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1.
Hautarzt ; 73(3): 212-215, 2022 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The advantages and disadvantages of the nationwide skin cancer screening which was introduced in 2008 are regularly discussed. OBJECTIVES: Do missed skin cancer screenings change the tumor depths? METHODS: Evaluation and analysis of office data from the second quarters of 2019, 2020 and 2021 were compared using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Welch's F test. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the tumor thickness in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, while there was only a tendency due to the small amount of data available for malignant melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis emphasize the importance of the skin cancer screening as a method of early detection and reduction of mutilating operations and expensive immunotherapies by the prompt detection of malignant tumors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Dermatology , Skin Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/diagnosis , Dermatology/methods , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology
2.
Clin Med Insights Oncol ; 16: 11795549221074168, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the pandemic of COVID-19, cancer patients have been considered as one high-risk group in the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19. This study aimed to describe the clinical symptoms and risk factors of COVID-19 in cancer patients. METHOD: In a prospective cross-sectional study, during a year, all cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy in our clinic (Kermanshah, Iran) were followed up in terms of getting COVID-19. We analyzed the effect of tumor features and demographic information on clinical manifestations, survival status, therapeutic outcomes, and severity of the disease COVID-19 in 2 categories of cancer (hematologic and solid cancers). RESULTS: Most of the patients (68%) were in the solid tumor category, including breast cancer (24.4%), colon cancer (22%), and gastric cancer (9.8%). There was a statistically significant difference between 2 categories of cancer in the clinical manifestations: the stage of cancer and survival status (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of death in cancer patients with COVID-19 along with symptoms of diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 12.8, P = .004), the difficulty of breath (OR = 10.73, P = .034), drop of SO2 (OR = 1.334, P = .003), thrombocytopenia (OR = 1.022, P = .02), anemia (OR = 2.72, P = .011), requiring mechanical ventilation (OR = 9.24, P = .004), pleural infusion (OR = 10.28, P = .02), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR = 7.389, P = .009) increases independent of other variables. The COVID-19 mortality rate in our cancer patients was 23%. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombocytopenia, anemia, and diarrhea are symptoms that, along with common symptoms such as lung involvement, difficulty breathing, and the need for a ventilator, increase the risk of death in cancer patients with COVID-19.

3.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics ; 20(12 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822118

ABSTRACT

Intro: Deregulated protein synthesis is a common trait across solid and hematologic malignancies and an attractive target for cancer therapy. Rocaglates compounds that inhibit eukaryotic initiation factor 4A1 (eIF4A1), the essential DEAD-box RNA helicase that resolves mRNA 5'UTR secondary structures during cap-dependent translation initiation. Rocaglates' unique mechanism of action causes sequence-selective mRNA binding by eIF4A1, clamping the inactive helicase onto the transcript. This suppresses translation globally and affects many oncogenic and pro-survival transcripts in particular. Zotatifin, the first-in class synthetic rocaglate, is currently in Phase I clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors and as an antiviral against SARS-CoV2. Currently, eIF4A1 and DDX3 are the only reported targets of rocaglate-mediated RNA clamping. Employing unbiased proteomic approaches, we have discovered that rocaglates, thought to act as pure eIF4A/translation inhibitors, extensively remodel the translation machinery and translatome. Additionally, mass-spec interrogation for proteins interacting with specific RNA sequences reveals novel targets of rocaglate-mediated, sequence-specific RNA clamping. Methods: We conducted original mass-spectrometry analyses of translational reprogramming by rocaglates. TMT-pSILAC assessed acute changes in protein production, while MATRIX, which captures high-resolution profiles of the translation machinery, revealed translation factors that drive reprogramming in response to rocaglate exposure. We validated results biochemically, in cellulo, and in vivo using patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. To probe existing and novel rocaglate RNA-clamping targets, we developed unbiased “clampome” assays - in cellulo protein-RNA-pull downs followed by mass-spec analysis of proteins with increased binding to RNA in the presence of rocaglates. Results: We find rocaglates, including zotatifin, have effects far more complex than simple “translational inhibition” as currently defined. Indeed, translatome analysis by TMT-pSILAC revealed myriad up-regulated proteins that drive hitherto unrecognized cytotoxic mechanisms. The GEF-H1 guanine exchange factor, for example, drives anti-survival RHOA/JNK activation, suggesting novel candidate biomarkers of rocaglate clinical outcomes. Translation-machinery analysis by MATRIX identifed rocaglate-induced dependence on specific translation factors including eEF1ϵ1 that drive remodeling. Novel rocaglate RNA-binding targets revealed by clampome studies remain under detailed evaluation as mediators of drug activities. Discussion: Our original proteome-level interrogation revealed that the complete cellular response to these historical “translation inhibitors” is mediated by comprehensive translational landscape remodeling. Effects on a broader suite of RNA binding proteins than eIF4A1 alone we suggest mediate the potent antitumor activities of these unique compounds, elucidation of which permits development of novel precision approaches to targeted translational deregulation in cancer.

