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1.
Journal of Property Research ; JOUR: 1-15,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2106929

ABSTRACT

The satisfaction of property users with facilities and property management has been found to be affected, amongst others, by building features. However, we argue that the importance of building features for user satisfaction varies across user concerns about their ability to work and health & safety. We hypothesise that building comfort increases in importance for the satisfaction of users with ability to work concerns, compared to those without these concerns. Additionally, building cleanliness is of higher importance to users with health & safety concerns than those without. In our empirical analysis, we use a sample of 1,895 respondents from a multi-year survey (2015-2019) and employ mixed-effects regression. Our results are in line with expectations and suggest a moderating effect of user concerns on the relations of building features and user satisfaction. We also find a consistent impact of user expectations on their satisfaction. Our findings are relevant to property and facilities managers as they suggest that accounting for user concerns allows a more differentiate understanding of user satisfaction, which may be particularly important following the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Progress in Disaster Science ; JOUR: 100268,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105697

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 challenged all national emergency management systems worldwide overlapping with other natural hazards. We framed a ‘parallel phases’ Disaster Risk Management (DRM) model to overcome the limitations of the existing models when dealing with complex multi-hazard risk conditions. We supported the limitations analysing Italian Red Cross data on past and ongoing emergencies including COVID-19 and we outlined three guidelines for advancing multi-hazard DRM: (i) exploiting the low emergency intensity of slow-onset hazards for preparedness actions;(ii) increasing the internal resources and making them available for international support;(iii) implementing multi-hazard seasonal impact-based forecasts to foster the planning of anticipatory actions.

3.
Journal of Clinical Virology ; JOUR: 105326,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105316

ABSTRACT

Background To prevent spread to patients and co-workers, health care workers (HCWs) infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) should quickly be identified. Although real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard, this test takes several hours, during which a HCW is unable to work. Antigen (Ag) tests may be an efficacious means of screening HCWs since they are easy to perform and provide fast results. Methods In this study, 48,010 paired results of Ag-testing and RT-PCR, performed on HCWs between January 2021 and April 2022, were evaluated to determine the diagnostic accuracy of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-tests in diagnosing potentially infectious individuals. This analysis was performed with cycling threshold values (Ct-values) ≤30 and ≤25 as cut-offs. Results Respectively 3.1% (n=1507) and 0.3% (n=140) of Ag-tests were positive or indeterminate, and thus indicative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. In total, 2479 (5.2%) RT-PCRs were positive, of which 1529 (61.7%) had a Ct-value ≤25 and 402 (16.2%) a Ct-value between 26 and 30. At Ct-value ≤30 as a cut-off, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of Ag-tests were 79.0%, 99.8%, 93.8% and 99.1%, respectively. At Ct-value ≤25, sensitivity further improved to 92.0%, by which the NPV increased to 99.7%. Conclusions To prevent transmission from HCWs to patients and co-workers, while maintaining workforce capacity, Ag-tests are a valuable addition to RT-PCR tests, as they have a quick turnaround time and excellent sensitivity for identifying individuals with high potential for transmission.

4.
Computers & Industrial Engineering ; JOUR: 108808,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104548

ABSTRACT

The vast nationwide COVID-19 vaccination programs are implemented in many countries worldwide. Mass vaccination is causing a rapid increase in infectious and non-infectious vaccine waste, potentially posing a severe threat if there is no well-organized management plan. This paper develops a mixed-integer mathematical programming model to design a COVID-19 vaccine waste reverse supply chain (CVWRSC) for the first time. The presented problem is based on the are of minimizing the system's total cost and carbon emission. The uncertainty in the tendency rate of vaccination is considered, and a robust optimization approach is used to deal with it, where an interactive fuzzy approach converts the model into a single objective problem. Additionally, a Lagrangian relaxation (LR) algorithm is utilized to deal with the computational difficulty of the large-scale CVWRSC network. The model's practicality is investigated by solving a real-life case study. The results show the gain of the developed integrated network, where the presented framework performs better than the disintegrated vaccine and waste supply chain models. According to the results, vaccination operations and transportation of non-infectious waste are responsible for a large portion of total cost and emission, respectively. Autoclaving technology plays a vital role in treating infectious waste. Moreover, the sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the vaccination tendency rate significantly impacts both objective functions. The case study results prove the model's robustness under different realization scenarios, where the average objective function of the robust model is less than the deterministic model ones’ in all scenarios. Finally, some insights are given based on the obtained results.

