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1.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 30: 465-476, 2022 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2211202

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) exhibit enhanced transmission and immune escape, reducing the effectiveness of currently approved mRNA vaccines. To achieve wider coverage of VOCs, we first constructed a cohort of mRNAs harboring a furin cleavage mutation in the spike (S) protein of predominant VOCs, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2). The mutation abolished the cleavage between the S1 and S2 subunits. Systematic evaluation in vaccinated mice discovered that individual VOC mRNAs elicited strong neutralizing activity in a VOC-specific manner. In particular, the neutralizing antibodies (nAb) produced by immunization with Beta-Furin and Washington (WA)-Furin mRNAs showed potent cross-reactivity with other VOCs. However, neither mRNA elicited strong neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant. Hence, we further developed an Omicron-specific mRNA vaccine that restored protection against the original Omicron variant and some sublineages. Finally, to broaden the protection spectrum of the new Omicron mRNA vaccine, we engineered an mRNA-based chimeric immunogen by introducing the receptor-binding domain of Delta variant into the entire S antigen of Omicron. The resultant chimeric mRNA induced potent and broadly nAbs against Omicron and Delta, which paves the way to developing new vaccine candidates to target emerging variants in the future.

2.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(12): 2438-2445, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2210778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether immunocompromising conditions affect the immunogenicity of COVID-19 booster vaccination remains a concern, which impedes the vaccination campaign in people most vulnerable to COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the effect of immune dysfunction on immunogenicity of homologous and heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: Between July and August, 2021, 399 participants were randomized to receive ChAdOx1/ChAdOx1 8 weeks apart, ChAdOx1/mRNA-1273 8 weeks apart, ChAdOx1/mRNA-1273 4 weeks apart, and mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273 4 weeks apart. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG antibody titers on the day before booster vaccination and 4 weeks after booster vaccination were compared between participants with and without immunocompromising conditions. RESULTS: Among ChAdOx1-primed participants, a trend of lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers before booster vaccination were found in participants with autoimmune diseases (geometric means, 34.76 vs. 84.25 binding antibody units [BAU]/mL, P = 0.173), compared to those without. Participants receiving immunosuppressants and/or immunomodulators had significant lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers before booster vaccination than those without (geometric means, 36.39 vs. 83.84 BAU/mL; P = 0.001). Among mRNA-1273-boosted participants, anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers 4 weeks after booster vaccination were similar across all the strata. Participants with autoimmune diseases and receiving immunosuppressants and/or immunomodulators, had numerically lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers 4 weeks after booster vaccination compared to those without (geometric means, 1474.34 vs. 1923.23 and 1590.61 vs. 1918.38 BAU/mL; P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The immunogenicity of prime vaccination with ChAdOx1 decreased by immune dysfunction, but enhanced after receiving boost vaccination with mRNA-1273. Our study results support the efficacy of mRNA-1273 booster dose among immunocompromised hosts.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Taiwan , Antibodies, Viral , Immunocompromised Host , Vaccination , Immunoglobulin G , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Immunosuppressive Agents
3.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217570

ABSTRACT

Since February 2021, healthcare workers in Japan have been preferentially vaccinated with a messenger RNA vaccine (BNT162b2/Pfizer) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While many studies have confirmed that this vaccine is highly effective in reducing hospitalizations and deaths from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), antibody titers tend to decline at 3 months, leading to a risk of breakthrough infections. Thus, information is needed to support decision making regarding the third vaccination. In this study, we investigated transition of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG and neutralizing antibody titers of 37 vaccinated Japanese healthcare workers. Samples were collected six times starting prevaccination until 6 months after the second vaccination. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG levels peaked at 1 week after the second vaccination, then declined over time and decreased to <10% at 6 months after the second vaccination. Additionally, approximately one third of subjects at 6 months after the second vaccination were seronegative for the Omicron variant. Workers with low anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG levels also had low neutralizing antibody titers. These data support the active use of boosters for healthcare workers, especially for those with low anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG levels.

