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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 915034, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198841

ABSTRACT

The rapid development, approval, and production of vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in less than 1 year after the first reports of a new infectious disease was a real game changer, providing 80%-90% efficacy in preventing severe etiopathologies of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These vaccines induce an immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein located on the surface of the virus particle. Antibodies (Abs) recognizing the S-protein can inhibit binding of the virus via the S-protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor expressed on different human cells, especially when these Abs bind to the interaction site, the so-called receptor-binding domain (RBD). We have expressed the RBDs of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and five variants of concern (VOCs) to test the immune response in people before vaccination with mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 and after up to three vaccinations using in-house ELISA and inhibition assays. The methods of both assays are provided. Both vaccines initiated similarly high IgG titers after two vaccinations against the wild-type and even two VOC-RBDs (alpha and delta) and strongly inhibited the corresponding RBD-ACE-2 binding. The IgG titers and inhibition of ACE-2 binding were lower for beta and gamma RBDs and much lower for omicron RBD. The third vaccination after 6 months strongly increased both the IgG titers and the neutralizing effect against all variants, especially for omicron, leading to 63% ± 13% neutralization potential. Importantly, neutralization linearly increased with the IgG titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Southern California was conducted to evaluate the relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) of a booster-dose vs. 2-dose primary series of mRNA-1273 in immunocompetent individuals during periods of Delta and Omicron predominance. METHODS: Immunocompetent adults who received a booster dose of mRNA-1273 from October through December 2021 were matched 1:1 to randomly selected 2-dose mRNA-1273 recipients by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and second dose date, and followed up through January 2022. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), comparing outcomes (SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 hospitalization and hospital death) in the booster-dose and 2-dose groups. Adjusted rVE (%) was calculated as (1-aHR)x100. aHRs and rVEs were also estimated for SARS-CoV-2 infection by subgroups (age, sex, race/ethnicity, history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, pregnancy, chronic diseases), and for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 disease by month of follow-up. RESULTS: The study included 431,328 booster-dose vaccinated adults matched to 431,328 2-dose vaccinated adults. rVE was 61.3% (95%CI: 60.5-62.2%) against SARS-CoV-2 infection, 89.0% (86.2-91.2%) against COVID-19 hospitalization, and 96.0% (68.0-99.5%) against COVID-19 hospital death. rVE against SARS-CoV-2 infection ranged from 55.6% to 66.7% across all subgroups. rVE against SARS-CoV-2 infection decreased from 67.1% (0-<1 month of follow-up) to 30.5% (2-<3 months). For COVID-19 hospitalization, rVE decreased from 91.2% (0-<1 month) to 78.7% (2-<3 months). CONCLUSIONS: Among immunocompetent adults, the mRNA-1273 booster conferred additional protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 disease compared to the 2-dose mRNA-1273 primary series during periods of Delta and Omicron predominance.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The reactogenicity and immunogenicity of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines is well-studied. Little is known regarding the relationship between immunogenicity and reactogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: This study assessed the association between immunogenicity and reactogenicity after two mRNA-1273 (100 µg) injections in 1671 total adolescent and adult participants (≥12 years) from the primary immunogenicity sets of the blinded periods of the Coronavirus Efficacy (COVE) and TeenCOVE trials. Associations between immunogenicity through day 57 and solicited ARs after the first and second injections of mRNA-1273 were evaluated among participants with and without solicited ARs using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: The mRNA-1273 reactogenicity in this combined analysis set was similar to that reported for these trials. The vaccine elicited high neutralizing antibody (nAb) geometric mean titers (GMTs) in evaluable participants. GMTs at day 57 were significantly higher in participants who experienced solicited systemic ARs after the second injection (1227.2 [1164.4-1293.5]) than those who did not (980.1 [886.8-1083.2], p = 0.001) and were associated with fever, chills, headache, fatigue, myalgia, and arthralgia. Significant associations with local ARs were not found. CONCLUSIONS: These data show an association of systemic ARs with increased nAb titers following a second mRNA-1273 injection. While these data indicate systemic ARs are associated with increased antibody titers, high nAb titers were observed in participants after both injections, consistent with the immunogenicity and efficacy in these trials. These results add to the body of evidence regarding the relationship of immunogenicity and reactogenicity and can contribute toward the design of future mRNA vaccines.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1):7, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2196093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By August 2022, CoronaVirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) had caused 600 million illnesses and 6.5 million fatalities globally. A massive vaccination program is being implemented worldwide to suppress this condition. Several works of literature stated that mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, specifically with the mRNA-1273 vaccine, is followed by clear evidence of the COVID arm effects associated with this vaccine. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the latest evidence of COVID arm as a common effect of mRNA-1273 vaccination with the ultimate goal of improving vaccine counseling to help healthcare professionals and reassure patients. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed on topics that assess the COVID arm as a cutaneous manifestation following mRNA-1273 vaccination from inception up until July 2022. RESULTS: Eighteen studies with a total of 1129 participants after the first and second dose of mRNA-1273 vaccination reported that most participants had COVID arm following the first dose administration. The characteristics of the patients were a mean age of 43.8 years old, and females represented ≥ 50% in most studies, with a mean onset of 6.9 days after the first dose administration. Symptoms resolved within seven days following the treatment and were harmless. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the COVID arm condition is most common following the first mRNA-1273 vaccination in the female and middle-aged group. The correlation between demographic variables and COVID arm risk elucidates that the reaction is a type IV allergic skin reaction.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3):e2211132120, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2186696

