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1.
Bioactive Materials ; 21:576-594, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060443

ABSTRACT

Viral infections cause damage to various organ systems by inducing organ-specific symptoms or systemic multi-organ damage. Depending on the infection route and virus type, infectious diseases are classified as respiratory, nervous, immune, digestive, or skin infections. Since these infectious diseases can widely spread in the community and their catastrophic effects are severe, identification of their causative agent and mechanisms underlying their pathogenesis is an urgent necessity. Although infection-associated mechanisms have been studied in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models and animal models, they have shown limitations in organ-specific or human-associated pathogenesis, and the development of a human-organ-mimetic system is required. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) engineered tissue models, which can present human organ-like physiology in terms of the 3D structure, utilization of human-originated cells, recapitulation of physiological stimuli, and tight cell-cell interactions, were developed. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that these models can recapitulate infection-associated pathologies. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in 3D engineered tissue models that mimic organ-specific viral infections. First, we briefly described the limitations of the current 2D and animal models in recapitulating human-specific viral infection pathology. Next, we provided an overview of recently reported viral infection models, focusing particularly on organ-specific infection pathologies. Finally, a future perspective that must be pursued to reconstitute more human-specific infectious diseases is presented. Copyright © 2022 The Authors

2.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875808

ABSTRACT

Despite the existence of an effective live-attenuated vaccine, measles can appear in vaccinated individuals. We investigated breakthrough measles cases identified during our surveillance activities within the measles/rubella surveillance network (MoRoNet) in Milan and surrounding areas (Northern Italy). Between 2017 and 2021, we confirmed measles virus (genotypes B3 or D8) infections in 653 patients and 51 of these (7.8%) were vaccinees. Among vaccinated individuals whose serum was available, a secondary failure was evidenced in 69.4% (25/36) of cases while 11 patients (30.6%) were non-responders. Non-responders were more frequently hospitalized and had significantly lower Ct values in both respiratory and urine samples. Median age and time since the last immunization were similar in the two groups. Importantly, we identified onward transmissions from vaccine failure cases. Vaccinees were involved in 20 outbreaks, in 10 of them they were able to transmit the virus, and in 8 of them, they were the index case. Comparing viral hemagglutinin sequences from vaccinated and non-vaccinated subjects did not show a specific mutation pattern. These results suggest that vaccination failure was likely due to the poor immune response of single individuals and highlights the importance of identifying breakthrough cases and characterizing their clinical and virologic profiles.


Subject(s)
Measles , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine , Measles virus/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated
3.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869826

ABSTRACT

Measles virus (MV) is a highly contagious respiratory virus responsible for outbreaks associated with significant morbidity and mortality among children and young adults. Although safe and effective measles vaccines are available, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in vaccination coverage gaps that may lead to the resurgence of measles when restrictions are lifted. This puts individuals who cannot be vaccinated, such as young infants and immunocompromised individuals, at risk. Therapeutic interventions are complicated by the long incubation time of measles, resulting in a narrow treatment window. At present, the only available WHO-advised option is treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, although this is not approved as standard of care. Antivirals against measles may contribute to intervention strategies to limit the impact of future outbreaks. Here, we review previously described antivirals and antiviral assays, evaluate the antiviral efficacy of a number of compounds to inhibit MV dissemination in vitro, and discuss potential application in specific target populations. We conclude that broadly reactive antivirals could strengthen existing intervention strategies to limit the impact of measles outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Humans , Measles Vaccine , Measles virus , Pandemics , Vaccination
4.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity ; 12(1):105-112, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1856427

