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1.
Front Nutr ; 9: 873162, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952476

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Magnesium is an anti-inflammatory mineral that plays a role in the innate immune system, and the relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle warrants additional attention in COVID-19. This study examined the association between magnesium intake and COVID-19 severity and related symptoms in hospitalized patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done enrolling 250 COVID-19 patients aged 18 to 65 years. A validated 168-item online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess dietary magnesium intake. COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines were used to determine COVID-19 severity, and symptoms were evaluated using a standard questionnaire. Crude and adjusted analyses were performed (Model 1: age, sex, and energy intake; Model 2: Model 1 + physical activity, supplements, corticosteroids, and antiviral drugs; Model 3: Model 2 + body mass index). Results: The mean age of participants was 44.1 ± 12.1 years, and 46% of them had severe COVID-19. Patients at the highest tertile of dietary magnesium intake had lower serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers, including CRP (11.8 ± 2.2 vs. 29.5 ± 2.1 mg/L, p < 0.001) and ESR (15.8 ± 2.4 vs. 34.7 ± 2.4 mm/hr, p < 0.001), than those at the lowest tertile. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed that a higher dietary magnesium intake was associated with a lower odds of severe COVID-19 (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.15-0.70). Also, we found a significant inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and odds of COVID-19 symptoms. Conclusion: We found that higher intake of dietary magnesium was inversely associated with COVID-19 severity and symptoms.

2.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927901

ABSTRACT

Rationale Delirium affects a majority of critically-ill patients, increasing mortality and dementia risk. The absence of effective therapy reversing neuronal changes in delirium emphasizes the need for greater understanding of delirium pathophysiology. Neuroinflammation represents a common pathway through which delirium-triggering diseases act. Glial cells sense systemic inflammation across the blood-brain barrier and become activated, releasing cytokines within the brain. In one disease model, systemic infection with neurovirulent coronaviruses caused delirium and specifically increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-15 in the mouse brain. Methods Here, we tested how neuronal function was affected in a coronavirus-induced neurovirulent cytokine (NVC) model of delirium. Using whole-cell patch clamp methods, we examined how single neuron excitability in murine primary neocortical cultures was impacted by 22-28 hour incubation in NVC. Results NVC treatment depolarized the resting membrane potential (RMP) compared to control (-65 ± 1.6 mV versus -73 ± 1 mV;P < 0.0001, n = 37 and 31 respectively) without affecting action potential characteristics. Delirium is often diagnosed due to altered responses to external stimuli. NVC exposure altered the sensitivity of neurons to changes in external Ca2+ and Mg2+ from physiological (1.1 mM, T1.1) to low (0.2 mM, T0.2) levels. The frequency of spontaneous firing was substantially increased following T0.2 application in control but not in NVC-treated neurons (p=0.026, ANOVA, control: 0.02 ± 0.01 Hz to 2.1 ± 1.2 Hz, n=16, p=0.046;NVC: 0.5 ± 0.4 Hz to 0.9 ± 0.3 Hz, n = 15, p=0.16). Consistent with this, evoked spiking following current injection was also observed in control but not NVC-treated neurons following the switch from T1.1 to T0.2 (P = 0.006, 2WRM ANOVA, Control: 3.9 ± 1.2 Hz vs. 8.5 ± 1.3 Hz n=37, p<0.0001;NVC: 4.8 ± 1.3 Hz vs. 4.5 ± 1.0 Hz, n=31, p=0.78). The attenuated excitability observed in NVC-treated neurons was reversed by hyperpolarization of the RMP. Evoked firing was substantially improved in NVC-treated cells after correcting the RMP (p =0.049, ANOVA, Control: 7.5 ± 1.8 Hz vs. 10 ± 2.5 Hz, n=15, p=0.25;NVC: 6.7 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 11.7 ± 2.8 Hz, n=16 p=0.01). Conclusion Our studies indicate that NVC-treated neurons have attenuated sensitivity to microenvironment changes. As these changes are reversible by correction of the RMP, further characterization of the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is essential to identify biologically plausible targets for delirium.

