD is a common diagnosis in pulmonary clinics, and ILD symptoms may be the chief complaint at presentation. Providers must be familiar with diagnostic criteria for CTD and obtain a detailed review of systems that might suggest the diagnosis of CTD. Early diagnosis of CTD-ILD and monitoring of disease activity is important to prevent progression of CTD-ILD. Reference #1: Yoo H, Hino T, Han J, et al. Connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) and interstitial lung abnormality (ILA): Evolving concept of CT findings, pathology and management. Eur J Radiol Open. 2020;8:100311. Published 2020 Dec 16. doi:10.1016/j.ejro.2020.100311 Reference #2: Sahatciu-Meka V, Rexhepi S, Manxhuka-Kerliu S, Rexhepi M. Extra-articular manifestations of seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010;10(1):26-31. doi:10.17305/bjbms.2010.2729 Reference #3: Cottin V. Pragmatic prognostic approach of rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease. Eur Respir J. 2010 Jun;35(6):1206-8. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00008610. PMID: 20513909. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Brenda Garcia No relevant relationships by Zein Kattih No relevant relationships by Priyanka Makkar No relevant relationships by Jonathan Moore

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A1192, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060788

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Rare Genetic Mutations and Anatomical Variants SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 12:25 pm - 01:25 pm INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease affecting older adults that results in progressive scarring of the lung parenchyma. Familial IPF (FPF), defined by disease in two or more first-degree relatives, is estimated to occur in 2–20% of all IPF cases and can present with varying phenotypes which may be difficult to diagnose. Inherited gene variation as well as environmental factors predispose a patient to disease development. Additionally, rare genetic variants in the genes encoding surfactant A (SFTPA1, and SFTPA2) that affect alveolar stability and endoplasmic reticulum stress have been reported in less than 1% of FPF cases. Understanding these genetic variants is essential in the diagnosis and management of patients with FPF. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old Hispanic male with a history of COVID-19 one year ago (not requiring hospitalization) presented to the hospital for a two-day history of subjective fever and shortness of breath. He was hypoxic requiring oxygen via high flow nasal cannula. He was admitted four months ago for shortness of breath and treated for pneumonia. Since then, he has had chronic dyspnea with exertion. Computed tomography of the chest showed extensive ground glass opacities, worse in the right lung, with basilar and upper lobe honeycombing, and air bronchograms in the bilateral lower lobes. Family history was significant for a mother, maternal aunt, maternal grandfather, and maternal cousin who all died from pulmonary fibrosis. His maternal cousin was treated at our facility, in which genetic sequencing revealed a mutation in SFTPA2, c.697T>C. Our patient was found to have the same genetic mutation. DISCUSSION: The genetic basis of IPF remains poorly understood. Prior studies suggest only 20-30% of FPF cases harbor an identifiable causative genetic variant. Rare variants in two biologic pathways contribute to the known heritability of FPF including pathologic variants in surfactant related genes which cause improper protein trafficking leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress, defects in autophagy, and type II alveolar cell toxicity. SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 variants have been associated with FPF and lung adenocarcinoma in a small number of families and there are few reported cases. While currently the SFTPA2, c.697T>C mutation, previously reported by our group in 2016, is considered a variant of unknown significance, its occurrence in two relatives with serious progressive interstitial lung diseases suggests that it is indeed pathogenic. CONCLUSIONS: Gene sequencing should be considered for all patients with a family history of pulmonary fibrosis as identification of a rare genetic variant may offer guidance to diagnosis, prognostication, and risk stratification when considering lung transplantation as well as identify additional relatives who may be affected by IPF. Reference #1: Kropski JA, Young LR, Cogan JD, et al. Genetic Evaluation and Testing of Patients and Families with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195(11):1423-1428. doi:10.1164/rccm.201609-1820PP Reference #2: Wang Y, Kuan PJ, Xing C, Cronkhite JT, Torres F, Rosenblatt RL, DiMaio JM, Kinch LN, Grishin NV, Garcia CK. Genetic defects in surfactant protein A2 are associated with pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Jan;84(1):52-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.010. Epub 2008 Dec 18. PMID: 19100526;PMCID: PMC2668050. Reference #3: Pulmonary Fibrosis Due to a Novel Surfactant Protein Mutation R.A. Arciniegas Flores, I.A. Vital, K. Medepalli, D. DeMarzo, M.K. Glassberg Csete, R.A. Alvarez. https://doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2019.199.1_Meetings.A5437 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Roger Alvarez No relevant relationships by Eduardo Lopez Gonzalez No relevant relationships by Anita Singh

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A941-A942, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060735