ABSTRACT

Introduction. According to the WHO Strategic Plan, five out of six geographical regions were expected to achieve measles elimination by 2020, among which is the Western Pacific Region (WPR), which includes the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (VNM). In 2019, 14 156 measles cases were detected in Vietnam, which significantly exceeds the level required to achieve its elimination (less than 1 case per 1 million population). Analyzing the causes of the ongoing measles virus circulation in diverse global regions is very important. It is also important to assess a potential impact on the measles incidence due to anti-epidemic measures aimed at combating the COVID-19 pandemic. This research is devoted to revealation measles cases in South Vietnam within the period covering January 2020 to March 2021. Materials and methods. 799 samples of blood sera obtained from different territories of South Vietnam in 2020-2021 were examined for IgM antibodies against measles virus using the Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgM) test system (Euroimmun, Germany). The presence of IgM measles virus antibodies in the blood serum was assessed as an acute measles infection. Results. The measles virus was actively circulating in South Vietnam in the first months of 2020. Residents of large cities and industrial centers were mainly involved in the epidemic process. Measles spread mainly among unvaccinated (71.58%) subjects, or who was unaware of vaccinations (25.48%), but also among those who were vaccinated (2.12%) and revaccinated (0.64%). The absolute majority of cases (71%) affected children under the age of three, with a predominance of those at the first year of life. Among the latter, 48% were children aged 7-9 months old. In March-April 2020, there was a sharp decrease in the number of measles cases in South Vietnam, down to a sporadic level (from May 2020 to March 2021). This is probably due to the anti-epidemic measures that were carried out in the VNM in order to limit the spread of COVID-19. Consequently, after the restrictions are lifted, we can expect an increase in the measles incidence in VNM.

5.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 305, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measles caused by measles virus (MeV) is a highly contagious viral disease which has also been associated with complications including pneumonia, myocarditis, encephalitis, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The current study isolated 33 strains belonging to 2 groups, outbreak and sporadic strains, in 13 cities of Shandong province, China from 2013 to 2019. Comparison of genetic characterization among 15 outbreak strains and 18 sporadic strains was performed by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the C-terminal region of N protein gene (N-450). RESULTS: All 33 stains belonged to genotype H1. The outbreak strains and sporadic strains distributed crossly in phylogenetic tree. Sequences alignment revealed some interesting G to A transversion which changed the amino acids on genomic sites 1317, 1422, and 1543. The nucleotide and amino acid similarities among outbreak isolates were 98-100% (0-10 nucleotide variations) and 97.7-100%, respectively; They were 97.3-100% and 96.6-100%, respectively for sporadic isolates. Evolutionary genetics analysis revealed that the mean evolution rates of outbreak and sporadic isolates were 1.26 N 10- 3 and 1.48 N 10- 3 substitutions per site per year separately, which were similar with corresponding data before 2012. Local transmission analysis suggested that there were three transmission chains in this study, two of them originated from Japan. Outbreak cases and sporadic cases emerged alternatively and were reciprocal causation on the transmission chains. CONCLUSIONS: Our study investigated the phylogeny and evolutional genetics of MeV during a 7-year surveillance, and compared epidemic and genetic characteristics of outbreak strains and sporadic strains. These results underscore the importance of evolutionary study alongside with sporadic cases in discovering and tracing possible outbreaks, especially in the stage of measles elimination.


Subject(s)
Measles , Amino Acids/genetics , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genotype , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles virus/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Nucleotides , Phylogeny
6.
Trends Food Sci Technol ; 104: 219-234, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a common herb consumed worldwide as functional food and traditional remedy for the prevention of infectious diseases since ancient time. Garlic and its active organosulfur compounds (OSCs) have been reported to alleviate a number of viral infections in pre-clinical and clinical investigations. However, so far no systematic review on its antiviral effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms exists. SCOPE AND APPROACH: The aim of this review is to systematically summarize pre-clinical and clinical investigations on antiviral effects of garlic and its OSCs as well as to further analyse recent findings on the mechanisms that underpin these antiviral actions. PubMed, Cochrane library, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases were searched and articles up to June 2020 were included in this review. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Pre-clinical data demonstrated that garlic and its OSCs have potential antiviral activity against different human, animal and plant pathogenic viruses through blocking viral entry into host cells, inhibiting viral RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase, DNA synthesis and immediate-early gene 1(IEG1) transcription, as well as through downregulating the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. The alleviation of viral infection was also shown to link with immunomodulatory effects of garlic and its OSCs. Clinical studies further demonstrated a prophylactic effect of garlic in the prevention of widespread viral infections in humans through enhancing the immune response. This review highlights that garlic possesses significant antiviral activity and can be used prophylactically in the prevention of viral infections.

