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1.
Professional Medical Journal ; 29(12):1755-1759, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2164610

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess whether hematological and inflammatory parameters can be useful in assessing severity of disease and predict mortality in patients with COVID-19. Study Design: Cross Sectional Comparative Retrospective. Setting: COVID ward and ICU, Central Park Teaching Hospital Lahore. Period: 23rd April 2021 to 23rd June 2021. Material & Methods: The study population was selected by convenient sampling and all patients admitted to the COVID ward and ICU during this time span of two months with positive COVID PCR were included in the study. Results: Among the study population 29(58%) were males while 21(42%) were females with male to female ratio of 1.38:1 and the difference was not found to be statistically significant. The mean age of the patients was 65.2±08 years. The complete blood parameterswhite blood count, absolute neutrophil count, lymphocyte count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio were compared between groups and it was found that white blood count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio was significantly different between different groups. Inflammatory markers like IL-6, ferritin, C-reative protein and d-dimers were also assessed in different severity groups and all were found to be significantly high in severe/critical group. Conclusion: It is concluded that simple inexpensive parameters like white blood count, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio and neutrophil count can be used to evaluate the severity of disease and to predict those patients who are at increased risk of mortality. In the similar way inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein, D-dimers, IL-6 and ferritin can be used to group the disease severity and also to monitor the disease. [ FROM AUTHOR]

2.
Kathmandu University Medical Journal ; 20(79):165-170, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2157094

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents clinically a variety of pathological and clinical organ dysfunctions, ranging in severity from asymptomatic to fatal. The care and monitoring of COVID-19 patients may benefit from the use of biochemical and hematological markers. Objective To observe the alteration of serum biochemical and hematological parameters in COVID-19 positive patients, attending a Tertiary Care Hospital. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all COVID-19 positive patients attending Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal from 15th December 2021 to 15th February 2022. The test results of different serum biochemical and hematological parameters done for these patients were recorded in clinical laboratory services and obtained retrospectively for the analysis. The data were entered in MS excel and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Result Out of 1537 COVID-11699 declared positive patients, 712 (46.32%) were male and 825 (53.68%) female. Mean age of COVID positive patients was 40.03+/-20.08 years. The level of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT was significantly elevated in 39.9%, 42.8%, 32.3% and 47.2% of COVID positive patients respectively. Blood Urea, creatinine, uric acid and sugar level were significantly elevated in 63%, 56.1%, 33.1% and 47.6% patients respectively. The serum level of LDH, D-dimer, CRP and procalcitonin (PCT) were significantly increased in 52.1%, 75.9%, 71.6% and 61.2% of patients respectively. The serum value of total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL were significantly lowered in 52.2%, 43.8%, 70.1% and 60.3% of patients respectively. RBC concentration and level of hemoglobin was reduced in 56.6% and 53.6% of COVID positive patients respectively whereas total leukocyte count was elevated in 80.7% with increase in neutrophil in 87.9% and decrease in lymphocyte in 79.4%. Conclusion A portion of COVID-19 positive patients showed drastically altered test results for various serum biochemical and hematological markers, although many of them had normal findings. Copyright © 2022, Kathmandu University. All rights reserved.

3.
Reviews in the Neurosciences ; 33(1):79-92, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2124849

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Evidence-based emerging reports of neurological manifestations show that SARS-CoV-2 can attack the nervous system. However, little is known about the biomarkers in disease in neuropsychiatric and neuroimmunological disorders. One of the important keys in the management of COVID-19 is an accurate diagnosis. Biomarkers could provide valuable information in the early detection of disease etiology, diagnosis, further treatment, and prognosis. Moreover, ongoing investigations on hematologic, biochemical, and immunologic biomarkers in nonsevere, severe, or fatal forms of COVID-19 patients provide an urgent need for the identification of clinical and laboratory predictors. In addition, several cytokines acting through mechanisms to emerge immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection are known to play a major role in neuroinflammation. Considering the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2, which can be capable of triggering a cytokine storm, the current evidence on inflammation in psychiatry and neurodegenerative by emerging neuroinflammation is discussed in this review. We also highlighted the hematologic, biochemical, and immunologic biomarkers in COVID-19 diagnosis. COVID-19 prognostic biomarkers in patients with neuropsychiatric and neuroimmunological diseases are also explained. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

4.
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine (Turkey) ; 39(2):511-515, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2146814