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Thinking SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 09:15 am - 10:15 am INTRODUCTION: Compressive therapies to improve respiratory mechanics, such as abdominal compression, have been described in literature in patients with COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-19 ARDS) 1–3. These compressive therapies minimize the risk of barotrauma by equal distribution of pressure across the alveoli. Hence, they help with lung protective ventilation. This phenomenon of paradoxical improvement in respiratory compliance with increase in intraabdominal pressure (IAP) has not been described in ILD population. We describe a case of end-stage fibrotic ILD, secondary to hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), exhibiting a paradoxical improvement in respiratory compliance with sustained abdominal compression. CASE PRESENTATION: 56-year-old female with history of NASH-related cirrhosis was transferred to our hospital for expedited work-up of lung transplant due to rapid progression of biopsy-proven steroid-unresponsive fibrotic HP. Due to worsening hypoxic respiratory failure, she was intubated on arrival to our hospital. Following intubation, she was sedated and paralyzed and was found to have high peak and plateau pressures in supine and reverse Trendelenburg positions. However, on application of abdominal pressure, her peak and plateau pressure showed a dramatic reduction in absolute values. This reduction was sustained during the entire duration of the maneuver. Overall, it reduced driving pressures and improved the static compliance of the respiratory system. We subsequently applied abdominal binder (table 1) and found a similar decrease in pressures (see images). Unfortunately, due to functional disability, patient was not deemed a candidate for lung and liver transplant and was transitioned to comfort measures. DISCUSSION: Paradoxical improvement in respiratory compliance has been demonstrated in late-stage COVID ARDS1,2. The mechanism behind this is unclear. In theory, increase in IAP increases intrapleural pressures, reduces end-expiratory volume and overdistention of aerated lung1,2. We hypothesize that patients with end-stage ILD behave similarly to patients with COVID-ARDS. However, this is purely exploratory as our observations are limited by lack of intrapleural measurements. Use of abdominal compression is a simple maneuver, which can be performed at the bedside to assess for the paradoxical phenomenon. Even though we postulate that long-term abdominal compression is well tolerated, we do not know the effects of sustained long-term abdominal compression on gas-exchange and chest wall dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with end-stage fibrotic lung disease, exhibiting high-driving pressures on mechanical ventilator in supine and reverse Trendelenburg positions, can be screened for reduction in peak and plateau pressures with abdominal compression. Use of this maneuver may help in lung-protective ventilation and minimize ventilator-induced lung injury. Reference #1: Elmufdi FS, Marini JJ. Dorsal Push and Abdominal Binding Improve Respiratory Compliance and Driving Pressure in Proned Coronavirus Disease 2019 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Explor. 2021;3(11):e0593. doi:10.1097/cce.0000000000000593 Reference #2: Julia Cristina Coronado. Paradoxically Improved Respiratory Compliance With Abdominal Compression in COVID-19 ARDS. Is COVID-19 a risk factor Sev preeclampsia? Hosp Exp a Dev. 2020;(January):2020-2022. Reference #3: Stavi D, Goffi A, Shalabi M Al, et al. The Pressure Paradox: Abdominal Compression to Detect Lung Hyperinflation in COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2022;205(2):245-247. doi:10.1164/rccm.202104-1062IM DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Abhishek Bhardwaj No relevant relationships by Brandon Francis no disclosure on file for Marina Freiberg;No relevant relationships by Simon Mucha No relevant relationships by Arsal Tharwani

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A546-A547, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060624

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Lung Transplantation: New Issues in 2022 SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: Immunosuppressed patients are more susceptible to severe infection due to COVID-19. Management of lung transplant recipients is especially difficult due to constant exposure of the graft to the environment, leading to increased risk of rejection and requiring higher levels of maintenance immunosuppressive regimens. Mortality rates for lung transplant recipients with COVID-19 infection have ranged from 15% to 40% in published case series. We report our centers experience in managing lung transplant recipients with COVID-19 infections in a moderate-volume lung transplant center in Grand Rapids, Michigan. METHODS: This is a single center review of all lung transplant recipients with a COVID-19 diagnosis from March 2020 to December 2021. Recipients’ demographics and baseline characteristic, as well as their management, post infectious complications, and mortality data, were reviewed. RESULTS: In 2019, our center performed 48 lung transplants. During the study period, 42 of the 219 (19%) lung transplant recipients followed at our center had COVID-19 infections diagnosed by nasal or nasopharyngeal PCR testing. Twenty-four (57%) were male, mean age of 60.5 (range 25-77). Thirty-six (86%) patients had bilateral lung transplants. The diagnosis leading to their transplantation were COPD (N=18, 43%), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (N=12, 29%), cystic fibrosis (N=5, 12%), other pulmonary fibrosis (N=3, 7%), alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (N=2, 5%), Sarcoidosis (N=1, 2%), and ARDS (N=1, 2%). Almost all patients were on standard three drug immunosuppressive regimens which included a steroid, calcineurin inhibitor, and nucleotide-blocking agent, at the time of diagnosis. Mean time from transplant to diagnosis of COVID-19 was 34.6 months (range 1 to 104 months). Fifteen (36%) of the patients were unvaccinated. Once diagnosed, patients were advised to monitor their home spirometry and vitals at least daily. They were evaluated weekly via telemedicine by a physician or advanced practice provider. They received the following treatments: monoclonal antibody (N=31, 74%), increased steroids (N=5, 12%), remdesivir (N=2, 5%), Tocilizumab (N=1, 2%). Eleven (26.2%) patients required hospitalization, 4 (10%) required ICU admission and intubation. Mean length of stay was 7.5 days (median of 3 days). Three (7%) patients required oxygen at discharge. Of the 42 infected patients, 3 (7.1%) died on day 3, 16 and 326 days from the date of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our center reports a lower mortality rate than previously published data in lung transplant recipients infected with COVID-19. We attribute this to availability of the vaccine, early detection and treatment, as well as close monitoring of the patients. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Though COVID-19 infection can have devastating complications in lung transplant recipients, vaccinations and monoclonal antibody treatment reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Phillip Camp research relationship with United Therapeutics Please note: 2016- ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research research relationship with Pfizer Please note: 2014-2020 by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Boehringher Ingelheim Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Genentech Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria no disclosure on file for Ryan Hadley;No relevant relationships by Sheila Krishnan No relevant relationships by Edward Murphy No relevant relationships by Gayathri Sathiyamoorthy