5.
Scand J Prim Health Care ; : 1-11, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: When the COVID-19 pandemic reached Norway, primary health care had to reorganize to ensure safe patient treatment and maintain infection control. General practitioners (GPs) are key health care providers in the municipalities. Our aim was to explore the experiences and management strategies of Norwegian GPs during the COVID-19 pandemic - over time, and in the context of a sudden organizational change. DESIGN: Longitudinal qualitative interview study with two interview rounds. The first round of interviews was conducted from September-December 2020, the second round from January-April 2021. In the first interview round, we performed eight semi-structured interviews with GPs from eight municipalities in Norway. In the second round, five of the GPs were re-interviewed. Consecutive interviews were performed 2-4 months apart. To analyze the data, we used thematic analysis. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic required GPs to balance several concerns, such as continuity of care and their own professional efforts. Several GPs experienced challenges in the collaboration with the municipality and in relation to defining their own professional position. Guided by The Norwegian Association of General practitioners, The Norwegian College of General Practice and collegial support, they found viable solutions and ended up with a feeling of having adapted to a new normal. CONCLUSIONS: Although our study demonstrates that the GPs adapted to the changing conditions, the current municipal health care models are not ideal. There is a need for clarification of responsibilities between GPs and the municipality to facilitate a more coordinated future pandemic response.Key PointsFacing the COVID-19 pandemic, the primary health care service in Norway had to reorganize to ensure safe patient treatment and maintain infection control.Several GPs experienced challenges in collaboration with the municipalities.There is a need for clarification of responsibilities between GPs and the municipality.

6.
Soc Work Health Care ; : 1-17, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106804

ABSTRACT

Aging is a natural occurrence often associated with decline in body functioning and common health conditions. With the emergency of new diseases, vulnerable groups like older adults are prone and more possibly to be infected. In the era of COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, health management of older adults becomes demanding with increasing ill-health, morbidity and mortality. This paper aims to investigate caregivers' lived experiences in health care management of older adults amid and post COVID-19 pandemic for quality of life and wellbeing in Nigeria. With the phenomenological approach in qualitative research, we sourced our data using focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDI) from 21 caregivers purposively selected from three health institutions based on their ownership in Nsukka. Data were analyzed thematically. Results revealed that though care-giving is perceived to be filial, it is no longer effectively provided owing to financial and health status of the care recipient. Other findings indicated that factors predicting responds to preventive measures in older adults' health care include disregard of information, inadequate geriatric knowledge and noncompliance of health information. Suggestions to ease challenges in health care demand of older adults were brought to fore. Recommendations were on aligning geriatric professionals in health institutions and health care financing for all older adults in Nigeria.

8.
Heliyon ; 8(10): e10843, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105011

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged Covid-19 pandemic is greatly impacting every corner of human society throughout the world including human health. This study aimed to provide important insights into the response of food safety system on the perspective of preventing Covid-19 pandemic effect. A survey was conducted in Indonesia and Bangladesh to collect information from food companies about food safety preparedness associated with Covid-19, priorities in the prevention of pandemic effect on food companies, and the effect of the pandemic on the food supply chain. Hygiene and the use of masks and gloves are the two most significant attributes to prevent and combat the pandemic situation in terms of food safety, effective distance maintenance between persons, and restrain or limit visits to the object are considered as attributes with less significance. The retail part of the food supply chain was figured out as mainly affected by the pandemic as opposed to food storage was identified as least affected. The development of attitude in the food sector that not to compromise food safety at any moment is the strength to combat the pandemic crisis to retain the food safety standard globally.