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are effective at limiting disease severity, but effectiveness is lower among patients with cancer or immunosuppression. Effectiveness wanes with time and varies by vaccine type. Moreover, previously prescribed vaccines were based on the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein that emerging variants may evade. Here, we describe a mechanistic mathematical model for vaccination-induced immunity. We validate it with available clinical data and use it to simulate the effectiveness of vaccines against viral variants with lower antigenicity, increased virulence, or enhanced cell binding for various vaccine platforms. The analysis includes the omicron variant as well as hypothetical future variants with even greater immune evasion of vaccine-induced antibodies and addresses the potential benefits of the new bivalent vaccines. We further account for concurrent cancer or underlying immunosuppression. The model confirms enhanced immunogenicity following booster vaccination in immunosuppressed patients but predicts ongoing booster requirements for these individuals to maintain protection. We further studied the impact of variants on immunosuppressed individuals as a function of the interval between multiple booster doses. Our model suggests possible strategies for future vaccinations and suggests tailored strategies for high-risk groups.

6.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2180608

ABSTRACT

Anti-spike receptor binding domain (S-RBD) antibody against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which best correlates with virus-neutralizing antibody is useful for estimating the period of protection and identifying the timing of additional booster doses. Long-term transition of the S-RBD antibody titer and the antibody responses among healthy individuals remain unclear. In the present study, therefore, we monitored the S-RBD antibody titers of 16 healthcare workers every 4 weeks for 76 weeks after vaccination with a fourth dose of mRNA-1273 (Moderna) following three doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) using two commercial automated immunoassays (Roche and Abbott). Two antibody responses to the vaccine were similar with an up-down change before and after the second (weeks 3), third (weeks 40) and fourth (week 72) vaccinations, but the titer did not fall below the assay's positivity threshold in any individual. The peak level of the geometric mean titer (GMT) in the Roche assay was highest after the third vaccination, and that in Abbott assay was highest after the fourth vaccination but almost equal to that after the third vaccination. Both the geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) demonstrated by the Roche and Abbott assays were highest after the third vaccination. Antibody titers determined by the Roche and Abbott assays showed a positive strong correlation (correlation coefficient: 0.70 to 0.99), but the ratio (Roche/Abbott) of antibodies demonstrated by both assays increased 0.46- to 8.26-fold between weeks 3 and 76. These findings will be helpful for clinicians when interpreting results for SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels and considering future vaccination strategies.