4.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine ; 23(6), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818259

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 reinfection, although a controversial issue, is an important clinical problem in cancer patients and beyond. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with worse outcomes in cancer patients with Covid-19 in both first infection and reinfection and to describe the involvement of vaccines in reinfection outcome. The present study enrolled 85 patients with solid tumors who had Covid-19 infection and had not been previously vaccinated. Classical risk factors associated with worse outcomes in cancer patients with second SARS-Cov infection were considered. The patients were followed up retrospectively, measuring mortality at the first and second infection and the vaccination rate after the first infection. The factors associated with the highest risk of mortality at the first infection were, in order of importance: intensive care unit (ICU) admission, unfavorable performance status, radiologically quantifiable presence of oncological disease, and administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the period immediately before infection. The risk factors associated with higher mortality from reinfection were ECOG 3-4 performance status and administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the period immediately before infection. In the studied patients, mortality from reinfection was not affected by prior vaccination. Thus, bearing in mind all of these risk factors for poor outcomes in cancer patients with solid tumors presenting with Covid-19 can help the treating oncologists make personalized decisions about patient care during the pandemic.

5.
Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation ; 12:76-77, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817117

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 has led to a change in the health-seeking behaviour and the delivery of healthcare. Globally, fragility fracture admissions have reduced by 0-54% depending on location. When Malaysia implemented the third movement control order on 3 May 2021 in response to increasing COVID-19 cases, the number of orthopaedic beds in the University Malaya Medical Centre was reduced from over a hundred to twenty-eight. To date, the impact of COVID-19 on fragility fracture admission in Malaysia is unknown. This study aims to investigate the relationship between COVID-19 cases and fragility fracture admissions to a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from April to June 2021 in the University Malaya Medical Centre. The patients admitted to the University Malaya Medical Centre with fragility fractures between April and June 2021 were identified and compared to the corresponding periods in 2018. Patients <50 years old and those who had fractures due to cancer were excluded. The relationship between the total number of COVID-19 cases per week and weekly fragility fractures admissions were determined. Results: A total of 406,479 COVID-19 cases were reported over 3 months (April, n = 63,213;May, n = 163,644;June, n = 179,622). Fifty-five patients [mean age (78.9±8.6), female (44/55,80%), hip fractures (36/55,65.5%)] were admitted in April-June 2021, which was a 35.3% reduction when compared to the same period in 2018 [n = 85, mean age (75.1±9.9), female (62/85,72.9%), hip fractures (53/85,62.4%)], although no significant difference was found between the baseline characteristics. However, both fragility fracture and hip fracture admissions were found to be negatively correlated (r =-0.76 and r =-0.75) with the COVID-19 cases (P < 0.01). Twelve (12/51,23.5%) patients admitted in 2021 due to post-fall fragility fractures presented to the hospital more than a day after their injury. The proportion of patients with delayed presentation (>1 day post-fall) increased over the study period (April = 5/26, 19.2%;May = 3/13, 23.1%;June = 4/12, 33.3%). Conclusion: There was a reduction in fragility fracture admissions during the COVID outbreak in Malaysia. There might be a rebound in cases after the COVID crisis is over, reorganising medical services may be warranted to ensure effective fracture care delivery.