3.
2nd International Conference on Electronic Systems and Intelligent Computing, ESIC 2021 ; 860:635-641, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919740

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic that affected the majority of countries of the world. After the COVID-19 outburst, the Indian Government declared the complete lockdown starting on the night of 24 March 2020. The lockdown period is in its 4th phase. In the recent year it has been very fascinating to remind that the behaviour in the environment is vastly optimistic and all layers of the earth are under the repairing mode during the lockdown. With these healing environments, the conditions of the Yamuna River water in Mathura (polluted river) have also been found to be upgrading. In this present concern, we work on the concentration of BOD, COD, pH, and other physicochemical parameters for the study, i.e. TDS, Chlorides, Alkalinity, Magnesium, Calcium, Fluoride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Hardness and Total Coliform of Yamuna River (Mathura), respectively, which was found to be reduced as compared to pre-lockdown concentration, i.e. 57, 57, 3.6, 11.7, 5.1, 7.4, 9.5, 4.2, 62.5, 14.8, 33.3, and 4.5%. In the present work, the water of Yamuna River was analysed during the lockdown phase in ITL Labs Pvt. Ltd., Delhi (India). Yamuna River showed a better quality of water during the lockdown. As per results and trend analysis, the value was reducing in this lockdown phase, which is a matter of concern. Major locations of Yamuna water sample collection are Mathura region, i.e. adjacent to the road 50 m from Adda village in Naujheel of Mathura district in Uttar Pradesh. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

4.
Electronic International Fertilizer Correspondent ; 66:12-28, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918996

ABSTRACT

As the world's population approaches eight billion people, there is an increasing demand for cereals, grains, vegetables, animal protein, as well as energy. At the same time, in the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemic, world hunger has increased. After remaining virtually unchanged for five years, the prevalence of malnutrition (PoU) increased from 8.4% to about 9.9% in just one year, further adding to the challenge of achieving the Zero Hunger target by 2030. Research Findings To sustainably increase agriculture productivity, the use of best plant nutrition practices is essential. The shortage of any one nutrient has the potential to limit the growth, productivity, and quality of crops, as stated in Justus von Liebig's "Law of the Minimum". In addition to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), attention must be paid to other macronutrients including calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S), and to the management of micronutrients as well. Balanced fertilization is essential to obtain the maximum potential for crop yield. Since 2015 a new natural mineral fertilizer, polyhalite, has stood out as an alternative fertilizer. Polyhalite provides four macronutrients in a single granule: K, Ca, Mg, and S. Polyhalite has several differential characteristics, such as a low salt content and prolonged availability of nutrients. Polyhalite has a lower carbon footprint than similar fertilizers and can be used in organic production systems. Reviewing the research into the use of polyhalite as a sustainable multi-nutrient fertilizer consistently reveals its potential to increase agricultural productivity, where it consistently and significantly improves the yield, health, and quality of a wide range of crops.

5.
Trace Elements and Electrolytes ; 38(2):98, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1918434
6.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(6):37-39, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1918387

ABSTRACT

Aim: The assessment of serum electrolytes at the time of initial presentation of the patient with respiratory tract infection possibly causing lung parenchyma and pulmonary vasculature damage and serial monitoring during the stay could be beneficial in order to determine when and how to take remedial action when necessary. Methodology: A non-probability sampling was done on 139 subjects with suspected respiratory tract infection. For confirmation, culture, MTB PCR, COVID-19 testing was done to diagnose the nature of infection. Serum electrolytes were tested on chemical analyses Alinity instrument. Results: Most common infections found were COVID-19 and bacterial (n=59) collectively in a co-morbid state. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and fungal infections were also found in (n=8) each. Electrolytes imbalance was markedly observed in high prevalence amongst Tuberculosis and COVID-19 patients but also showed significant association with other respiratory investigated infections. Conclusion: A robust association of electrolyte imbalance was found in all cases presented with upper or lower respiratory tract infections.

7.
International Journal of Pediatrics-Mashhad ; 10(6):16214-16222, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1918257

ABSTRACT

Background: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disorder that can cause microvascular and macrovascular damages in the long term as well as higher rates of mortality and morbidity in infectious diseases such as Covid-19. It has been discovered that the homeostasis of trace electrolytes like magnesium plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its related complications. We aimed to determine serum magnesium levels in children with T1DM in northwest Iran and to evaluate the relationship between serum magnesium levels and glycemic control while also assessing several anthropometric and birth-time-related factors. Methods: This cross sectional study gathered data from 50 patients with T1DM and 50 other healthy subjects matched for age and gender living in the northwest area of Iran. These children were tested during their visits to the children's hospital of Tabriz. Magnesium levels and environmental factors were measured in all study subjects. Results: We found magnesium levels to be significantly lower in children with T1DM (p < 0.001). Hypomagnesemia was also seen in 58% of the case group, which was significantly more prevalent than the 6% in the control group (p <.001). We observed a negative correlation between serum magnesium and HbA1c levels in the diabetic group (r = -0.882, p <.001). No significant correlation was found between magnesium levels and duration of diabetes, age, and gender. Conclusion: We concluded that total serum magnesium is lower in children with T1DM, which correlates with glycemic control. Further and more extended studies should be conducted to assess the effect of correction of serum magnesium in diabetic children with hypomagnesemia on glycemic control and the risk of diabetic complications.