9.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 30: 101037, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104661

ABSTRACT

Background: Effective recruitment of representative and diverse samples in research trials is important to the generalizability of findings and in describing access to behavioral interventions. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of local and national recruitment strategies for a smoking cessation and weight management-focused randomized controlled trial (Fit & Quit). The overall cost-effectiveness of recruitment strategies was also evaluated. Methods: The study initially recruited participants locally in the Memphis, TN area and later transitioned to national recruitment, necessitated by the transition to remote assessment strategies due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study evaluated effective recruitment strategies for randomized participants (n = 305) across gender, race, rurality, and recruitment method, as well as the cost-effectiveness of methods used during the recruitment period of this study. Results: The most effective recruitment strategies were local postcards, local radio advertisements, word-of-mouth referrals, and national internet advertisements, which resulted in a combined 71.8% (n = 219) of the total randomized sample (n = 305). Radio advertisements were the best method for recruiting Black participants. Electronic recruitment strategies were the most effective method for non-urban participants. Additionally, gender, recruitment method, race, and rurality predicted randomization. Overall, electronic media methods were more cost-effective ($430.97 per participant) compared to traditional media methods ($931.43 per participant); however, traditional media methods resulted in a greater number of recruited and randomized participants. Conclusion: Results provide information on effective and cost-effective local and national recruitment methods for recruiting underrepresented groups of participants in behavioral clinical intervention studies.

10.
Covid-19 and Parkinsonism, Vol. 165 ; CHAP: 135-171,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2101684

ABSTRACT

People with Parkinson's Disease (PwP) may be at higher risk for complications from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) due to older age and to the multi-faceted nature of Parkinson's Disease (PD) per se, presenting with a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. Those on advanced therapies may be particularly vulnerable. Taking the above into consideration, along with the potential multi-systemic impact of Covid-19 on affected patients and the complications of hospitalization, we are providing an evidence-based guidance to ensure a high standard of care for PwP affected by Covid-19 with varying severity of the condition. Adherence to the dopaminergic medication of PwP, without abrupt modifications in dosage and frequency, is of utmost importance, while potential interactions with newly introduced drugs should always be considered. Treating physicians should be cautious to acknowledge and timely address any potential complications, while consultation by a neurologist, preferably with special knowledge on movement disorders, is advised for patients admitted in non-neurological wards. Non-pharmacological approaches, including the patient's mobilization, falls prevention, good sleep hygiene, emotional support, and adequate nutritional and fluid intake, are essential and the role of telemedicine services should be strengthened and encouraged.

11.
MIT Sloan Management Review ; JOUR(1):1-4, 64.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2101548

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, the war in Ukraine, and the ongoing climate crisis have put a spotlight on the central role businesses can play in tackling global challenges. We need companies to step up and help solve social and environmental problems at scale--for the sake of the economy as well as people and the planet. Yet one of the incentives companies have for being more socially and environmentally active is limited by existing approaches for assessing a company's social and environmental performance. The predominant frameworks are too narrow and fail to fully address key stakeholder concerns on their own. Environmental, social, and governance assessments focus on internal operational matters, such as labor relations and supply chain sustainability, but don't fully consider the impact that a company's products or services can have on outside stakeholders. Impact investing, in contrast, focuses on external issues, such as whether products and services address the needs of the poor, but it overlooks internal considerations, such as how companies treat their employees.