4.
International Journal of Advances in Intelligent Informatics ; 8(3):404-416, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2218020

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus causes a global pandemic that has adversely affected public health, the economy, including every life aspect. To manage the spread, innumerable measurements are gathered. Administering vaccines is considered to be among the precautionary steps under the blueprint. Among all vaccines, the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines provide notable effectiveness with minimal side effects. However, it is easily degraded and limits its application. Therefore, considering the cruciality of predicting the degradation rate of the mRNA vaccine, this prediction study is proposed. In addition, this study compared the hybridizing sequence of the hybrid model to identify its influence on prediction performance. Five models are created for exploration and prediction on the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine dataset provided by Stanford University and made accessible on the Kaggle community platform employing the two deep learning algorithms, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) as well as Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU). The Mean Columnwise Root Mean Square Error (MCRMSE) performance metric was utilized to assess each model's performance. Results demonstrated that both GRU and LSTM are befitting for predicting the degradation rate of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Moreover, performance improvement could be achieved by performing the hybridization approach. Among Hybrid_1, Hybrid_2, and Hybrid_3, when trained with Set_1 augmented data, Hybrid_3 with the lowest training error (0.1257) and validation error (0.1324) surpassed the other two models;the same for model training with Set_2 augmented data, scoring 0.0164 and 0.0175 MCRMSE for training error and validation error, respectively. The variance in results obtained by hybrid models from experimenting claimed hybridizing sequence of algorithms in hybrid modeling should be a concerned. © 2022, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan. All rights reserved.

5.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13 (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2215288

ABSTRACT

Understanding the T-cell responses involved in inhibiting COVID-19 severity is crucial for developing new therapeutic and vaccine strategies. Here, we characterized SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD8+ T cells in vaccinees longitudinally. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine can induce spike-specific CD8+ T cells cross-reacting to BA.1, whereas the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire usages decreased with time. Furthermore the mRNA vaccine induced spike-specific CD8+ T cells subpopulation expressing Granzyme A (GZMA), Granzyme B (GZMB) and Perforin simultaneously in healthy donors at 4 weeks after the second vaccination. The induced subpopulation was not maintained at 12 weeks after the second vaccination. Incorporating factors that efficiently induce CD8+ T cells with highly cytotoxic activity could improve future vaccine efficacy against such variants. Copyright © 2023 Nogimori, Suzuki, Masuta, Washizaki, Yagoto, Ikeda, Katayama, Kanda, Takada, Minami, Kobayashi, Takahama, Yoshioka and Yamamoto.

6.
2022 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing, and Technologies, 3ICT 2022 ; : 444-450, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2213125

ABSTRACT

The worldwide coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has accelerated substantially in the 2020, necessitating a global collaborative from various entities to create and speed vaccine development to prevent illnesses and deaths. Because of its fast development, high efficiently, safe administration, and low-cost production, messenger RNA (mRNA) has emerged as a significant technology in this epidemic. However, due of the inadequate in vivo distribution of mRNA, its chemical qualities make it difficult to use the vaccine. As a result, the goal of this study is to create and construct a sequence deep model that will be used to predict the degradation rate of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine using five reactivity values for each place in the mRNA sequence. The probability degradation rate with/without magnesium at pH10 and 50°C was one of four of these values. The fifth reactivity value shows the likelihood of the RNA sample's secondary structure. The numerical and categorical properties of the deep learning model are the most important. Categorical features are referred from the structures, sequences, and predicted loop of the mRNA sequence, while numerical features are extracted via mathematical computations. 6 models of bidirectional layers models (LSTM, GRU, LSTM+GRU (L_GRU), GRU+LSTM (G_LSTM), LSTM+GRU+LSTM (L_G_LSTM), and GRU+LSTM+GRU (G_L_GRU) give trustworthy projected outcomes because it comprises five reactivity values and validate by mean columnwise root mean square error (MCRMSE). The MCRMSE results are then used to evaluate the performance. The stronger the prediction model, the smaller the values are. The best-fitting model is L_G_LSTM with the MCRMSE difference of 0.007 will be implemented into a Graphical User Interface (GUI) prediction system. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
Revista Española de Cardiología ; 2023.
Article in Spanish | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2211325