ABSTRACT

On March 11. 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic. The surge in the number of infected patients has strained healthcare systems globally. The insufficient number of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) beds has caused a serious problem in patient care and follow-up worldwide. We determined patients who were admitted to the emergency department and hospitalized with a preliminary diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 11, 2020 and November 15, 2020. We recorded all subjects' admission vital signs, anamnesis, physical examination notes, laboratory tests and notes describing the hospital stay from the hospital information system. Patients discharged without requiring ICU admission were included in the good clinical prognosis (GCP) group. Patients who were admitted to the ICU or died in hospital were included in the poor clinical prognosis (PCP) group. When hematological and biochemical parameters were compared, white cell, neutrophil, platelet counts, glucose, urea, creatinine and bilirubin levels were significantly higher and lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium and chlorine levels were lower in the PCP group. Moreover, sedimentation, C Reactive Protein (CRP), ferritin, High Sensitive Troponin I, D-dimer and lactate levels were significantly higher among patients with a poor prognosis. We assessed and identified the more important potential early indicators of prognosis mentioned in the literature that are applicable in the emergency setting. In light of this information, we aimed to establish a basis for the development of future scoring systems. Copyright © 2022 Ondokuz Mayis Universitesi. All rights reserved.

5.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13(3):249-254, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2146651

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) become pandemic in many countries. Many subsequent data shown that the obesity is a risk factor responsible for severity of COVID-19. Obese COVID-19 patient were significantly associated with elevation the inflammatory markers and coagulated factor. The sex has association with diseases severity specially obese COVID-19 patient, so more likely to become seriously ill,so those patients will hospitalized and admitted to ICU and more care requirement . Objective(s): The ambition of this study is to investigation whether obesity is implicated in exacerbation severity of COVID .19. Method(s): 381 COVID -19 patient was participated in this study,185 of them were non obese COVID-19 and the other 196 patient were Obese COVID-19, inflammatory and coagulation marker was measured. Result(s): The data show significant higher levels in interleukins IL-6, CRP, TNF-alpha, Ferritin, and D-dimer and failure to give significant level for IL-10 and glucose concentration among obese, and non-obese, obese based on BMI and depend on the sex . Conclusion(s): Obesity is significantly increase the severity of COVID-19 disease. The obese patient displays higher levels for inflammatory and coagulation factor specially in those patients has 35-39.9 BMI compared with normal weight individuals. The data indicated that the sex significantly interact with obesity on to COVID-19 severity enhancing. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

6.
Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences ; 25(5):395-403, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2145870

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively investigated 68 parturients with or without COVID-19 undergone emergency cesarean section with combined spinal-epidural anesthesia(CSEA) from a single tertiary university hospital in Wuhan, China. The cases were divided into 2 groups: patients with COVID-19 pneumonia(Group 1) and cases without COVID-19 pneumonia(Group 2). The patients in Group 1 were later divided into 2 groups: patients with low-angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE)(Group 3) and patients with normal-ACE(Group 4). The ACE levels, blood pressure and anesthesia management between the patients of Group 1 and Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 were recorded as the primary outcome. The secondary outcome included perioperative symptoms, laboratory parameters and vital signs. Compared with Group 2, the patients in Group 1 had different ACE level and lower blood pressure after CSEA. Compared with Group 4, the patients in Group 3 showed lower SBP after CSEA(127 vs. 130 mm Hg, p=0.028), accompanied with more partus matures and younger age(28 vs. 32 years, p=0.007). ACE may be a possible biomarker to predict the anesthesia effects on patients with COVID-19 infections undergoing emergency cesarean delivery.

7.
International Journal of Medical Biochemistry ; 5(1):34-43, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145521