7.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760845

ABSTRACT

Pathogenesis of viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood, and this is partly due to the limitations of currently used preclinical models. Brain organoid models can overcome some of these limitations, as they are generated from human derived stem cells, differentiated in three dimensions (3D), and can mimic human neurodevelopmental characteristics. Therefore, brain organoids have been increasingly used as brain models in research on various viruses, such as Zika virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. Brain organoids allow for the study of viral tropism, the effect of infection on organoid function, size, and cytoarchitecture, as well as innate immune response; therefore, they provide valuable insight into the pathogenesis of neurotropic viral infections and testing of antivirals in a physiological model. In this review, we summarize the results of studies on viral CNS infection in brain organoids, and we demonstrate the broad application and benefits of using a human 3D model in virology research. At the same time, we describe the limitations of the studies in brain organoids, such as the heterogeneity in organoid generation protocols and age at infection, which result in differences in results between studies, as well as the lack of microglia and a blood brain barrier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain/pathology , Humans , Organoids , Zika Virus Infection/pathology
8.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 39:S55, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1734456

ABSTRACT

Background:The first case of COVID-19 was reported in India on 30th January 2020 with origin from China (PIB 2020, ‘https:// pib.gov.in/pressreleaseiframepage.aspx?prid=1601095’). As on 6th May 2020 the total cases reported in India are 35,043, with 8,889 recoveries and 1,147 deaths (https://www.mohfw.gov.in/ accessed on 6th may at 12:54 PM). However, the rate of infection is lower as compared to other countries. Since the Covid-19 pandemic started spreading in world outside China including India and large scale testing for Covid-19 became available, all the focus suddenly shifted to Covid-19. Other respiratory viruses, which were in existence for many years and testing and management of these infection was always standard of care, started getting neglected. Hence, we analysed the retrospective laboratory results from cases of acute respiratory infection, tested in the month of February 2020, when Covid-19 cases in India were close to negligible. This is to focus on need of testing for other respiratory viruses along with Covid-19 so that these infections can be managed as per standard protocol and do not get neglected in the wake of pandemic. Methods:The Virus research and diagnostic laboratory at Department of Microbiology, King George’s Medical University (VRDL) start- ed testing for Covid-19 on 3rd February 2020. This laboratory routinely tests all patients presenting as Severe Acute Respiratory Ill- ness (SARI) for 12 respiratory viruses including Influenza (Inf) A (both H1N1 and H3N2) and B, Adenovirus (ADV), Respiratory syntitial virus (RSV), Parainfluenza (Parainf) viruses 1, 2, 3 and 4, Measles virus (MEV), Bocavirus, Human metapneumo virus (HMPV) and Rhi- noviruses (Rhino). All patients presenting as Influenza like illness (ILI) are routinely tested for Influenza A and B viruses. If they test negative, other viruses are tested depending on clinical suspicion. The testing is routinely done as per methods described earlier (Singh A.K., Jain A., Jain B., Singh K.P., Dangi T., Mohan M. Viral aetiology of acute lower respiratory tract illness in hospitalised paedi- atric patients of a tertiary hospital: one year prospective study Indian J Med Microbial. 2014;32:13–18). Results:During February 2020, we tested 316 cases of SARI/ ILI for covid-19. None of them tested positive for Covid-19. Samples from these cases were also tested for other respiratory viruses as mentioned above. Total 10 (3.2%, 8 H1N1 (2.5%) and 2 H3N2 (0.6%)) samples tested positive for Influenza A, 2 each tested positive for Influenza B, HMPV and Adenoviruses. One sample each tested posi- tive for RSV and Rhinoviruses. Total 5 samples tested positive for parainfluenza viruses;3 for parainfluenza 1, and 1 each for parain- fluenza 1 and 4 Conclusions :( table). The positivity for covid-19 in India in pandemic time remains less than 4% (https://www.mohfw.gov.in/ ac- cessed on 06 May 2020, 08:00 IST), while the positivity for rest of the respiratory viruses as shown in present analysis is 7.3%. It is essential to see that infection with other respiratory viruses does not get neglected and add to the Covid-19 misery.