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La pandemia causada por el coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave de tipo 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ha puesto de manifiesto una serie de complicaciones cardiovasculares, entre las que destaca la miocarditis ocasionada tanto por la propia infección por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) como por la administración de vacunas de ARN mensajero. La elevada prevalencia de primoinfección, la difusión universal de los programas de vacunación y la constante aparición de nueva información sobre la miocarditis en estos contextos, hace necesario condensar el conocimiento adquirido desde el inicio de la pandemia. Con este objetivo, el Grupo de Trabajo Miocarditis de la Asociación de Insuficiencia Cardiaca de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología, con la colaboración de la Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS), ha elaborado el presente documento que pretende abordar el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los casos de miocarditis asociados con la infección por SARS-CoV-2 o la vacuna de ARN mensajero. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has revealed several cardiovascular complications, including myocarditis caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) or after messenger RNA vaccines. The high prevalence of COVID-19, vaccination programs expansion, and the appearance of new information regarding myocarditis in these contexts make it necessary to condense the knowledge acquired since the pandemic began. With this aim, the Myocarditis Working Group of the Heart Failure Association of the Spanish Society of Cardiology, with the collaboration of the Spanish Agency for Medicines and Health Products (AEMPS), has written this document. It aims to address the diagnosis and treatment of cases of myocarditis-associated SARS-CoV-2 infection or messenger RNA vaccine.

8.
Medical Hypotheses ; : 111015, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2211143

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic applications of synthetic mRNA were proposed more than 30 years ago, and are currently the basis of one of the vaccine platforms used at a massive scale as part of the public health strategy to get COVID-19 under control. To date, there are no published studies on the biodistribution, cellular uptake, endosomal escape, translation rates, functional half-life and inactivation kinetics of synthetic mRNA, rates and duration of vaccine-induced antigen expression in different cell types. Furthermore, despite the assumption that there is no possibility of genomic integration of therapeutic synthetic mRNA, only one recent study has examined interactions between vaccine mRNA and the genome of transfected cells, and reported that an endogenous retrotransposon, LINE-1 is unsilenced following mRNA entry to the cell, leading to reverse transcription of full length vaccine mRNA sequences, and nuclear entry. This finding should be a major safety concern, given the possibility of synthetic mRNA-driven epigenetic and genomic modifications arising. We propose that in susceptible individuals, cytosolic clearance of nucleotide modified synthetic (nms-mRNAs) is impeded. Sustained presence of nms-mRNA in the cytoplasm deregulates and activates endogenous transposable elements (TEs), causing some of the mRNA copies to be reverse transcribed. The cytosolic accumulation of the nms-mRNA and the reverse transcribed cDNA molecules activates RNA and DNA sensory pathways. Their concurrent activation initiates a synchronized innate response against non-self nucleic acids, prompting type-I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine production which if unregulated, leads to autoinflammatory and autoimmune conditions, while activated TEs increase the risk of insertional mutagenesis of the reverse transcribed molecules, which can disrupt coding regions, enhance the risk of mutations in tumour suppressor genes, and lead to sustained DNA damage. Susceptible individuals would then expectedly have an increased risk of DNA damage, chronic autoinflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. In light of the current mass administration of nms-mRNA vaccines, it is essential and urgent to fully understand the intracellular cascades initiated by cellular uptake of synthetic mRNA and the consequences of these molecular events.