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A406, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060587

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pathologies of the Post-COVID-19 World SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Chest radiograph has played a vital role during the Covid 19 pandemic. It has allowed early diagnosis and to assess the severity of infection. Bullous lung lesions associated with Covid 19 are of the rare occurrence. So far very minimal literature is available on the Cystic/Bullous lung changes after Covid 19. We hereby present a case of a young patient with Covid 19 who developed cystic and bullous lung changes. CASE PRESENTATION: 44-year-old man nonsmoker with no significant PMHx admitted to hospital with Covid 19 pneumonia. Patient was extremely hypoxic with SPO2 81% upon arrival to the ER. Which improved significantly after supplemental oxygen. Chest x-ray was suggestive of bilateral peripheral airspace opacities. CT Angio chest showed diffuse ground glass opacification and bilateral pulmonary embolism. Patient received Dexamethasone, Remdesivir and Tocilizumab. Patient improved and was discharged home with oxygen and Apixaban. Repeat CT scan was performed after 2 months was suggestive of evolving cystic and bullous lesions (image 1). Pulmonary function test was suggestive of moderate restrictive pattern with mildly decreased DLCO. Family history was not significant. Detailed workup for cystic lung disease including bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial brushing came back negative. Given the peripheral nature of these lesions, patient was advised to avoid strenuous activities to avoid complications like pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum. Patient continued to do well, Bullous lesions continued to improve on serial CT scans, without need for any surgical interventions. DISCUSSION: The common radiographic manifestations of Covid 19 are consolidation, ground glass opacification, mosaic attenuation, honeycombing, reticulation and air bronchograms (1). Atypical radiographic manifestation of Covid 19 pneumonia places a new challenge for the ongoing Covid 19 pandemic. The exact pathophysiology behind cystic/bullous lung lesions after Covid 19 is unclear however, it is likely from parenchymal damage, pulmonary fibrosis leading to decreased compliance versus direct lung injury by the virus. More research is warranted to identify the actual prevalence, risk factors and long-term clinical outcomes in such patients. Our patient remained clinically stable and was taken off oxygen within a few weeks upon hospital discharge and did not require any surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: With this case, we would like to add the following to the current literature: 1. Bullous/Cystic lung changes is one of rare post COVID 19 Sequela 2. Early detection and timely management can prevent life-threatening complications like pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum 3. Covid 19 should be considered as one of the differentials when dealing with Bullous/Cystic lung disease Reference #1: 1. Pednekar,P et al. doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.770778 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Belice Cabrera No relevant relationships by Belice Cabrera No relevant relationships by Parita Soni

20.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10(T7):176-179, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumomediastinum is a rare disease associated with barotrauma and uncommonly occurs in viral pneumonia. Although the underlying mechanism of the incidence of pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 patients is not fully understood, barotrauma is the most probable cause. CASE REPORT: We reported a case of a 27-year-old woman with the chief complaint that was shortness of breath and diagnosed with COVID-19 based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction examination. On the 6th day after being admitted to the hospital, suddenly, the intensity of dyspnea was increased with the decrease of oxygen saturation. Computerized tomography of the chest confirmed pneumomediastinum and pneumonia COVID-19. There was no improvement of symptoms after oxygen and steroid administration. Emergency thoracotomy was not performed;yet, and the patient has died. CONCLUSIONS: Although pneumomediastinum is benign disease and self-limited disease, the presents of pneumomediastinum may relate to worse outcomes in COVID-19 infections.

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