8.
Journal of SAFOG ; 14(2):195-197, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1917985

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the article was to emphasize the need for a fetal medicine unit at tertiary care hospitals. Background: The incidence of Rh-negative in India is 5–10%. The issue of Rh incompatibility arises when the mother is Rh-negative and the fetus is Rh-positive. Rh alloimmunization can lead to fetal anemia, hydrops fetalis, and even intrauterine death. It leads to perinatal loss of 1–2.5%. Fetal anemia is a serious complication in pregnancy and is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. Intrauterine transfusion (IUT) is a good treatment option for fetal anemia due to Rh incompatibility. Intravascular transfusion offers the best chance of survival to fetuses severely affected with Rh isoimmunization, overall survival exceeding 80%. In the cases with detectable antibodies, prenatal monitoring of maternal antibody titers and fetal middle cerebral arterial-peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) Doppler ultrasound assessment helps to plan fetal blood sampling and IUT procedures. Thus, the establishment of fetal medicine unit at tertiary care centers in India is need of the hour. Case description: We report a case of 32-year-old G4P3L1END1IUD1 with Rh-negative sensitized pregnancy with fetal anemia, managed successfully with IUT. Clinical significance: Early diagnosis of fetal anemia by serial MCA-PSV measurements and referral to fetal medicine unit are important for improving the outcome in Rh-negative sensitized pregnancies. Conclusion: Establishment of fetal medicine unit at tertiary care centers is the need of the hour to improve the fetal outcome in high-risk pregnancies like Rh-negative pregnancy.

9.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 37(SUPPL 3):i67, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Electrolyte abnormalities are common among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to investigate the electrolyte changes in severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients. Hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia and hypoalbuminemia and their relationship with the severity of symptoms and prognosis will also be determined. METHOD: We enrolled 270 COVID-19 patients. Serum tests were taken from each patient on the day of admission to check the level of variables. Thereon, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels were measured twice a week and albumin levels were measured once a week. Variables such as PTH and 25 (OH) D were measured once at the beginning of the study. Other laboratory results like complete blood count, C-reactive protein and clinical data such as arterial blood oxygen levels, length of stay in the ICU and the treatment regimen were extracted from patients' medical records and history. Finally, patients were categorized as mild, moderate, severe and critical group based on the severity of the disease. The data analyses were carried out via SPSS software (version 21.0). RESULTS: Of 270 patients, 135 people (50%) were men. The mean age of patients was 46.7 years. Based on the severity of the disease, 91 patients had mild disease, 90 patients presented with moderate disease, 54 patients were in severe condition and 35 patients were critical. Hypocalcaemia (Ca2+ ≤8.6 mg/dL) was detected in 49 patients (18.1%) on admission. The mean of serum magnesium, phosphorus and albumin levels on admission was 2.2 ± 0.22 mEq/L, 3.39 ± 0.79 mg/dL and 4.49 ± 0.66g/dL, respectively. Phosphorus level was lower than 2.63 mg/dL in 11 patients (4.07%) and 43 patients (15.92%) had hypoalbuminemia. The mean 25(OH) D level was 32.92 ± 10.29 μg/L;therefore, 182 patients (67.40%) fall within the normal range (>30 μg/L). CONCLUSION: Patients with mild and moderate disease tend to develop hypocalcaemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypomagnesaemia more often than severe and critical COVID-19 patients during treatment. 25(OH) D deficiency rate was higher in the moderate group. Patients with hypocalcaemia during treatment had higher mortality than other patients. We recommend electrolytes be measured at initial presentation and serially monitored during hospitalization in order to establish timely and appropriate corrective actions and prevent the serious complications of the disease.