6.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816940

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic had enormous consequences in Brazil and worldwide. Patients with cancer affected by COVID-19 are at a higher risk of developing complications and worse outcomes compared to a non-cancer population, particularly the ones on active systemic treatment. Considering the COVID-19 high transmissibility in asymptomatic and presymptomatic patients, we sought to determine the prevalence of COVID-19 infection in patients with solid cancers receiving systemic therapy in a Brazilian public health hospital. Furthermore, we interrogated if socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with prevalence. Methods: Consecutive asymptomatic patients undergoing treatment for solid tumors at the chemotherapy and infusion center of Hospital de Base were enrolled. Patients were prospectively tested for SARS-CoV2 RNA real-time polymerase chain reaction with nasal and oropharyngeal swabs immediately prior to treatment. A socioeconomic survey was performed prior to testing. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were summarized in means, medians, and proportions. Results: From October 6 to 13, 2020, 148 asymptomatic patients were identified. Of those, 41 were excluded (16 had hematological malignancies, 15 declined testing, 10 were not on active systemic treatment) leaving 107 eligible patients. The mean age of the population was 58 years-old (SD± 12.6);55% were female and 90% were self-identified as White. The most common cancer sites were gastrointestinal tract (37%) and breast (25%). Most patients had metastatic disease (62.9%) and were on a anticancer treatment involving chemotherapy (62.9%). Regarding to SES, 70% of our population had either primary school or were illiterate as their highest educational level. In terms of monthly income, 88% had a personal income inferior to U$390 and 92% a household income inferior to U$585. Of 107 patients tested, only one (0.9%) was positive for COVID-19. This is a 48 years-old man living in an urban area, with primary school educational level and a monthly personal income inferior to U$390. Conclusion: Despite a high prevalence of COVID19 in Brazil, our cohort demonstrated a low prevalence of COVID19 (0.9%) amongst asymptomatic patients with cancer. We hypothesize that patients with cancer, independently of their SES, are aware of the increased risk of developing severe disease and are adherent to physical distancing, masking, and hygiene measures. LF and BB are co-senior authors.

7.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816937

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to disproportionately impact people with cancer. Mortality estimates among cancer patients vary and are influenced by numerous factors including cancer type, treatment, disease stage, and patient demographics. To date, attempts to explore these associations have been limited by small cohorts. Methods: Here, we present a meta-analysis of data available through the Reboot: COVID-Cancer Project, a living and freely available resource that includes published clinical studies that report outcomes for cancer patients with COVID-19. Studies were identified using targeted search queries in PubMed, MedRxiv, BioRxiv, and the SSRN eLibrary, followed by rule-based approaches and extensive manual validation and data extraction. The data is updated monthly and can be explored through an interactive dashboard as well as downloaded. Case fatality rates (CFR;the number of deaths per 100 confirmed cases during the study period) were calculated using a random-effects model. Study heterogeneity and sample size bias was assessed using the Egger regression test. Results: As of December 18, 2020, the resource contained 225 publications comprising 21,839 cancer patients with COVID-19. Of these, there was sufficient sample size to quantify CFRs for 22 cancer types across 19,147 patients from 109 publications. The pooled CFR among all cancer patients was 27% (95% CI: 25-30%). For solid tumors and hematological malignancies, the CFRs were 23% (95% CI: 20-25%) and 30% (95% CI: 27-33%), respectively. Within solid tumors, patients with lung (CFR: 32%, 95% CI: 27-36%), prostate (CFR: 30%, 95% CI: 17-43%), and central nervous system (CFR: 27%, 95% CI: 18-36%) malignancies had relatively high CFRs, whereas patients with breast (CFR: 10%, 95% CI: 7-14%) and thyroid (CFR: 5%, 95% CI: 1-11%) malignancies had relatively low CFRs. Among patients with hematological malignancies, CFRs ranged from 10% (95% CI: 3-18%) in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia to 39% (95% CI: 20-57%) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Discussion: We observed significant heterogeneity of COVID-19 CFRs between cancer subtypes. This may in part reflect differences in patient demographics, treatment history, or disease state. Subtype-specific analysis can stratify cancer patients by risk for COVID-19 mortality and advise management strategies. The Reboot: COVID-Cancer Project provides an accessible means to evaluate subtype-specific COVID-19 fatality rates on a by-publication basis.