10.
Leuk Res Rep ; 18: 100342, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181342

ABSTRACT

Myeloma patients are at an increased risk of severe forms of Covid-19. We examined response to mRNA vaccine between myeloma patients (n.127) and healthy volunteers (n.50). Anti-spike IgG antibody were detected in 76.9% of evaluable patients. 23.1% of MM patients failed to respond at two doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Univariate analyses identified three independent adverse predictive factors of absence of immunological response to COVID-19 vaccine: extreme plasmacytosis (p < 0.001), B2M (p 0.006), and haemoglobin (p 0.008). Multivariate analysis confirmed the extreme plasmacytosis and haemoglobin value as statistically significant variables.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by an impaired post-vaccination response, high susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, and a broad spectrum of non-infectious complications. Thus, patients with CVID may be at high risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and vaccination's role in prevention is questionable. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the clinical outcomes, safety, and dynamics of humoral and T-cell immune responses induced by the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 in CVID. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study focused on the clinical outcomes (proportion of infected patients, disease severity), safety (adverse-event incidence, laboratory-parameter changes), and dynamics of humoral (specific post-vaccination and virus-neutralizing-antibody assessment) and T-cell immune responses (anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell detection) in 21 patients with CVID after a two-dose administration of BNT162b2. The patients were followed for 6 months. RESULTS: Humoral response was observed in 52% (11/21) of patients at month 1 post-vaccination but continuously decreased to 33.3% (5/15) at month 6. Nevertheless, they had a remarkably lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titer than healthy controls. The T-cell response was measurable in 33% (6/17) of patients with CVID at month 1, and it persisted for the study period. Mild infection occurred in three patients (14.3%) within the follow-up period. The vaccine also exhibited a favorable safety profile. CONCLUSIONS: The BNT162b2 vaccine elicited a measurable antibody response in a high proportion of patients, but it was limited by low titer of the virus-neutralizing antibodies and rapid waning of anti-RBD SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. T-cell response was detected in one-third of the patients and remained stable within the follow-up period. Vaccination has favorable safety and clinical-related outcomes in preventing severe COVID-19.

13.
Clin Infect Pract ; 16: 100204, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177679

ABSTRACT

An 80-year-old Japanese male patient with Behçet's disease presented with a seven-day history of fever, cough, and progressive shortness of breath after receiving a second dose of the BNT16B2b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech). The initial diagnosis was community-acquired pneumonia, and antibiotic treatment was started but proved ineffective. Twenty days after onset, his platelet count was significantly decreased. We suspected vaccine-induced pneumonitis and thrombocytopenia. After administration of prednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin, and platelet transfusions, his platelet count normalized. The pneumonia symptoms improved three weeks after onset. Herein, we also summarize previous reports of cases of pneumonitis and thrombocytopenia associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

14.
Cell Rep ; : 111729, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177160

ABSTRACT

Since the initial emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron BA.1, several Omicron sublineages have emerged, leading to BA.5 as the current dominant sublineage. Here, we report the neutralization of different Omicron sublineages by human sera collected from individuals who had distinct mRNA vaccination and/or BA.1 infection. Four-dose-vaccine sera neutralize the original USA-WA1/2020, Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.3, and BA.4/5 viruses with geometric mean titers (GMTs) of 1,554, 357, 236, 236, 165, and 95, respectively; two-dose-vaccine-plus-BA.1-infection sera exhibit GMTs of 2,114, 1,705, 730, 961, 813, and 274, respectively; and three-dose-vaccine-plus-BA.1-infection sera show GMTs of 2,962, 2,038, 983, 1,190, 1,019, and 297, respectively. Thus, the four-dose vaccine elicits the lowest neutralization against BA.5; the two-dose vaccine plus BA.1 infection elicits significantly higher GMTs against Omicron sublineages than the four-dose-vaccine; and the three-dose vaccine plus BA.1 infection elicits slightly higher GMTs (statistically insignificant) than the two-dose vaccine plus BA.1 infection. Finally, the BA.2.75 is more susceptible than BA.5 to four-dose-vaccine-elicited neutralization and three-dose-vaccine-plus-BA.1-infection-elicited neutralization.

15.
Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Biology ; 11(1):4-12, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2205027