10.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association ; 121(7):1183-1187, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1914594
11.
Trace Elements and Electrolytes ; 39(2):90, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1913276

ABSTRACT

For decades, the macrovascular system was in the focus of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The relevance of microvascular pathology was widely underestimated but is revealed in a new break-through cardiological study. Increasing knowledge reveals the microvascular system as the essential target structure of chronic magnesium-depletion, mediating smoldering chronic disease processes. Microvascular dysfunction could be the common basis for the association of chronic magnesium deficiency and polytopic diseases of high-energy dependent organs: diabetic retinopathy, renal failure - diabetic and other -, microvascular = non-Alzheimer dementia, diastolic cardiac dysfunction (HFpEF - heart failure with preserved ejection fraction) - analog arterial hypertension - microvascular angina, atrial fibrillation but also diabetic foot and diabetic neuropathy. In early studies the actual COVID-19 pandemic is related to microvascular pathomechanisms. Following earlier results reporting better survival of intensive care patients with highly normal magnesium as well as epidemiological associations we recommended for all patients from the beginning of the COVID 19 epidemic high-dose magnesium supplementation 15 - 25 mmol (and zinc 20 mg, vitamin D 2,000 IE each/day). In the context of COVID-19, we can assume four constellations of possibly positive effects of this magnesium strategy: 1. Due to our own limited cohorts the most evident: Tolerance of immunization with Biontech/Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine was distinctly better in our cohort of over 412 vaccinations compared with published data. 2. Rare, but a few patients with more intense adverse reactions had low magnesium and/or abnormal microvascular results in pulse wave analysis. 3. COVID patients (also elderly) with documented high serum magnesium - and pre-supplemented - recovered well from the disease. 4. Two post-Corona, long-COVID patients with symptoms of fatigue, reduced mental concentration, and dizziness reacted well after repeated parenteral magnesium infusion. Whether SARS-Cov-2-antibody formation correlates with magnesium or zinc values is topic of running investigations. Systematic prospective investigations are warranted. But due to the circumstances - considering that there are no evidence-based alternatives - for healthy individuals, for persons at risk, for patients at risk of magnesium depletion as well as for COVID-19 vaccination candidates, optimizing of magnesium is justified (Global Mg COVID-19 project) - and in terms of other health concerns, the prevention of chronic microvascular disease entities also justifies supplementation. Personalized magnesium dosage in medical office should be oriented by practical serum Mg/Ca (mmol/mmol) target 0.4 - including calcium. This approach seems to us to be expedient and more successful didactically. (outpatient medicine: Mg/Ca in serum;intensive care: ionized magnesium).