7.
JAMA ; 328(24):2388, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172166
8.
Respiratory Investigation ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159759

ABSTRACT

Background Several reports have revealed that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection tends to have more severe outcomes in cancer patients. Although vaccination reduces the risk of severe disease, data on antibody titers achieved by vaccination is scarce in cancer patients. Methods We collected 79 blood samples (69 lung cancer patients and 10 control individuals) and conducted an anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay to compare the antibody titer achieved with current treatment. Sixty-eight patients (86%) received the BNT162 mRNA vaccine and 11 (14%) received the mRNA-1273 vaccine. They were categorized according to the current treatment: control individuals without cancer (cohort A), lung cancer patients who were treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy (cohort B), immunotherapy (cohort C), combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and immunotherapy (cohort D), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (cohort E), and radiation therapy (cohort F). Results Among 69 lung cancer patients (cohort B–F), 57 (83%) had adenocarcinoma, and 66 (96%) had advanced-stage cancer. In the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay, the antibody titer was significantly lower in lung cancer patients than in control individuals (p = 0.01). The median antibody titers were 161 AU/ml in control individuals and 59.9 AU/ml in lung cancer patients. Conclusions Antibody titers after the second vaccination were lower in cancer patients than those in healthy individuals. Our findings provide essential information for understanding the benefits and necessity of additional vaccination to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung cancer patients.

9.
10.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 921760, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142194

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: Serious adverse events following immunization (AEFI) associated with the COVID-19 vaccines, including BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen), and mRNA-1273 (Moderna), have not yet been fully investigated. This study was designed to evaluate the serious AEFI associated with these three vaccines. Methods: A disproportionality study was performed to analyze data acquired from the Vaccine Adverse Event-Reporting System (VAERS) between 1 January 2010 and 30 April 2021. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) method was used to identify the association between the COVID-19 vaccines BNT162b2, Ad26.COV2.S, and mRNA-1273 and each adverse event reported. Moreover, the ratio of the ROR value to the 95% CI span was applied to improve the credibility of the ROR. The median values of time from vaccination to onset (TTO) for the three vaccines were analyzed. Results: Compared with BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, Ad26.COV2.S vaccination was associated with a lower death frequency (p < 0.05). Ad26.COV2.S vaccination was associated with a lower birth defect and emergency room visit frequency than BNT162b2 (p < 0.05). There were 6,605, 830, and 2,292 vaccine recipients who suffered from COVID-19-related symptoms after vaccination with BNT162b2, Ad26.COV2.S, and mRNA-1273, respectively, including people who were infected by COVID-19, demonstrated a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, and were asymptomatic. Serious AEFI, including thromboembolism, hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension, and hepatotoxicity, were associated with all three vaccines. Cardiac failure and acute renal impairment events were associated with BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, while seizure events were associated with BNT162b2 and Ad26.COV2.S. The median values of TTO associated with the three vaccinations were similar. Conclusion: These findings may be useful for health workers and the general public prior to inoculation, especially for patients with underlying diseases; however, the risk/benefit profile of these vaccines remains unchanged. The exact mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced AEFI remains unknown, and further studies are required to explore these phenomena.

11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 948335, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141981

ABSTRACT

For a vaccine to achieve durable immunity and optimal efficacy, many require a multi-dose primary vaccination schedule that acts to first "prime" naive immune systems and then "boost" initial immune responses by repeated immunizations (ie, prime-boost regimens). In the context of the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), 2-dose primary vaccination regimens were often selected with short intervals between doses to provide rapid protection while still inducing robust immunity. However, emerging post-authorization evidence has suggested that longer intervals between doses 1 and 2 for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines may positively impact robustness and durability of immune responses. Here, the dosing interval for mRNA-1273, a messenger RNA based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administered on a 2-dose primary schedule with 4 weeks between doses, was evaluated in mice by varying the dose interval between 1 and 8 weeks and examining immune responses through 24 weeks after dose 2. A dosing interval of 6 to 8 weeks generated the highest level of antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G binding antibody titers. Differences in binding antibody titers between mRNA-1273 1 µg and 10 µg decreased over time for dosing intervals of ≥4 weeks, suggesting a potential dose-sparing effect. Longer intervals (≥4 weeks) also increased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity and numbers of antibody-secreting cells (including long-lived plasma cells) after the second dose. An interval of 6 to 8 weeks elicited the strongest CD8+ T-cell responses, while an interval of 3 weeks elicited the strongest CD4+ T-cell response. Overall, these results suggest that in a non-pandemic setting, a longer interval (≥6 weeks) between the doses of the primary series for mRNA-1273 may induce more durable immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Mice , Humans , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110309

ABSTRACT

We characterize the overall incidence and risk factors for breakthrough infection among fully vaccinated participants in the North Carolina COVID-19 Community Research Partnership cohort. Among 15,808 eligible participants, 638 reported a positive SARS-CoV-2 test after vaccination. Factors associated with a lower risk of breakthrough in the time-to-event analysis included older age, prior SARS-CovV-2 infection, higher rates of face mask use, and receipt of a booster vaccination. Higher rates of breakthrough were reported by participants vaccinated with BNT162b2 or Ad26.COV2.S compared to mRNA-1273, in suburban or rural counties compared to urban counties, and during circulation of the Delta and Omicron variants.