ABSTRACT

Objective(s): The coronavirus pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 commenced in late 2019, and global wide vaccination appears to be the only reasonable solution to fight this dreadful virus. There are two main types of COVID-19 immunization using viral vector and mRNA-based vaccines. However, the impact of each of type on18 F-FDG PET/CT needs to be accurately assessed. This study aimed to compare the18 F-FDG PET/CT features of these two types of COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: A total of 188 patients referred for18 F-FDG PET/CT with a recent history of either BioNTech/Pfizer or AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccination, and a control group of 40 patients with no history of any type of recent vaccination, were included in the study.18 F-FDG PET/CT studies of vaccinated patients assessed for injection site uptake and regional nodal and systemic reactions post vaccination. The data were compared to the control group and to the contralateral side for each patient. The findings were compared between patients who received Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines. Results:18 F-FDG PET/CT was semiquantitatively positive in 50.5% of the studied population for vaccine-related features. The ipsilateral axillary and infra-and supraclavicular lymph nodes were significantly larger in size and exhibited higher metabolic activity compared to the contralateral lymph nodes after both types of vaccination. The prevalence of regional nodal reactions post Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccination was 39% and 17.9% on visual, and 61% and 47.6% on semiquantitative assessments, respectively. Patients receiving the Pfizer vaccine exhibited higher metabolic activity in the ipsilateral regional lymph nodes (p<0.05). No significant difference in the intensity of regional nodal reaction post vaccination was noted between the first four weeks. Conclusion: Significant local and regional nodal reactions are observed after both viral vector and mRNA COVID-19 vaccination with a tendency to extend toward the infra-and supraclavicular nodal stations but not to the pulmonary hilum. The greater intensity and extension of the nodal reaction after Pfizer vaccination suggests a higher possibility of false-positive results on18 F-FDG PET/CT studies using mRNA vaccination technology. © 2023 mums.ac.ir All rights reserved.

16.
Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics ; 49(10):1945-1960, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2204238

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) therapy is a novel anticancer treatment strategy based on in vitro transcription (IVT) mRNA, with promising potential for the treatment of malignant tumors. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the early 21st century has greatly promoted the application of mRNA technologies in SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Meanwhile, the research and development of the mRNA cancer vaccine has become a priority. A nwnber of key technologies, including mRNA production strategies, delivery systems, anti-tumor immune strategies, etc., have made dramatic improvements and modifications. These technologies accelerated the research progress and clinical applications of mRNA therapy, thereby greatly overcoming the bottleneck problem, such as the instability, inefficient deliveries, and weak immunogenicity of the mRNA vaccines in the past. This review provides a detailed overview of the production, delivery systems, immunological mechanisms, and antitumor immune response strategies for mRNA cancer vaccines. We list some mRNA cancer vaccines that have been used as candidates for cancer treatment and the clinical trials in the field of tumor immunotherapy. In addition, we discuss about the immunological mechanism of the mRNA vaccines to destroy tumors, as well as the challenges and prospects for the future.

17.
Organ Transplantation ; 14(1):135-141, 2023.
Article in Chinese | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2201257

ABSTRACT

Due to long-term use of immunosuppressant, poor immune function and a higher risk of critical diseases after novel coronavirus pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients, it is of significance to deliver prophylactic vaccination for this high-risk population. Studies have shown that the immune reaction of kidney transplant recipients to novel coronavirus vaccine is significantly lower than that of healthy counterparts. Standard vaccination program in the United States, such as 2 doses of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine, fails to provide sufficient protection for kidney transplant recipients. Many studies have proven that increasing the frequency of vaccination for kidney transplant recipients may enhance the vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, the role of adjusting immunosuppressive therapy in increasing vaccine efficacy remains to be elucidated. In this article, the importance, effectiveness and particularity of novel coronavirus vaccine for kidney transplant recipients and the effect of immunosuppressive therapy on the efficacy of novel coronavirus vaccine were reviewed, aiming to provide reference on the vaccination for kidney transplant recipients. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR]