12.
Trace Elements and Electrolytes ; 39(2):82-83, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1913119

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARSCoV- 2 is causing an ongoing worldwide pandemic of COVID-19. The infection with this single-stranded RNA virus appears to be completely asymptomatic in a large fraction of people and many other patients may experience mild symptoms such as fever, cough, anosmia, and myalgia. Some patients need hospitalization and some will develop an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and a significant subset will require treatment in the intensive care unit to provide respiratory ventilator support. Unfortunately, there is no causal curative treatment, so far. In this context, the potential prophylactic and therapeutic options for the novel SARS-CoV-2 infection and corresponding COVID-19, as well as interventions with special nutrients like zinc or vitamin D are discussed, especially due to their role in the immune system [1]. Possible drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 increase the risk of QT interval prolongation, e.g., chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir, ritonavir. QT prolongation can provoke life-threatening torsade-de-pointes arrhythmias (TdP) and sudden cardiac death. Mg deficiency and other electrolyte imbalances also belong to the known risk factors for QT prolongation and TdP. Consequently, it is recommended to obtain baseline assessment of Mg and other electrolytes and to correct deficiencies before using QT-prolonging drugs. Keeping serum potassium levels and Mg levels above 4 mmol/L and 3 mg/ dL (= 1.23 mmol/L), respectively, in COVID-19 patients treated with QT-prolonging drugs proved to be effective in preventing QT prolongation, and no arrhythmias or sudden cardiac arrest were registered. This is above the upper limit of the reference range (usually ∼ 1.1 mmol/L). In a single-center study (n = 524), a specially designed monitoring process in COVID-19 patients (with COVID-19-related medication) identified a high proportion of patients with QT prolongation (n = 103, corresponding to 19.7%). As part of the medical support, reaching Mg and potassium in the reference range was recommended [2, 3]. Administration of intravenous Mg sulfate is the therapy of choice for hemodynamically stable TdP, regardless of whether the patient is hypomagnesemic or has a normal serum Mg concentration. This may be a relevant reason why the German Federal Institute of Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) put Mg (parenteral) on a list with drugs whose need is greatly increased with treatment of COVID-19 patients in intensive care units [4]. On the other hand, hypomagnesemia generally is a common occurrence in intensive care patients (regardless of COVID-19) with a prevalence up to 65%, associated with an increased mortality rate, higher need for ventilator support, increased incidence of sepsis, and longer hospital stays [5]. There is increasing evidence that viral infection of the endothelial cells plays a key role in multiorgan participation and severe courses of COVID-19. This finding provides a rationale for therapies to stabilize the endothelium, in particular for vulnerable patients with pre-existing endothelial dysfunction which can be found for example in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, all of which are associated with adverse outcomes in COVID-19. Interestingly, Mg is known to be crucial for endothelial function and its deficiency causes endothelial dysfunction with impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilation. In a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs), oral Mg supplementation was shown to improve flow-mediated dilation as a marker of endothelial function. It is therefore plausible to assume that Mg deficiency further worsens the consequences of an infection with SARS-CoV-2 via induction of endothelial dysfunction. In this context, the frequent occurrence of thrombotic embolism in COVID-19 is worth mentioning. Animal and human data suggest that Mg functions as an antithrombotic agent. Hence, increased platelet reactivity and thrombosis are possible cardiovascular manifestations of Mg deficiency [6, 7]. Furthermore, increased inflammation in Mg deficiency has to be kept in mind. Experimental studies show an increased incidence of markers for inflammation in case of Mg deficiency, e.g., leukocyte and macrophage activation, pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and excessive production of free radicals. Generally, Mg deficiency is considered as a significant contributor to chronic lowgrade inflammation and, therefore, risk factor for a variety of pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. In meta-analyses of RCTs, Mg supplementation was shown to reduce C-reactive protein levels. Whether Mg deficiency or Mg supplementation may impact the inflammatory event in COVID-19 has to be investigated in clinical studies [7, 8]. To our knowledge, there are no systematic studies so far examining Mg status in COVID-19 patients. In a pooled analysis, Lippi et al. [6] confirmed that COVID-19 severity was associated with lower serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium. Therefore, measuring electrolytes at initial presentation and monitoring during hospitalization is recommended in order to be able to take appropriate corrective measures in good time. Unfortunately, serum Mg was not determined in the studies analyzed. In the above-mentioned study of Jain et al. [3], 30.1% of the COVID-19 patients with QT prolongation showed hypomagnesemia. Conclusion: In view of the relationships described, it is plausible to assume that Mg deficiency may decrease the resistance against infection with SARS-CoV-2 and, most notably, may worsen the course of COVID-19. Hence, Mg deficiency could be a risk factor for severe COVID-19, comparable to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, older age, obesity, amongst others. Interestingly, Mg deficiency is often associated with these risk factors or seen as comorbidity. However, more research questions need to be addressed before definitive conclusions can be drawn [8, 9].

13.
Trace Elements and Electrolytes ; 39(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1912856

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 9 papers. The topics discussed include: ionized magnesium is an early indicator for a magnesium deficiency in elderly hypertensives;magnesium therapy improves vitamin d deficiency in elderly hypertensives;feeling of distress and life satisfaction - the need for psychosocial and spiritual care in head and neck cancer patients;early-onset decreased magnesium and an increased calcium/magnesium ration in hypertension;malnutrition and trace elements - observations at the end of life;the Holthusen experiments and curves: Still a valuable model for the clinical evaluation of FLASH-RT;magnesium and COVID-19;and are the principles of KAIZEN useful in radiation therapy? With special reference to continuous quality improvement to side effects and normal tissue reaction.

14.
Trace Elements and Electrolytes ; 39(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1912855

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 5 papers. The topics discussed include: neurogenic control of venous smooth muscle: a functional component analysis;a rare cause of treatment-resistant hypertension;ionized magnesium in elderly hypertensives;magnesium and COVID-19 - cardiovascular implications;and the 'structured kidney': simply explain complex issues to students.

15.
Trace Elements and Electrolytes ; 39(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1912854

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 4 papers. The topics discussed include: relevance of magnesium for the fresh cow;ionized magnesium: update 2021;serum magnesium assessment needs for standardization;and microvascular dysfunction and magnesium - impact in COVID times and further on.