13.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110273

ABSTRACT

The wild-type SARS-CoV-2 Spike-based vaccines authorized so far have reduced COVID-19 severity, but periodic boosts are required to counteract the decline in immunity. An accelerated rate of immune escape to vaccine-elicited immunity has been associated with Spike protein antigenic shifts, as seen in the Omicron variant of concern and its sublineages, demanding the development of Omicron Spike-based vaccines. Herein, we review the evidence in animal models and topline results from ongoing clinical trials with such updated vaccines, discussing the pros and cons for their deployment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 80(20): 1909-1911, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2102980
15.
Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk of experiencing a systemic adverse event (AE) after mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination may be greater among persons with a history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; data on serious events are limited. We assessed if adults reporting systemic AEs resulting in emergency department visits or hospitalizations during days 0-7 after mRNA COVID-19 vaccine dose 1 were more likely to have a history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with persons who reported no or non-severe systemic AEs. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using v-safe surveillance data. Participants were ≥ 18 years and received dose 1 during December 14, 2020─May 9, 2021. Cases reported severe systemic AEs 0-7 days after vaccination. Three controls were frequency matched per case by age, vaccination date, and days since vaccination. Follow-up surveys collected SARS-CoV-2 histories. RESULTS: Follow-up survey response rates were 38.6 % (potential cases) and 56.8 % (potential controls). In multivariable analyses including 3,862 case-patients and 11,586 controls, the odds of experiencing a severe systemic AE were 2.4 (Moderna, mRNA-1273; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.89, 3.09) and 1.5 (Pfizer-BioNTech, BNT162b2; 95 % CI: 1.17, 2.02) times higher among participants with pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 histories compared with those without. Medical attention of any kind for symptoms during days 0-7 following dose 2 was not common among case-patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: History of SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly associated with severe systemic AEs following dose 1 of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; the effect varied by vaccine received. Most participants who experienced severe systemic AEs following dose 1 did not require medical attention of any kind for symptoms following dose 2. Vaccine providers can use these findings to counsel patients who had pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection histories, experienced severe systemic AEs following dose 1, and are considering not receiving additional mRNA COVID-19 vaccine doses.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 80(20): 1900-1908, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postmarketing evaluations have linked myocarditis to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. However, few population-based analyses have directly compared the safety of the 2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the risk of myocarditis, pericarditis, and myopericarditis between BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273. METHODS: We used data from the British Columbia COVID-19 Cohort (BCC19C), a population-based cohort study. The exposure was the second dose of an mRNA vaccine. The outcome was diagnosis of myocarditis, pericarditis, or myopericarditis during a hospitalization or an emergency department visit within 21 days of the second vaccination dose. We performed multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between vaccine product and the outcomes of interest. RESULTS: The rates of myocarditis and pericarditis per million second doses were higher for mRNA-1273 (n = 31, rate 35.6; 95% CI: 24.1-50.5; and n = 20, rate 22.9; 95% CI: 14.0-35.4, respectively) than BNT162b2 (n = 28, rate 12.6; 95% CI: 8.4-18.2 and n = 21, rate 9.4; 95% CI: 5.8-14.4, respectively). mRNA-1273 vs BNT162b2 had significantly higher odds of myocarditis (adjusted OR [aOR]: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.67-4.62), pericarditis (aOR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.31-4.46) and myopericarditis (aOR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.76-3.93). The association between mRNA-1273 and myocarditis was stronger for men (aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.77-5.83) and younger age group (18-39 years; aOR: 5.09; 95% CI: 2.68-9.66). CONCLUSIONS: Myocarditis/pericarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines is rare, but we observed a 2- to 3-fold higher odds among individuals who received mRNA-1273 vs BNT162b2. The rate of myocarditis following mRNA-1273 receipt is highest among younger men (age 18-39 years) and does not seem to be present at older ages. Our findings may have policy implications regarding the choice of vaccine offered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/diagnosis , Vaccination , Vaccines
17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090399