8.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816929

ABSTRACT

Introduction Little is known about the rates of asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers among cancer patients. The rate of asymptomatic carriers is important to understand in this population given the use of myelosuppressive and immunomodulating therapies and the risk of transmission to other patients in shared infusion centers. At UC San Diego, in June 2020, we implemented a COVID-19 asymptomatic screening protocol in which cancer patients receiving anti-cancer therapy in an infusion center must undergo symptom-based screening and then SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing prior to their infusion. Here, we describe the results of this asymptomatic screening protocol. Methods This was a single-center retrospective analysis of patients with active cancer receiving infusional anti-cancer therapy in 5 infusion centers who underwent at least 1 asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 PCR test between 6/1- 12/1/2020. The primary endpoint was the rate of COVID-19 positivity among asymptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients were excluded. Secondary endpoints included COVID-19-related outcomes and patterns of oncologic management for asymptomatic COVID-19 positive patients. Results A cohort of 2,202 cancer patients received at least 1 asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 PCR test prior to receipt of infusional anti-cancer therapy. 0.95% (N=21/2202) of patients were found to be PCR-positive on asymptomatic screening. Among positive patients, 9.5% (N=2/21) had hematologic malignancies and 90.5% (N=19/21) had solid tumors. In terms of therapy, 76.2% (N=16) were treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy, 9.5% (N=2) with targeted therapy, 4.7% (N=1) with immunotherapy, and 9.5% (N=2) were on a clinical trial. With a median follow-up of 122 days from positive PCR test (range: 8-186), only 2 of 21 (9.5%) of the cohort ultimately developed COVID-related symptoms. Both patients had a diagnosis of acute leukemia and 1 patient required hospitalization for COVID-related complications. No patients died from COVID-related complications. With regards to oncologic management, 95.2% (N=20/21) of patients had their therapy delayed or deferred with a median delay of 21 days (range: 7- 77 days). Only 1 patient proceeded with cytotoxic chemotherapy on schedule in the setting of adjuvant chemoradiation for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Among the overall cohort, an additional 26 patients (1.2%) developed cases of symptomatic COVID-19 infection during the study period. Conclusions A strategy of asymptomatic screening of cancer patients receiving anti-cancer therapy in an infusion center detected an extremely low rate of asymptomatic carriers of COVID-19. This low rate of asymptomatic carriers may be due to a number of factors including multiple symptom-based screenings prior to infusion, behavior modification among patients, and/or differential immune responses to COVID-19 infection. Asymptomatic carriers in this cohort appeared to have favorable outcomes with few developing symptoms or requiring hospitalization, though the number of positive patients in our cohort is low, precluding definitive conclusions in this population.