12.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; JOUR(5):1562-1576, 38.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2101488

ABSTRACT

Research suggests that online learning should be more engaging and collaborative to provide a compatible alternative to in-person learning. Many educators have implemented active learning in their in-person classrooms, while only a few assess how effective similar techniques are in virtual environments. The authors hypothesize that virtual learning, including active learning components, can improve student learning in virtual environments. Furthermore, the authors hypothesize that learning in virtual settings would be affected by students' gender, ability, and familiarity with the topic. The authors conducted a quasi-experimental study involving eighty-seven students from two institutions who participated in an online workshop covering fundamental concepts in construction scheduling. They were split into two groups: one group had no prominent active learning component, while the other was exposed to an active learning component. All participants completed pre and post-workshop surveys to assess their learning of the workshop outcomes and explore the effectiveness of virtual workshops and active learning components in online course delivery. The results of this study suggest that virtual workshops are effective in teaching construction scheduling, while active learning in the form of virtual pair-work does not have a significant positive impact on student learning. Furthermore, student performance in virtual workshops significantly differs based on gender, ability, and familiarity with the topic. Therefore, instructors need to be aware of significant student performance challenges, particularly for males and those with some familiarity with the topics covered in virtual workshops. Since this study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, the authors present further challenges and recommendations for educators and institutions under similar emergency circumstances.

13.
Educacion Quimica ; JOUR(3):107-114, 33.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2100692

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought substantial changes in ways of life;and education as a fundamental part of cultural transformation has not been left out of the maelstrom of adaptations to new ways of life. The present work proposes the readjustment of the academic management of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences of the National University of Asunción (FCQ-UNA), through the creation of the Virtual Classroom 2020 as an integrating platform that allowed the continuity of the academic processes of the seven careers offered only in presence-based modality. For its proper execution, trainings have been carried out for teachers and students, which have been addressed with the objective of achieving digital skills in virtual teaching-learning environments. A survey of the teachers’ perceptions about the implemented mode was carried out, the results of which are presented in the paper, to report the effectiveness of the system for the achievement of the objectives. The results indicate a high satisfaction of the teachers about the implemented strategies, which have served to give a new, more dynamic, and open approach to their classes, both in theory and in laboratory practices and problem solving. © 2022 Facultad de Quimica, UNAM. All rights reserved.

14.
Central European Management Journal ; JOUR(3):136-174, 30.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100321

ABSTRACT

One of the regulatory responses to the 2008 financial crisis was to internalize the costs related to banks' distress by introducing bank levies. More than 23 European banking sectors have been confronted with the new levy regime imposing the additional tax on banks' balance sheet. This study analyzes the effect of the levy introduction on banks' profitability, credit activity, and on their business models. More importantly, we confront two different levy regimes - one imposed on banks' assets and the other on liabilities - to assess their differential impact. A generalized least squares regression with a random effect is performed on a data sample of Hungarian and German credit institutions from 2005 to 2015. The results show that levy introduction weakened banking sectors in terms of their profitability as well as their lending activity. Even though banks try to compensate for the cost of the levies by passing some of the costs on to the customers and restructuring their operations to limit the tax burden, we find that these activities are not sufficient to offset the whole tax burden. We also note that while the asset levy has a more severe effect on banks' profits, the liability levy severely affects banks' lending due to lower interest margin resulting from higher cost of funding. Our research results provide important conclusions for regulators, especially during turbulent periods such as the COVID-19 pandemic to strengthen the banking sectors by considering the levy suspension.

15.
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment ; JOUR(4):610-623, 38.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100249