18.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2198890

ABSTRACT

Background: The mRNA vaccines help protect from COVID-19 severity, however multiple sclerosis (MS) disease modifying therapies (DMTs) might affect the development of humoral and T-cell specific response to vaccination. Method(s): The aim of the study was to evaluate humoral and specific T-cell response, as well as B-cell activation and survival factors, in people with MS (pwMS) under DMTs before (T0) and after two months (T1) from the third dose of vaccine, comparing the obtained findings to healthy donors (HD). All possible combinations of intracellular IFNgamma, IL2 and TNFalpha T-cell production were evaluated, and T-cells were labelled "responding T-cells", those cells that produced at least one of the three cytokines of interest, and "triple positive T-cells", those cells that produced simultaneously all the three cytokines. Result(s): The cross-sectional evaluation showed no significant differences in anti-S antibody titers between pwMS and HD at both time-points. In pwMS, lower percentages of responding T-cells at T0 (CD4: p=0.0165;CD8: p=0.0022) and triple positive T-cells at both time-points compared to HD were observed (at T0, CD4: p=0.0007 and CD8: p=0.0703;at T1, CD4: p=0.0422 and CD8: p=0.0535). At T0, pwMS showed higher plasma levels of APRIL, BAFF and CD40L compared to HD (p<0.0001, p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively) and at T1, plasma levels of BAFF were still higher in pwMS compared to HD (p=0.0022). According to DMTs, at both T0 and T1, lower anti-S antibody titers in the depleting/sequestering-out compared to the enriching-in pwMS subgroup were found (p=0.0410 and p=0.0047, respectively) as well as lower percentages of responding CD4+ T-cells (CD4: p=0.0394 and p=0.0004, respectively). Moreover, the depleting/sequestering-out subgroup showed higher percentages of IFNgamma-IL2-TNFalpha+ T-cells at both time-points, compared to the enriching-in subgroup in which a more heterogeneous cytokine profile was observed (at T0 CD4: p=0.0187;at T0 and T1 CD8: p =0.0007 and p =0.0077, respectively). Conclusion(s): In pwMS, humoral and T-cell response to vaccination seems to be influenced by the different DMTs. pwMS under depleting/sequestering-out treatment can mount cellular responses even in the presence of a low positive humoral response, although the cellular response seems qualitatively inferior compared to HD. An understanding of T-cell quality dynamic is needed to determine the best vaccination strategy and in general the capability of immune response in pwMS under different DMT. Copyright © 2022 Dominelli, Zingaropoli, Tartaglia, Tortellini, Guardiani, Perri, Pasculli, Ciccone, Malimpensa, Baione, Napoli, Gaeta, Lichtner, Conte, Mastroianni and Ciardi.

19.
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2198669

ABSTRACT

Nanomedicine has been extensively studied for its versatility and broad-spectrum applications of theranostics in the research of respiratory disease. However, to the best of our knowledge, a scientometrics study based on the scientific knowledge assay of the overall situation on nanomedicine applied in the research of respiratory disease has not been reported so far, which would be of major importance to relevant researchers. To explore and exhibit the research status and developing trend of nanomedicines deployed in basic or clinical research in respiratory disease, the research ecosystem and exciting subareas were profiled based on the massive data mining and visualization from the relevant works reported from 2006 to 2021. Data were collected from the Web of Science database. Data statistics software and bibliometric analysis software were employed to visualize the research trend and the relationship between respiratory diseases and nanomedicines in each representative direction. The cluster analysis and burst detections indicated that the improvement of drug delivery and vaccine developments are the up-to-date key directions in nanomedicines for respiratory disease research and treatments. Furthermore, we emphatically studied four branch areas in this field including COVID-19, nanotube, respiratory syncytial virus, and mRNA vaccine those are selected for in-depth mining and bibliometric coupling analysis. Research trends signify the future focuses will center on preventing respiratory diseases with mRNA vaccines using nanoparticle-based approaches. We anticipate our study will enable researchers to have the panorama and deep insights in this area, thus inspiriting further exploitations especially the nanobiomaterial-based systems for theranostic applications in respiratory disease treatment.

20.
Journal of Korean Ophthalmological Society ; 63(12):1033-1037, 2022.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2198603

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To report two cases of cataract that progressed after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Case summary: Two patients visited our clinic with decreased visual acuity in the left eye that began after mRNA vaccine. A 40-year-old man visited our hospital with decreased visual acuity in the left eye that developed 1 week after injection of the second dose of mRNA-1273 (Moderna®, Cambridge, UK). A 40-year-old woman visited our clinic with decreased visual acuity in the left eye that occurred on day 46 after the injection of the third dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer®, New York, NY, USA). Neither case had any relevant ophthalmic history, and there was no clear optic neuropathy or retinopathy on fundus examination. After phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, the best-corrected visual acuity improved, and intraocular pressure has remained stable. Conclusions: The possibility of cataract development or progression after COVID-19 mRNA vaccine injection should be considered. ©2022 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

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