9.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816924

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with thoracic malignancies are susceptible to severe outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the disruption to care of patients with thoracic malignancies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The COVID-19 and Cancer Outcomes Study (CCOS) is a multicenter prospective cohort study comprised of adult patients with a current or past history of hematological malignancy or invasive solid tumor who had an outpatient medical oncology visit on the index week between March 2 and March 6, 2020 at the Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York, NY (MSSM) or the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, MA (DFCI). An electronic data capture platform was used to collect patient-, cancer-, and treatment-related variables during the three months prior to the index week (the baseline period) and the following three months (the pandemic period). Two-by-three contingency tables with Fisher's exact tests were computed. All tests were two-tailed and considered statistically significant for p<0.05. All analyses were done in the R statistical environment (v3.6.1). Results: The overall cohort included 2365 patients, of which 313 had thoracic malignancies, 1578 had other solid tumors, and 474 had hematological malignancies. At a median follow-up of 84 days (95% confidence interval, 82-84), 13 patients with thoracic malignancies (4.1%) had developed COVID-19 (vs. other solid: 63 [4.0%] and hematological: 52 [11.0%];p<0.001). When comparing data from the pandemic period to the baseline period, patients with thoracic malignancies had a decrease in the number of in-person outpatient visits (thoracic: 209 [66.8%] vs. other solid: 749 [47.5%] vs. hematological: 260 [54.9%];p<0.001) and an increase in the number of telehealth visits (thoracic: 126 [40.3%] vs. other solid: 465 [29.5%] vs. hematological: 168 [35.4%];p<0.001). During the pandemic period, 33 (10.5%) patients with thoracic malignancies experienced treatment delays due to the pandemic (vs. other solid: 127 [8.0%] and hematological: 79 [16.7%];p<0.001), and 26 (8.3%) patients with thoracic malignancies experienced delays in cancer imaging or diagnostic procedures (vs. other solid: 63 [4.0%] and hematological: 26 [5.5%];p=0.003). Discussion: In this prospective cohort study, patients with thoracic malignancies were not at increased risk of developing COVID-19 compared to patients with other cancers, but experienced significant cancer care disruption during the COVID-19 pandemic with a higher likelihood of decreased in-person visits and increased telehealth visits compared to patients with other malignancies. Focused efforts to ensure continuity of care for this vulnerable patient population are warranted.

10.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816919

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients display immunomodulation related to malignancy and anti-cancer therapies, but how these factors impact COVID-19 remains unknown. To investigate immune responses in cancer patients with COVID-19, we undertook a prospective case-control study, enrolling hospitalized solid tumor patients with acute COVID-19, as well as age-, gender-, and comorbidity-matched COVID-19 patients without cancer as controls. Using biospecimens collected during hospitalization, we performed virologic measurements as well as in-depth immunophenotyping of cellular, antibody and cytokine responses. We enrolled 17 cancer patients (cases) admitted to Yale-New Haven Hospital between March 15 and June 30, 2020 with COVID-19, as well as 17 matched non-cancer patients (controls) admitted with COVID-19. No significant differences were observed between cases and controls based on patient characteristics (age, gender, race, co-morbidities, smoking history, days from symptom onset to COVID-19 diagnosis) or outcomes (COVID-19 severity, length of hospital stay, rate of intubation or mortality). The most common primary tumor sites were lung (4/17) and gastrointestinal (4/17);all cases had received cancer-directed therapy within 6 months of COVID-19 diagnosis, with 13/17 receiving treatment less than 1 month prior to hospitalization. Three of 17 cases had received immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies. Despite having similar SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA loads at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis when compared with controls, cancer cases had increased viral RNA abundance during hospitalization, suggesting slower clearance. Antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 were preserved in cancer cases, with cases displaying similar levels of IgM and IgG antibodies directed against SARS-CoV-2 epitopes compared to controls. Cytokine profiling revealed higher plasma levels of CCL3, IL1A and CXCL12 in cancer cases compared to controls. Using flow cytometric immunophenotyping, we found that innate immune and non-T cell adaptive immune parameters were similar between cases and controls hospitalized with COVID-19. However, among cancer cases on conventional therapies, T cell lymphopenia was more profound, and these cases demonstrated higher levels of CD8+ exhausted (CD8+CD45RA-PD1+TIM3+ ), CD8+GranzymeB+ and CD4+CD38+HLA-DR+ and CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+ activated T cells when compared with controls;interestingly, these differences were not observed in patients who had received immune checkpoint inhibition. Thus, we found reduced viral RNA clearance and specific alterations in T cell and cytokine responses in cancer patients hospitalized with COVID-19 compared with matched controls with COVID-19. This dysregulated T cell response in cancer patients, which may reflect immune modulation due to chronic antigen stimulation as well as cancer therapies, may lead to altered virologic and clinical outcomes in this population.