9.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(12)2021 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580576

ABSTRACT

A two-stage isothermal amplification method, which consists of a first-stage basic recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a second-stage fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), as well as a microfluidic-chip-based portable system, were developed in this study; these enabled parallel detection of multiplex targets in real time in around one hour, with high sensitivity and specificity, without cross-contamination. The consumption of the sample and the reagent was 2.1 µL and 10.6 µL per reaction for RPA and LAMP, respectively. The lowest detection limit (LOD) was about 10 copies. The clinical amplification of about 40 nasopharyngeal swab samples, containing 17 SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) and 23 measles viruses (MV), were parallel tested by using the microfluidic chip. Both clinical specificity and sensitivity were 100% for MV, and the clinical specificity and sensitivity were 94.12% and 95.83% for SARS-CoV-2, respectively. This two-stage isothermal amplification method based on the microfluidic chip format offers a convenient, clinically parallel molecular diagnostic method, which can identify different nucleic acid samples simultaneously and in a timely manner, and with a low cost of the reaction reagent. It is especially suitable for resource-limited areas and point-of-care testing (POCT).

10.
J Med Virol ; 94(2): 521-530, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508796

ABSTRACT

Measles is one of the most infectious diseases of humans. It is caused by the measles virus (MeV) and can lead to serious illness, lifelong complications, and even death. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is now available to study molecular epidemiology and identify MeV transmission pathways. In the present study, WGS of 23 MeV strains of genotype H1, collected in Mainland China between 2006 and 2018, were generated and compared to 31 WGSs from the public domain to analyze genomic characteristics, evolutionary rates and date of emergence of H1 genotype. The noncoding region between M and F protein genes (M/F NCR) was the most variable region throughout the genome. Although the nucleotide substitution rate of H1 WGS was around 0.75 × 10-3 substitution per site per year, the M/F NCR had an evolutionary rate three times higher, with 2.44 × 10-3 substitution per site per year. Phylogenetic analysis identified three distinct genetic groups. The Time of the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) of H1 genotype was estimated at approximately 1988, while the first genetic group appeared around 1995 followed by two other genetic groups in 1999-2002. Bayesian skyline plot showed that the genetic diversity of the H1 genotype remained stable even though the number of MeV cases decreased 50 times between 2014 (52 628) and 2020 (993). The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic might have some effect on the measles epidemic and further studies will be necessary to assess the genetic diversity of the H1 genotype in a post-COVID area.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Measles virus/genetics , China/epidemiology , Genes, Viral/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genomics , Genotype , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/virology , Measles virus/classification , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics
11.
Annu Rep Med Chem ; 57: 49-107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506042

ABSTRACT

Despite considerable progress in the development of antiviral drugs, among which anti-immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) medications can be considered real success stories, many viral infections remain without an effective treatment. This not only applies to infectious outbreaks caused by zoonotic viruses that have recently spilled over into humans such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but also ancient viral diseases that have been brought under control by vaccination such as variola (smallpox), poliomyelitis, measles, and rabies. A largely unsolved problem are endemic respiratory infections due to influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and rhinoviruses, whose associated morbidity will likely worsen with increasing air pollution. Furthermore, climate changes will expose industrialized countries to a dangerous resurgence of viral hemorrhagic fevers, which might also become global infections. Herein, we summarize the recent progress that has been made in the search for new antivirals against these different threats that the world population will need to confront with increasing frequency in the next decade.

12.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481008

ABSTRACT

Measles virus (MeV) genotype B3 is one globally significant circulating genotype. Here, we present a systematic description of long-term evolutionary characterizations of the MeV genotype B3's hemagglutinin (H) gene in the elimination era. Our results show that the B3 H gene can be divided into two main sub-genotypes, and the highest intra-genotypic diversity was observed in 2004. MeV genotype B3's H gene diverged in 1976; its overall nucleotide substitution rate is estimated to be 5.697 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year, and is slowing down. The amino acid substitution rate of genotype B3's H gene is also decreasing, and the mean effective population size has been in a downward trend since 2000. Selection pressure analysis only recognized a few sites under positive selection, and the number of positive selection sites is getting smaller. All of these observations may reveal that genotype B3's H gene is not under strong selection pressure, and is becoming increasingly conservative. MeV H-gene or whole-genome sequencing should be routine, so as to better elucidate the molecular epidemiology of MeV in the future.