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We retrospectively analyzed COVID-19 patients for clinical and hematologic features and tried to define the most appropriate markers to diagnose and predict the severity. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. All 4443 patients included were diagnosed with reverse trancription-polymerase chain reaction between January 1 and December 30, 2020. We classified patients according to their mode of treatment: outpatient, inpatient in the ward, or inpatients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Results: The mean age of 2283 (51.4%) women and 2160 (48.6%) men included in the study was determined to be 39.77±17.30. Of the 4443 patients, 3985 (89.7%) were outpatients, 330 (7.4%) were inpatients, and 128 (2.9%) patients were treated in the ICU. The mean hospital stay was 8.36±4.55 days for the survivors in the ward group and 2.67±1.53 days for those who died (p=0.031). The mean hospitalization time of the survivors in the ICU group was 19.97±12.09 days, and the mean hospitalization time of the deceased was 13.10±9.99 days (p=0.001). Age, ferritin, D-dimer, glucose, ALT, AST, urea, creatinine, CRP, HgA1c, IMG, IMG%, and RDW-SD showed a gradual and significant increase in outpa-tient, ward, and ICU groups (p<0.001). Na, K, Neu, Neu%, MCV, RDW-CV, MPV, NLR, PLR, and NMR increased gradually from the outpatient group to the service and ICU groups, whereas Ca, RBC, Hgb, and Hct values decreased significantly (p<0.001). WBC, lymph%, and RDW were highest in the ICU group. Conclusion: Advanced age and being male are important risk factors for hospitalization. Indexes such as NLR, PLR, LCR, NMR, and LMR can be used to predict the severity of the disease. © 2022, Kare Publishing. All rights reserved.

8.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences ; 39(1), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2145277

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To identify the factors that affect outcome in COVID-19 patients in the Pakistani population. Method(s): A total of 225 patients of COVID-19 RT-PCR proven were included during November, 2020 to June, 2021 in this cross-sectional study. They were stratified into different disease severity categories as per WHO guidelines. The characteristics of survivors and non survivors were recorded and then compared to draw conclusions. Result(s): Mean age was 59 years. Majority of the patients were male (68%) and the overall mortality rate was 30.1%. The non survivors were more likely to be female, had a greater number of comorbidities, had a higher respiratory rate and lower oxygen saturations at presentation and had a greater frequency of invasive mechanical ventilation. Non survivors had higher values of TLC, CRP, D-dimers and lower values of Hemoglobin and Platelets. The non survivors had higher incidence of ARDS, Septic shock and Multiorgan involvement. A higher CURB-65 score was observed in non survivors as compared to those who survived. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, presence of and higher number of comorbid conditions and a higher CURB-65 score was linked with mortality. Conclusion(s): Results are compatible with international studies;increasing age, number of comorbid conditions and high inflammatory markers are associated with increased mortality. Our study had an exception that female gender had higher mortality as compared to men. Copyright © 2023, Professional Medical Publications. All rights reserved.

9.
International Archives of Integrated Medicine ; 9(11):15-21, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2126112

ABSTRACT

The new Corona virus disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). It is a highly communicable infectious disease [1]. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 vary from asymptomatic to ARDS leading to death, it is important to differentiate between severe and non-severe cases. Early warning signs can be identified by several laboratory tests which are often expensive, time taking. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), Creactive protein (CRP) are two simple tests that can be used as markers for clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. The aim and objectives of the study were to correlate patients clinical severity and CRP, NLR levels and to assess direct correlation between CRP levels and NLR. 101 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were taken into the study. Patients are divided into mild, moderate severity based on WHO criteria and CBP, CRP were sent on the 6th/ 7th day of illness. Among the 101 patients, 93 were in mild group, 8 were in moderate group. The study group included subjects who aged between 18 years to 80 years of age. Plasma CRP levels were higher in moderate cases than in mild cases, and this difference was significant (p < 0.001). The mean NLR of moderate severity were significantly higher than those of mild cases (p-0.00003). Results showed that NLR was positively correlated with CRP levels.NLR and CRP are potential, reliable and easy-to-use predictors for deteriorating covid-19 infection. The integration of NLR and CRP may lead to improved predictions and help to triage patients at the time of hospital admission. [ FROM AUTHOR]

10.
Urol Oncol ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122869

ABSTRACT

In 1997 an international group of scientists organized a meeting in Barcelona, Spain, to discuss the use of biomarkers in the management of patients with bladder cancer. This meeting was the offspring of an - initially informal - group that finally resulted in the foundation and incorporation of the International Bladder Cancer Network (IBCN) e.V. in 2005. Over the years the group has supported several research initiatives and generated several recommendations on the use of biomarkers in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. Meeting quality was generated by inviting experts presenting state-of-the-art lectures or work in progress reports, interdisciplinarity and the limited number of participants supporting an open and personal exchange resulted in a format increasingly attracting participants from all over the world. The recent limitations caused by the Covid-19 pandemic were partially met by organizing several well attended webinars. The future challenge is to maintain the IBCN meeting spirit despite an increasing interest of the scientific community and industrial partners to participate. However, the integration of and interaction between increasingly more specialized disciplines is a challenge that can be better catalyzed by an international multidisciplinary network than mostly national professional associations.