11.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816899

ABSTRACT

Background Patients with cancer appear to have poor outcomes with COVID-19 infection. Cohort analyses of short-term outcomes of COVID-19 (C19)-infected cancer patients (pts) have reported mortality rates ranging from 10 to 30%. Little is known about the long-term outcomes of cancer pts infected with C19. Here, we present an analysis of long-term outcomes of a cohort of active cancer pts with C19 infection. Methods This was a single center retrospective analysis of active cancer pts who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 virus between 3/1/20- 9/30/20. Key inclusion criteria included a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test and an active cancer diagnosis within 90 days of a positive C19 test. We examined the rates of hospitalization for C19 infection, readmission, and C19-related mortality at 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-day follow-up. Rates of persistent symptoms and systemic complications of C19 infection were described. Results We identified 81 active cancer pts with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among this cohort, the median age was 55 years (range: 19- 89). 77% (N=62) had solid tumors and 23% (N=19) had a hematologic malignancy. 75% (N=61) were receiving an anti-cancer therapy at the time of C19 diagnosis. Median follow-up time from C19 diagnosis to last follow-up was 4.8 months (range: 0.1-9.0 mos). 32% (N=26) of the cohort required hospitalization for C19-related complications within 30 days of C19 diagnosis. Among those hospitalized, 35% (N=9/26) died from C19-related complications. Of the 17 pts who were discharged, 2 pts required readmission with a median time to readmission of 37 days. For these 2 pts, readmission was due to persistent dyspnea and hypoxia and both were treated for pneumonia with presumed bacterial superinfection. There were no additional hospitalizations for C19-related complications at 60-, 90-, and 120-day follow-up. At 90- day follow-up, 6 pts (7.4%) had been diagnosed with PE/DVT. No long-term cardiac, neurologic, or renal complications were observed. With regards to C19-related mortality, 30-day mortality was 8.6% (N=7) and 90-day mortality was 11.1% (N=9). No further C19-related deaths were observed after 90 days. All pts who died were hospitalized within 30 days of initial C19 diagnosis and remained hospitalized at the time of death. Persistent C19-related symptoms were noted in 8.2% (N=6/73) of the cohort at 60-days and 2.8% (N=2/71) at 90-day follow-up. Dyspnea was the most common symptom. Conclusions Among a cohort of active cancer pts with C19 infection, these data suggest that much of the morbidity and mortality associated with C19 infection appears to occur early, with decreased incidence of late complications beyond 30 days. Cancer pts who do not require hospitalization early in their infection course appear to have a decreased rate of late complications. Readmissions for C19-related complications were low, but this analysis was limited by a low number of pts. Achieving a better understanding of long-term outcomes of C19 pts with cancer will help us to better approach oncologic care as the pandemic continues.

12.
International Cardiovascular Research Journal ; 15(4):168-169, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812593
13.
Ars Pharmaceutica ; 63(2):189-203, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798584

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nanoantibodies are composed solely of the variable region of the heavy chain and are obtained from some species of camelids and sharks. They have high binding capacity, high specificity, small size, high accessibility, and high tissue penetration, so they could potentially be used to treat, diagnose, and prevent several diseases. Method: A bibliographic review of the medical applications of nanoantibodies was carried out. Scientific articles were examined, published in English and Spanish from 2015 to 2021 in Google Academic, Elsevier, PubMed, Clinical trials, Annual Reviews, and ScienceDirect databases. Studies that showed greater value according to language, information accuracy, and publication date were preferred. Results and discussion: 21 articles were selected to be evaluated and analyzed, of which 20 were preclinical studies and one clinical study. Nanoantibodies stand out as therapeutic, diagnostic, and preventive alternatives against cancer, hepatitis C, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, diarrhea caused by rotavirus, and COVID-19. Conclusions: Nanoantibodies can be very useful for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of different diseases;however, it is necessary to continue developing clinical and preclinical studies that support the safety and efficacy of these drugs.