ABSTRACT

Since 2019, Korean Ministry of Environment has implemented the 1st -3rd PM2.5 Seasonal Management Plans(SMP) to reduce PM2.5 concentration during high PM2.5 concentration period. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the major drivers(meteorology, foreign emissions, and domestic emissions) of which changes led to change of PM2.5 concen-trations in South Korea during the PM2.5 SMP periods(S1, Dec. 2019-Mar. 2020;S2, Dec. 2020-Mar. 2021;S3, Dec. 2021-Mar. 2022) based on observational data and Community Multiscale Air Quality(CMAQ) simulation results. The nation-wide period mean PM2.5 concentration in S1, S2, and S3 decreased by 8.7, 9.1, and 10.1 mu g/m3 compared to that during Dec. 2018-Mar. 2019. Results show that anthropogenic emission reductions in Northeast Asia decreased the PM2.5 concentration by 5.9, 5.5, and 8.8 mu g/m3 respectively during S1-S3. Note that the effect of the regional emission reduction includes not only domestic emission reduction but also reductions in foreign emission impact. The combined impact of meteorology and foreign emission changes explained 65%, 61% of the total PM2.5 decreases over South Korea and the Seoul Metropolitan Area(SMA) respectively during the S1-S3. Consequently, domestic emission reductions including governmental air quality management plans(i.e., the PM2.5 SMP) and socioeconomic changes(i.e., COVID-19 outbreak) led to PM2.5 concentration decrease in South Korea by 35% during the periods. Among seventeen provinces in South Korea, the impacts of domestic emission reduction on the PM2.5 concentration decreases were as high as 39% and 56% in the SMA and Chungnam where the major emission sources such as transportation, power generation facilities, and industrial complex locate and where the PM2.5 SMP measures were probably penetrated. It implies that the effects of domestic emission controls were meaningful to lower PM2.5concentrations during the periods.

16.
Acta Med Acad ; 51(2): 99-107, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Airway management has undergone a dramatic transformation since the arrival of video laryngoscope (VL). VL has higher intubation success rate on first try and lower complications in comparison to direct laryngoscope (DL). The use of VL is recommended in intubating COVID-19 patients to speed up intubation time and reduce failure rate. A team from Airlangga University developed Wycope Video Laryngoscope (Wycope VL), a VL with Wi-Fi connection to smartphones for an easier VL with low cost. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of Wycope VL, C-MAC Video Laryngoscope (C-MAC VL), and DL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was an analytic observational study with a cross sectional design, involving 63 patients who were divided into 3 groups based on the type of laryngoscope, namely Wycope VL, C-MAC VL, and DL. Intubation is carried out by 4th year anaesthesiology resident. Research subjects were patients who will undergo elective surgery at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital under general anaesthesia using orotracheal tube. Inclusion age of 19-64 years, PS ASA 1-2, no anatomical abnormalities of the airway, did not have difficult airway, and was willing to participate in the study. RESULTS: All patients were successfully intubated without complications. C-MAC VL (5.33±1.42 seconds) and Wycope VL (5.95±0.74 seconds) was significantly faster in seeing vocal folds and glottis compared to DL (7.14±0.72 seconds) with P=0.000. DL was significantly faster in average time of intubation (15.52±5.90 seconds) compared to C-MAC VL (16.95±1.11 seconds) and Wycope VL (20.29±2.81 seconds) with P=0.000. CONCLUSION: DL was faster compared to VL in speed of intubation while C-MAC VL and Wycope VL was faster in viewing the vocal folds and glottis compared to DL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy
17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(39): 5666-5678, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099933

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease which emerged into a global pandemic. Although it primarily causes respiratory symptoms for affected patients, COVID-19 was shown to have multi-organ manifestations. Elevated liver enzymes appear to be commonly observed during the course of COVID-19, and there have been numerous reports of liver injury secondary to COVID-19 infection. It has been established that patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD) are more likely to have poorer outcomes following COVID-19 infection compared to those without CLD. Co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease frequently co-exist in individuals living with CLD, and a substantial population may also live with some degree of frailty. The mechanisms of how COVID-19 induces liver injury have been postulated. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is the occurrence of kidney dysfunction in patients with severe CLD/fulminant liver failure in the absence of another identifiable cause, and is usually a marker of severe decompensated liver disease. Select reports of HRS following acute COVID-19 infection have been presented, although the risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms leading to HRS in COVID-19 infection or following COVID-19 treatment remain largely unestablished due to the relative lack and novelty of published data. Evidence discussing the management of HRS in high-dependency care and intensive care contexts is only emerging. In this article, we provide an overview on the speculative pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 induced HRS and propose strategies for clinical diagnosis and management to optimize outcomes in this scenario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatorenal Syndrome , Liver Diseases , Humans , Hepatorenal Syndrome/epidemiology , Hepatorenal Syndrome/etiology , Hepatorenal Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/complications
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099652