11.
Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases ; 100(4):6-13, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2120860

ABSTRACT

In some infectious diseases, the number of T- and B-lymphocytes is significantly reduced which is associated with a high risk of the disease progression. The article reviews the effect of two RNA-containing viruses on the specific immune system: SARS-CoV-2 and HIV, as well as parameters of T- and B-cell neogenesis of TREC and KREC, which are markers of immunological disorders and can be used for prognosis for these infections. © 2022 New Terra Publishing House. All rights reserved.

12.
HIV Nursing ; 22(2):1713-1717, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2120514

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, which causes life-threatening illness and mortality. One of the most critical risk factors for severe COVID-19 and COVID-19 mortality is cardiovascular disease (CVD) that develops during infection. Objective: To determine the most common CVD that occurred during infection with COVID-19 patients and the link between CVD and Fate. Material and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between July 22 and April 10 2022 to describe the frequency of CVD among 100 COVID-19 patients, as well as to detect the serological cardiovascular markers with mortality rates of those patients who attended Al-Karama Teaching Hospital in Baghdad governorate, Al-Shafaa Hospital, and Al-Ramadi Teaching Hospital in Al-Anbar governorate. Blood samples from all of the patients were taken for cardiovascular serological markers, as per the manufacturer's instructions. Results: The mean age of the COVID-19 patients with CVD was 65 23.83.83 (83.0%). Thrombosis, heart failure, myocarditis, myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome, hypertension, myocardial injury, angina, and pulmonary embolism were found in 83 (83.0%) of the 100 confirmed COVID-19 cases using IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 by ELIZA in the following frequencies: 21, 9, 9, 7, 10, 11, 8, 5, and 3 respectively. ELIZA discovered COVID-19 patients with CVD utilizing IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the remaining 17 cases (17.0%). Troponin-T, Ferritin, D-dimer, Leukocyte, B Urea, CRP LDH were 58.60 ±40.70, 368.36±265.75, 2523.05±1727.60, 15.00±7.67, 103.49±60.74, 33.13±35.74, 525.40±459.86, 4.11±2.13, respectively, among COVID-19 heart failure patients. Troponin-T, Ferritin, D-dimer, Leukocyte, B Urea, CRP LDH were 33.61±34.70, 481.20±181.89, 3361.15±14.26, 20.08±10.54, 76.71±28.02, 22.76±19.73, 536.35±798.14, 3.61±2.11, respectively among COVID-19 Myocarditis patients. Conclusion: There was no significant variation in mortality across the various CVD of COVID-19 cases, There were no significant differences in cardiovascular serological markers in different age groups of among CVD of COVID-19 cases. © 2022, ResearchTrentz Academy Publishing Education Services. All rights reserved.

13.
J Clin Med ; 11(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116152

ABSTRACT

Growing research data suggests that the severity of COVID-19 is linked with higher levels of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, tumor necrosis factor, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and D-dimers. In addition, it was evident from the existing research data that the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection differs according to independent risk factors such as race and ethnicity. Some scarce evidence shows that the European Roma community is likely to be at an elevated risk of illness and death during the pandemic due to their lifestyle, social factors, and economics. Assuming that precautions must be taken to protect this population from coronavirus infections and from widening existing disparities in comparison with the Romanian ethnic population, the current study aimed to observe the clinical evolution of the Roma patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in correlation with the laboratory findings and inflammatory markers involved. After calculating the sample size requirements, we included 83 Roma patients admitted to the hospital with severe COVID-19 and 236 patients of Romanian ethnicity with the same inclusion criteria. Patients were selected from the period stretching from March 2020 to December 2021, before COVID-19 vaccines were introduced. Compared with the general population, the Roma patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection had a higher unemployment rate (39.8%), and most of them were residing in rural regions (65.4%). There were significantly more overweight patients in the Roma group than in the control group (57.8% vs. 40.7%), and it was also observed that high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus were significantly more prevalent in the Roma patients. They had significantly longer mean duration of hospitalization was significantly longer in the group of Roma patients (18.1 days vs. 16.3 days). IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly more elevated during admission in the group of Roma patients (43.4% vs. 28.4%); however, IL-6 levels normalized at discharge, but ESR remained high. Although ICU admissions were significantly more frequent in this group, the mortality rate was not significantly higher than in the general population. It is necessary to plan different healthcare strategies aimed at special populations, such as the Roma ethnicity to prevent disparities in negative outcomes reflected in this study. The results imply that community-health collaborations between organizations of minority groups and healthcare professionals can mitigate the disproportionate consequences of the pandemic on Roma.