14.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(2):1, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798531
15.
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S508-S509, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1796805

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Many acceptable donor hearts are turned down by pediatric centers with varying criteria for an acceptable donor. Advanced Cardiac Therapy Improving Outcome Network (ACTION) and Pediatric Heart Transplant Society (PHTS) centers convened a multi-institutional donor decision discussion forum (DDDF) aimed at assessing donor acceptance practice and reducing practice variation across centers. Methods: The team hosted an hour-long monthly virtual DDDF among pediatric transplant centers across North America, UK and Brazil. Each call had two case presentations posing a donor decision challenge for the presenting center at the time of donor offer. Following each presentation, the attendee group was polled to obtain insight on donor acceptance practices after which the presenting center's decision was revealed. Then, group discussion occurred including a review of relevant literature and latest PHTS data related to the case. Metrics of participation, participant agreement with presenting center decision and impact on future decision making were collected and analyzed. Results: Over 14 months, 23 cases were discussed;an average of 50 physicians, nurses and fellows attended each call. The mean donor age was 8.2 ± 3.3 years (28.6% infants, 52.4% young adults), and the mean recipient age was 8.36 ± 3.3 years (27.3% infants and 40.9% teenagers). Reason for listing was congenital heart disease in 10, cardiomyopathy in 5 and retransplantation in 3. Risk factors influencing decision making included size discrepancy (4), Infection (5), COVID (2), Prolonged QT (2), Malignancy (2), Drugs (2), Distance (1) Prolonged CPR (1) high inotrope use (1) Dialysis (1) Diabetes (1) HLA mismatch (1). Of the 23 cases, 15 were declined by presenting center. Donor characteristics influenced 45% of the decisions and recipient only 20%, with rest being other factors. Participants agreed with the decision made by the presenting center 55% of the times. The post-presentation discussion resulted in 30% of participants changing their original decision. Conclusion: DDDF identified significant variation in pediatric donor acceptance practices;with donor characteristics most influential in decision-making. Given that the discussions changed decisions in 1/3rd of the participants, DDDF may be a useful format to reduce practice variation, provide education to decision makers and eventually increase donor utilization.

16.
Oncology Issues ; 37(2):10-11, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1795512
17.
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging ; 23(SUPPL 1):i233, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1795319

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recent reports have indicated that a considerable portion of patients experiences a cardiac injury, ranging from 7.2% to 22.2%, which is linked to higher mortality. Nevertheless, previous studies have exclusively focused on the cardiac injury defined as a raised cardiac marker without a definitive diagnosis. To our knowledge, the present retrospective cohort study is the first study to comprehensively address cardiovascular (CV) complications and related outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Purpose: To address CV complications and their relationship to clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods: A total of 196 adult hospitalized patients admitted to our hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and a consultation requested from the cardiology department were enrolled in this retrospective single-center cohort study from September 10, 2020, to December 10, 2020, with a median age of 65 years (IQR, 52-77). Cardiac examinations included cardiac biomarkers, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Data regarding complications during hospitalization were extracted, and patients were categorized into two groups concerning the presence or absence of CV complications. All transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) assessments were performed by a single cardiologist, who was provided with personal protective gear according to national guidelines. Follow-up continued for 3 months after hospital discharge. Results: CV complication was observed in 54 (27.6%) patients, with arrhythmia being the most prevalent (14.8%) followed by myocarditis, acute coronary syndromes, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, and deep vein thrombosis in 15 (7.7%), 12 (6.1%), 10 (5.1%), 8 (4.1%), and 4 (2%) patients, respectively. The proportion of patients with elevated hs-TpI, NT-proBPN, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was greater in the CV complication group. Severe forms of COVID-19 comprised nearly two-thirds (64.3%) of our study population and constituted a significantly higher share of the CV complication group members (75.9% vs 59.9%;P = 0.036). Intensive care unit admission (64.8% vs 44.4%;P = 0.011) and stay (5.5 days vs 0 day;P = 0.032) were notably higher in patients with CV complications. Among 196 patients, 50 died during hospitalization and 10 died after discharge, yielding allcause mortality of 30.8%. However, there were no between-group differences concerning mortality. Heart failure, cancer/autoimmune disease, severity, interferon beta-1a, and arrhythmia were the independent predictors of all-cause mortality during and after hospitalization. Conclusion: CV complications occurred widely among COVID-19 patients. Moreover, arrhythmia, as the most common complication, was associated with increased mortality.