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic infection caused by an orthopoxvirus that is endemic to Central and Western Africa. The MPX virus is a part of the same family of viruses as the variola virus, which causes smallpox. Since May 2022, there has been a global increase in the incidence of MPX infections in multiple countries where the illness is not usually prevalent. A growing number of publications have emphasized on the need for increased awareness among all health professionals for the rapid recognition and diagnosis of this disease and for proper public health measures. However, atypical presentations and occurrence of uncommon symptoms receive less than the desired attention. More specifically, MPX infection related nociceptive symptoms are currently underexposed. Nevertheless, reports from the current outbreak have revealed that (severe) pain is one of the major causes for distress and even hospitalization in these patients. As for all serious pain conditions, an integrated, multidisciplinary, and holistic approach is indicated. This approach should be multimodal and include non-pharmacological therapies alongside pharmacological approaches. Health care professionals should be aware of available alternatives when first choice analgesic therapies fail. Protocols for identification of pain type and prolonged monitoring of clinical status should be implemented to improve patient well-being during acute infection, but also prevent chronic nociceptive syndromes.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox virus , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Pain
19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(10): 3265-3271, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100938

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to measure the occupational fatigue level and describe the sources and consequences of occupational fatigue among middle and higher management at an international specialized cancer center during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A mixed-method design was used in this study. A convenience sampling technique was utilized to select the participants from King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan. The data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. This questionnaire included both quantitative and qualitative sections. We utilized Fatigue Risk Assessment and Management in High-Risk Environments (FRAME)-26 items scale for the quantitative section. Two main questions were included in the survey to identify the sources and consequences of occupational fatigue. RESULTS: The results show that the average mean of occupational fatigue was 2.95/5 (SD=0.70). The level of changes in fatigue levels after the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 0.87/3 (SD=1.45). The sources of occupational fatigue could be categorized into five themes: workload, work environment, staffing, psychological, and physical sources. There are four themes categorizing occupational fatigue: social, economic, health, and daily activity and lifestyle. CONCLUSION: This study affords valuable insight into the level, source, and consequences of occupational fatigue among middle and higher management at an international specialized cancer hospital in developing countries. The results indicate that the occupational fatigue level was moderate, and the fatigue level was negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Workplace , Workload/psychology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
20.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e23, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100871

ABSTRACT

Objective: Assess the impact of interventions introduced in Costa Rica during 2020 and 2021 to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A Bayesian Poisson regression model was used, incorporating control or intervention measures as independent variables in the changes in reported case numbers per epidemiological week. Results: The results showed the relative and combined impact of containment policies and measures on the reduction of cases: mainly vehicular traffic restrictions, use of masks, and implementation of health guidelines and protocols. Evidence of impact was optimized and made available for decision-making by the country's health and emergency authorities. Several iterations were generated for constant monitoring of variations in impact at four different moments in the pandemic's spread. Conclusion: The simultaneous implementation of different mitigation measures in Costa Rica has been a driving force in reducing the number of COVID-19 cases.


Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto das intervenções realizadas na Costa Rica durante 2020 e 2021 para o controle da pandemia de COVID-19. Método: Foi utilizado um modelo Bayesiano de regressão de Poisson que incorporou as medidas de controle ou intervenção como variáveis independentes sobre a variação do número de casos por semana epidemiológica. Resultados: Os resultados evidenciaram o efeito relativo e conjunto que as políticas ou medidas de contenção tiveram na redução de casos, principalmente as restrições a veículos, o uso de máscaras e a implementação de diretrizes e protocolos de saúde. As evidências dos efeitos foram otimizadas e disponibilizadas às autoridades sanitárias e de emergência do país para auxiliar na tomada de decisão. Diversas iterações foram geradas para o monitoramento constante da variação nos efeitos em quatro momentos distintos do avanço da pandemia. Conclusão: A aplicação simultânea de diferentes medidas de mitigação na Costa Rica tem sido um agente promotor da diminuição de casos de COVID-19.

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