14.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112984

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been studied as a prognostic factor for mortality in COVID-19 patients. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between NLR at COVID-19 diagnosis and survival during the following 90 days in hospitalized patients with solid cancer. Between May 2020 and June 2021, 120 patients were included in a retrospective cohort study. Univariable analysis showed patients with an NLR > 8.3 were associated with an increased risk of death (HR: 4.34; 95% CI: 1.74-10.84) compared to patients with NLR < 3.82 and with NLR ≥3.82 and ≤8.30 (HR: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.32-6.36). Furthermore, on multivariable analysis, NLR > 8.30 independently correlated with increased mortality. In patients with solid malignancies with COVID-19, an NLR > 8.3 is associated with an increased risk of death.

15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(10): 1564-1569, 2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110321

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to research the effects of hematological and inflammatory parameters on the prognosis of COVID-19 disease and hospitalization duration. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and eighty-six patients with COVID-19 and a control group consisting of 187 healthy individuals were included in the study. Hematological variables and inflammatory parameters of the patients were recorded on the first and the fifth days of hospitalization. RESULTS: White blood cell count, lymphocyte count, and platelet count were statistically lower, and mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) levels were higher in the patient group compared to the control group. It was observed that the neutrophil count and MPV level were lower, and the platelet count and ferritin level were statistically higher on the fifth day of follow-up compared to the admission day. In contrast, there was a significantly positive correlation between the duration of hospitalization and the fifth day D-dimer (r = 0.546, p < 0.001) and ferritin (r = 0.568, p < 0.001); in addition, there was a negative correlation between the duration of hospitalization and admission day lymphocyte count and the fifth-day lymphocyte count. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of ferritin and D-dimer, and decreased count of lymphocytes are among the important factors affecting the duration of hospitalization for COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we think that neutrophil count and MPV levels are low, and platelet count and ferritin levels are high during the disease. Therefore, these parameters can be used as prognostic indicators of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Platelet Count , Leukocyte Count , Mean Platelet Volume , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Ferritins
16.
Cureus ; 14(8): e28255, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121595

ABSTRACT

Introduction Zonulin is a protein that plays a role in the reversible regulation of epithelial permeability. As zonulin is released in large amounts into the intestinal lumen, it disrupts the integrity of the tight junctions and causes continuous migration of antigens to the submucosa. Consequently, it can trigger inflammatory processes and severe immune reactions. In severe cases, SARS-CoV-2 may have a major impact on the clinical manifestations of the disease by directly or indirectly affecting intestinal cells and triggering systemic inflammation. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the role of one of the possible mediators, zonulin, in the severity of the COVID-19 infection. Methods  Thirty COVID-19 patients and 35 healthy controls were included in the study. Blood samples were taken from the patients on the 1st, 4th, and 8th days of hospitalization. Serum zonulin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Complete blood count (white blood cell [WBC], neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet), biochemical parameters (serum lactic acid dehydrogenase [LDH], erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, ferritin, fibrinogen levels) were determined and chronic systemic disease states of the patients were assessed. Results  Serum zonulin levels were notably higher in the healthy control group compared to the patient group (p=0.003). Although there was an increase in the zonulin values by time in hospitalization, this rising was not significant. Conversely, ESR and CRP levels were significantly higher in the patient group (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding gender, age, and WBC counts. Conclusion  The serum zonulin levels of COVID-19 patients with the mild clinical course were lower than the healthy control group. Moreover, serum zonulin levels were not correlated with ESR, CRP, and other inflammation markers. Our results suggest that low serum zonulin levels in COVID-19 patients might represent a mild disease course.

17.
Leadership ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2108648

ABSTRACT

This research asks: 'were there any objectively identifiable signals in the words leaders used in the early stages of the Covid-19 pandemic that can be associated with ineffective management of the crisis?' We chose to focus on the leaders of the two English-speaking nations that fared worst and best in the pandemic, the United States and New Zealand. By way of background and in order to contextualise the research, we compared and contrasted Trump's and Ardern's leaderships using the toxic triangle framework of destructive leadership. We then focused on the leader behaviour element of the triangle by using computerised text analysis (CTA) to analyse Trump's and Ardern's public pronouncements during the critical early stages of the pandemic. Based on a similarity index (S), we identified linguistic markers associated with destructive leader behaviours and negative outcomes (Trump) and non-destructive leader behaviours and positive outcomes (Ardern). We discuss future applications of these linguistic markers for the diagnosis both of incumbent and potential leaders' responses to crises management.