16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 543-549, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914484

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nonrespiratory manifestations of COVID-19 include endocrine disorders, among which are calcium-magnesium-phosphate homeostasis abnormalities, which seem to influence the disease severity and patient outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and impact of calcium-magnesium-phosphate and vitamin D3 disorders on survival in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 depending on the severity of the disease and kidney function. DESIGN OR METHODS: The study was conducted between April 2020 and May 2021 at Central Clinical Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. A total of 146 patients who had tested concentration of at least one of the studied elements, estimated glomerular filtration ratio, creatinine levels, and blood saturation, and were diagnosed with COVID-19 disease were included in the analysis. RESULTS: We found that hypermagnesemia was common and associated with a 1.5-fold increased risk of death in the whole cohort. Hyperphosphatemia also increased the risk of death, exactly 2.4-fold. Furthermore, we found a statistically significant association between increased mortality in the whole cohort and hypovitaminosis D3 (P <0.05). Serum creatinine concentration and estimated glomerular filtration ratio significantly correlated with serum magnesium and phosphate levels. CONCLUSION: Hypermagnesemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypovitaminosis D but not hypocalcemia influence the mortality of patients with COVID-19. These parameters should be monitored routinely in this group of patients, especially in those with decreased kidney function.

17.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911495

ABSTRACT

A trace element is a chemical element with a concentration (or other measures of an amount) that is very low. The essential TEs, such as copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and the electrolyte magnesium (Mg) are among the most commonly studied micronutrients. Each element has been shown to play a distinctive role in human health, and TEs, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), are among the essential elements required for the organisms' well-being as they play crucial roles in several metabolic pathways where they act as enzyme co-factors, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. Epidemics of infectious diseases are becoming more frequent and spread at a faster pace around the world, which has resulted in major impacts on the economy and health systems. Different trace elements have been reported to have substantial roles in the pathogenesis of viral infections. Micronutrients have been proposed in various studies as determinants of liver disorders, COVID-19 and T2DM risks. This review article sheds light on the roles and mechanisms of micronutrients in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic hepatitis B, C and E, as well as Coronavirus-19 infection and type-2 diabetes mellitus. An update on the status of the aforementioned micronutrients in pre-clinical and clinical settings is also briefly summarized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Selenium , Trace Elements , Copper/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Micronutrients/metabolism , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Selenium/metabolism , Selenium/therapeutic use , Trace Elements/metabolism , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Zinc/metabolism , Zinc/therapeutic use
18.
Antibiotics ; 11(5):547, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870879

ABSTRACT

Magnesium, copper, zinc, iron and selenium complexes of ceftriaxone were prepared in a 1:1 ligand to metal ratio to investigate the ligational character of the antibiotic ceftriaxone drug (CFX). The complexes were found to have coordinated and hydrated water molecules, except for the Se (IV) complex, which had only hydrated water molecules. The modes of chelation were explained depending on IR, 1HNMR and UV–Vis spectroscopies. The electronic absorption spectra and the magnetic moment values indicated that Mg (II), Cu (II), Zn (II), Fe (III) and Se (VI) complexes form a six-coordinate shape with a distorted octahedral geometry. Ceftriaxone has four donation sites through nitrogen from NH2 amino, oxygen from triazine, β-lactam carbonyl and carboxylate with the molecular formulas [Mg(CFX)(H2O)2]·4H2O, [Cu(CFX)(H2O)2]·3H2O, [Fe(CFX)(H2O)(Cl)]·5H2O, [Zn(CFX)(H2O)2]·6H2O and [Se(CFX)(Cl)2]·4H2O and acts as a tetradentate ligand towards the five metal ions. The morphological surface and particle size of ceftriaxone metal complexes were determined using SEM, TEM and X-ray diffraction. The thermal behaviors of the complexes were studied by the TGA(DTG) technique. This study investigated the effect of CFX and CFX metal complexes on oxidative stress and severe tissue injury in the hepatic tissues of male rats. Fifty-six male rats were tested: the first group received normal saline (1 mg/kg), the second group received CFX orally at a dose of 180 mg/kg, and the other treated groups received other CFX metal complexes at the same dose as the CFX-treated group. For antibacterial activity, CFX/Zn complex was highly effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae, while CFX/Se was highly effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In conclusion, successive exposure to CFX elevated hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and lipid peroxidation final marker (MDA) and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. CFX metal complex administration prevented liver injury, mainly suppressing excessive ROS generation and enhancing antioxidant defense enzymes and in male rats.