ABSTRACT

We previously reported that a second dose of BNT162b2 was safe and effective for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. Here, we investigated the safety and efficacy of a third dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in allogeneic HSCT patients. Antibody titers against the S1 spike protein were measured using the QuaResearch COVID-19 Human IgM IgG ELISA kit. The previous study included 25 allogeneic HSCT patients who received two doses of BNT162b2. Following the exclusion of three patients because of the development of COVID-19 (n = 2) and loss to follow-up (n = 1), the study evaluated 22 allogeneic HSCT patients who received a third dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2 [n = 15] and mRNA-1273 [n = 7]). Median age at the time of the first vaccination was 56 (range, 23-71) years. Five patients were receiving immunosuppressants at the third vaccination, namely calcineurin inhibitors (CI) alone (n = 1), steroids alone (n = 2), or CI combined with steroids (n = 2). Twenty-one patients (95%) seroconverted after the third dose. None of our patients had serious adverse events, new-onset graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or GVHD exacerbation after vaccination. A third dose of the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines was safe and effective for allogeneic HSCT patients.

18.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect ; 12(4): 80-84, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081649

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and ischemic organ damage. Several cases of TTP associated with administration of COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. We report a case of a 63-year-old woman with a past medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, HIV infection, and remote history of TTP who presented with several days of shortness of breath on exertion, chest tightness, low-grade fever, and bruising thirty-three days after receiving the second dose of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia with schistocytes were noted on testing, and ADAMTS13 activity was <5%. Temporizing treatment with fresh frozen plasma was started immediately on presentation, and treatment was continued with daily therapeutic plasma exchange and corticosteroids. TTP should be considered in patients who present with thrombocytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination, especially if there is a past history of TTP.

19.
Cureus ; 14(9): e29306, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072209

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Several government-sponsored reporting systems have stated mild to moderate side effects of COVID-19 vaccines. However, patient-reported data on COVID-19 vaccine-associated adverse effects in adolescents are lacking. Our objective was to assess the short-term side effects of Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 or Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccinations among teenagers in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted among individuals aged 12-18 years old who received one of the two mentioned vaccines between July 2021 and March 2022 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: The most common short-term side effects reported for COVID-19 vaccines among teenagers in our study were fatigue, pain at the site of injection, fever, chills, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Female participants, individuals who had a history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and those who received two doses of the vaccine are at higher risk to develop side effects after getting the vaccine. Importantly, asthmatic participants have a higher incidence of COVID-19 vaccine side effects when compared to those with no history of chronic diseases. CONCLUSION: Our findings might enhance public trust in the COVID-19 vaccine, which could speed up the immunization procedure.

20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071884

ABSTRACT

The durability of immune responses after COVID-19 vaccination will drive long-term vaccine effectiveness across settings and may differ by vaccine type. To determine durability of protection of COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S) following primary vaccination in the United States, a matched case-control study was conducted in three cohorts between 1 January and 7 September 2021 using de-identified data from a database covering 168 million lives. Odds ratios (ORs) for developing outcomes of interest (breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, or intensive care unit admission) were determined for each vaccine (no direct comparisons). In total, 17,017,435 individuals were identified. Relative to the baseline, stable protection was observed for Ad26.COV2.S against infections (OR [95% confidence interval (CI)], 1.31 [1.18-1.47]) and hospitalizations (OR [95% CI], 1.25 [0.86-1.80]). Relative to the baseline, protection waned over time against infections for BNT162b2 (OR [95% CI], 2.20 [2.01-2.40]) and mRNA-1273 (OR [95% CI], 2.07 [1.87-2.29]) and against hospitalizations for BNT162b2 (OR [95% CI], 2.38 [1.79-3.17]). Baseline protection remained stable for intensive care unit admissions for all three vaccines. Calculated baseline VE was consistent with published literature. This study suggests that the three vaccines in three separate populations may have different durability profiles.

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