18.
Dubai Medical Journal ; : 1-6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2108424

ABSTRACT

Background: It is well known that COVID-19 infection affects multiple systems in the body. Reports have documented many changes in the hematopoietic system in the pathophysiology of the disease, and many haematological markers like lymphopenia and high d dimer have been linked to worse outcomes after COVID-19 infection in adult patients. Aim: The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence and any significant difference in routine haematological parameters on presentation in paediatric and adult patients with COVID-19 infection. Methodology: We conducted a multicentre retrospective descriptive observational study and investigated the prevalence of haematological abnormalities at the presentation of 1,000 PCR swab-confirmed COVID-19-infected randomly selected adult and paediatric patients admitted to 3 tertiary hospitals in Dubai from 15 March-30 May 2020. Data were gathered through their electronic medical records, and all analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS). Results: The prevalence of at least one abnormal haematological parameter was 95.1% (794/835) on the first presentation to the hospital. After adjusting of age and gender, the prevalence of any white cell abnormality was 34.7% (290/835) (5.7% leukopenia, 9.6% leucocytosis, 25.4% lymphopenia, 5.5% neutropenia, 16.4% neutrophilia, 7.3% monocytosis, and 1.2% eosinopenia). A prevalence of 15.3% (128/835) anaemia, 9.5% (79/835) thrombocytopenia, and 4.3% (36/835) thrombocytosis was also observed. The prevalence of other abnormal blood parameters was C-reactive protein 69.5% (573/835), D dimer 57.5% (280/835), high lactate dehydrogenase 52% (383/835), high ferritin 72.1% (452/835), high international normalized ratio 5.1% (38/835), prolonged prothrombin time 32.2% (240/835), and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time 35.6% (264/835). A significant difference in the prevalence of these abnormalities was evident between adult and paediatric populations, and these abnormalities were much more prevalent in adults but interestingly paediatric population tended to have a higher incidence of neutropenia, eosinophilia, and monocytosis (p < 0.001). Conclusion: COVID-19 infection tends to be milder and has better outcomes in the paediatric population. The immune system responds differently to the infection in these populations. The response is exaggerated in adults reflected by the increased prevalence of haematological abnormalities like raised inflammatory markers and other white cell abnormalities and has been linked with increased severity of infection and mortality.

19.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(11): ofac544, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107555

ABSTRACT

We investigated effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARV-CoV-2) booster vaccination on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoir size, immune markers, and host immune responses in people with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy. Our data suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 booster vaccine is not likely to replenish the persistent HIV reservoir nor provide an immunologic environment to facilitate active HIV expression/replication.

20.
eNeurologicalSci ; 29: 100434, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095313

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to measure serum brain injury biomarkers in patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), without evidence of brain impairment, and to determine potential correlations with systemic inflammatory markers, illness severity, and outcome. Methods: In patients admitted to the ICU with COVID-19, without clinical evidence of brain injury, blood S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured on admission. Clinical, routine laboratory data and illness severity were recorded. Comparisons between 28-day survivors and non-survivors and correlations of neurological biomarkers to other laboratory data and illness severity, were analyzed. Results: We included 50 patients, median age 64 [IQR 58-78] years, 39 (78%) males, 39 (78%) mechanically ventilated and 11 (22%) under high flow nasal oxygen treatment. S100B and NSE were increased in 19 (38%) and 45 (90%) patients, respectively. S100B was significantly elevated in non-survivors compared to survivors: 0.15 [0.10-0.29] versus 0.11 [0.07-0.17] µg/L, respectively, (p = 0.03), and significantly correlated with age, IL-6, arterial lactate, noradrenaline dose, illness severity and lymphocyte count. IL-6 was significantly correlated with C-reactive protein, noradrenaline dose and organ failure severity. NSE was correlated only with lactate dehydrogenase. Conclusion: Brain injury biomarkers were frequently elevated in COVID-19 ICU patients, in the absence of clinical evidence of brain injury. S100B was significantly correlated with IL-6, low lymphocyte count, hypoperfusion indices, illness severity, and short-term outcome. These findings indicate a possible brain astrocytes and neurons involvement, also suggesting a broader role of S100B in systemic inflammatory response.

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