19.
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice ; 28(2 SUPPL):4-5, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868951

ABSTRACT

Background: Bone loss is a well-recognised complication of myeloma, affecting up to 90% of patients. It is associated with fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcaemia. 1,2 Myeloma patients are routinely prescribed zoledronic acid, which has been shown to prevent skeletal-related events, preserve bone density and prolong progression-free survival.3 At NBT, zoledronic acid is prescribed on a paper prescription chart, which is not routinely reviewed by a pharmacist This process is not in accordance with other therapy, which is prescribed on ChemoCare and clinically verified by a pharmacist prior to administration. Objectives • To assess the adherence of zoledronic acid prescribing at NBT against the South West Clinical Network (SWCN) protocol. • To identify areas for improvement in the prescribing of zoledronic acid for prevention of skeletal events. Standards: 100% of patients receiving zoledronic treatment should meet the following go-ahead criteria:4 • Acceptable bloods within seven days of treatment (creatinine, calcium, phosphate, magnesium) • Comprehensive dental examination. • Dose modification based on creatinine clearance. • Treatment deferred if hypocalcaemia or hypophosphataemia. Methodology: The audit was conducted over a one month period between 1/11/2020 and 30/11/2020. A total number of 58 prescriptions were included in the audit. The data collection sheet for the audit included;patient details, date of treatment and zoledronic acid dose. This information was extracted from the drug charts. The information system ICE was used to verify the blood results and validity period. Creatinine clearance was calculated using the Cockcroft and Gault equation. The medical notes were reviewed for evidence of dental checks. Data was recorded on Excel for further analysis by the pharmacist. Results: An overview of all four audit standards is shown in Figure 1. Two of the four audit standards were fully met (standards 2 and 4). 2% of patients (n= 1/58) did not receive an appropriate zoledronic acid dose adjustment based on renal function (standard 3). 36% (n=21/58) of patients did not have bloods within seven days of treatment (standard 1), however all of these patients had bloods within a month of treatment, in line with the Summary of Product Characteristic recommendations.5 Discussion and conclusion: The audit demonstrated that adherence to zoledronic acid prescribing guidelines is generally satisfactory;however several areas for improvement were identified. Feedback was provided to the haematology team and the following recommendations made: • Critical bloods must be done within one week of treatment. • Evidence of a dental examination must be clearly documented. • An approved app must be used for calculating creatinine clearance. • Introduction of a pharmacist clinical verification. • Zoledronic acid should be prescribed on ChemoCare, to assist with the above recommendations. Limitations: This audit was only carried out over a month which will only provide a snapshot of prescribing and results may have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It was difficult to find documentation for dental checks and treatment delays due to bloods and in some cases, information had to be verified by the prescriber.

20.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S117-S118, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857152

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Asthma control is the extent to which symptoms of asthma observed in patients and reduction in symptoms after treatment. Simple screening tools are available to assess asthma control. Asthma control test is a simple numerical scoring system that can be easily used on a routine basis. Latest GINA guidelines stress that asthma control is the main objective of asthma treatment. In this COVID pandemic situation there is a hesitancy in performing and undergoing pulmonary function tests among physicians and the patients. Hence in this study was planned to correlate the asthma control test values with FEV1 and other parameters like PEFR, AEC and serum magnesium. Methods: This study was conducted at Department of Pulmonary Medicine, SRM Hospital & Research centre, Chennai. It is a retrospective cross-sectional observational study. Patients of Bronchial Asthma in line with GINA Guidelines were included in the study. AIMS and OBJECTIVES: To study the correlation between asthma control test and FEV1, To study the correlation between asthma control test and other parameters like Peak expiratory flow rate, Absolute eosinophil count and Serum magnesium. Results: Asthma control test had positive correlation with FEV1 with a spearman's correlation of 0.2758 and P value of 0.0414 which was statistically significant. The spearman's correlation between Asthma control test and AEC was -0.4583 with a P value of 0.00043, which was significant. The correlation of asthma control test with serum magnesium was 0.3414 with a p value of 0.010. Conclusion: Asthma control test score had a significant positive correlation with FEV1 and serum magnesium levels. It also had significant negative correlation with Absolute eosinophil count (inflammatory marker). Hence Asthma control test can be used as tool for treatment response in the current COVID pandemic situation and also in resource limited settings.

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