18.
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging ; 23(SUPPL 1):i622, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1795301

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We want to evaluate clinical, laboratory profiles and intra-hospital outcome in patients with acute PE treated in intensive care unit in the period of COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is a single center, retrospective cohort study of patients with confirmed acute PE admitted in Intensive Cardiac Care Unit of a tertiary level university hospital between January and December 2020. Detailed history, risk factors, laboratory parameters and treatment strategy based on patient risk were assessed. All patients underwent 2-dimensional echocardiography, lower limb venous Doppler and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). sPESI score and intra-hospital outcomes were evaluated in all patients. Nasopharyngeal smear and realtime reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed in order to confirm COVID-19 infection. Results: We studied 47 patients with acute PE treated in our ICU, with mean age 58.6 ± 19.4 years. Eight patients (17%) had massive PE (central thrombus) and 39 (83%) had sub massive PE (subsegmental thrombus) confirmed by CTPA. Six patients (12,7%) had history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 3 patients (6,3%) had history of prior PE, 4 patients (8,5%) were operated within 3 months, 7 patients (14,8%) had history of malignancy, 24 patient's had increased body weight and obesity (51%). Twelve patients (25,5%) were tested for COVID 19 with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and 3 come positive (12.5%). Eight patients were high risk with shock (17%), intermediate high risk were 29 patients (61.7%) and intermediate low risk were 10 patients (21.3%). sPESI score was >1 in all 47 patients. Abnormal RV function with PAH was found in 32 patients (68%). Five high risk, unstable patients died within 72 hours of admission, resulting in an overall ICU mortality rate of 10,6% and 62.5% mortality rate in patients with cardiogenic shock. Patients with PE and COVID-19 had significantly higher D-dimer and hs-Troponin I levels comparing to the patients with patients negative for COVID-19. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed thrombolytic therapy OR 2.145 (95% CI: 1.105-4,512), D-Dimers >4.500 ng/ml OR 1.893 (95% CI: 0.932-3.241), high risk PE OR 3.98 (95% CI: 1.396-5.641) and acute renal failure OR 2.421 (95% CI: 1.105-4.762) as independent mortality predictors. Eight patients have been treated with fibrinolysis (t-PA), and 39 patients with Heparin therapy. 40 survived patients were discharged with NOAC treatment (95,2%). Conclusions: Pulmonary embolism cardiology clinic ICU admission in the period of COVID-19 pandemic decreased, with increase of PE severity, patients risk and mortality rate. Thrombolytic therapy, D-Dimers >4.500 ng/ml, high risk PE and acute renal failure were independent mortality predictors. Thrombolysis was successful treatment for high risk patients with low bleeding risk.

19.
Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research ; 13(1):894-899, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1791332

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis was a difficult illness to treat in the past due to a lack of diagnostic and treatment alternatives. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis usually affects the maxillary sinus with involvementof maxillary teeth, orbits, and ethmoidal sinuses. Diabetes mellitus is an independent riskfactor for both COVID-19 as well as mucormycosis. Advances in pathology, diagnostic tools, and treatment choices are discussed here.

20.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(2):753-755, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1791222

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID 19, which can lead to neurological complications including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), has caused a challenging worldwide pandemic. We aim to highlight the clinical, radiologic and laboratory characteristics, as well as functional outcomes of patients with COVID-19, who either presented with ICH or subsequently developed ICH. Methods: Related PubMed articles and studies on ICH and COVID-19 (published from January 2020 to October 2021, were searched. Our inclusion criteria included all articles written in English, involving COVID-19 patients confirmed via PCR test and admitted to hospital or ICU, and large ICH on neuroimaging. Results: We collected 23 published studies with an association between COVID-19 and ICH, focusing on the clinical profile, neuroimaging findings and management. The risks for ICH includes comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and malignancy, and anticoagulation therapy. In one study parenchymal haemorrhages with mass effect and herniation showed a very high mortality rate and most of those patients received either a therapeutic or prophylactic dose of anticoagulates prior to ICH discovery. Conclusion: ICH and COVID-19 are rare but with high morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is important to recognize early those patients at high risk of having ICH, mainly those patients with comorbidities and on anticoagulation therapy, to improve health care outcomes.

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