Subject(s)
Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , Measles virus/genetics , China , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genotype , Hemagglutinins/genetics , Humans , Measles/virology , Molecular Epidemiology/methods , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
13.
EuroMediterr J Environ Integr ; 6(2): 61, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397103

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that emerged in China has spread to more than 212 countries to date. COVID-19 can cause serious acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Therefore, research advances on the associated SARS-coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) may enable the scientific community to establish effective vaccines to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections by increasing understanding of viral pathogenesis. Measles virus (MV) expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) represents a promising class of biotherapeutic agents to combat this virus. The potential of such recombinant viruses has been well recognized for the treatment of many diseases. We summarize and review herein a potential therapeutic intervention strategy against COVID-19 infection based on MVSchw2-SARS-S and MVSchw2-SARS-Ssol with the aim of assessing the suitability of recombinant MV as a potential new candidate SARS vaccine. Such analysis of COVID-19 pathogenesis could also help establish appropriate therapeutic targets for the production of specific antiviral agents against this newly emerged pathogen.

14.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 177(9): 1059-1068, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, non-treatable and fatal neurological complication of measles, still present due to the return of the epidemic linked to the loosening of vaccination policies. Its mechanism remains unexplained. OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to investigate explanatory variables relating to the risk of developing SSPE and its pathophysiology. METHODS: Literature analysis was focused on different varieties of SSPE: perinatal forms, short-incubation forms similar to acute measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), rapidly evolving forms, forms occurring in the immunosuppressed, adult forms, and family forms. In addition, several studies on the parameters of innate immunity and interferon responses of patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Two main data were highlighted: a relationship between the so-called fulminant forms and the prescription of corticosteroids was established. In familial SSPE, two groups were individualized according to the duration of the latency period, prompting an analysis of patient exomes. CONCLUSION: Treatment with corticosteroids should be banned. Knowledge of the genes involved and epigenetics should be useful for understanding the pathophysiology of SSPE and other late-onset neurological infections with RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , Measles , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Female , Humans , Measles/complications , Measles/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/diagnosis , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/epidemiology , Vaccination
15.
Pathogens ; 10(4)2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178374

ABSTRACT

An interesting Perspective article recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine offers an insightful overview on the benefits provided by the mass vaccination of children against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the betacoronavirus responsible for the dramatic CoronaVirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic [...].

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125668

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights an urgent need to develop a safe, efficacious, and durable vaccine. Using a measles virus (rMeV) vaccine strain as the backbone, we developed a series of recombinant attenuated vaccine candidates expressing various forms of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and its receptor binding domain (RBD) and evaluated their efficacy in cotton rat, IFNAR-/-mice, IFNAR-/--hCD46 mice, and golden Syrian hamsters. We found that rMeV expressing stabilized prefusion S protein (rMeV-preS) was more potent in inducing SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies than rMeV expressing full-length S protein (rMeV-S), while the rMeVs expressing different lengths of RBD (rMeV-RBD) were the least potent. Animals immunized with rMeV-preS produced higher levels of neutralizing antibody than found in convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients and a strong Th1-biased T cell response. The rMeV-preS also provided complete protection of hamsters from challenge with SARS-CoV-2, preventing replication in lungs and nasal turbinates, body weight loss, cytokine storm, and lung pathology. These data demonstrate that rMeV-preS is a safe and highly efficacious vaccine candidate, supporting its further development as a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors , Measles virus , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Immunization , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Measles virus/genetics , Measles virus/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Rats , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics
17.
Chem Eng J ; 420: 127575, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898556

ABSTRACT

Virus-induced infection such as SARS-CoV-2 is a serious threat to human health and the economic setback of the world. Continued advances in the development of technologies are required before the viruses undergo mutation. The low concentration of viruses in environmental samples makes the detection extremely challenging; simple, accurate and rapid detection methods are in urgent need. Of all the analytical techniques, electrochemical methods have the established capabilities to address the issues. Particularly, the integration of nanotechnology would allow miniature devices to be made available at the point-of-care. This review outlines the capabilities of electrochemical methods in conjunction with nanotechnology for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Future directions and challenges of the electrochemical biosensors for pathogen detection are covered including wearable and conformal biosensors, detection of plant pathogens, multiplexed detection, and reusable biosensors for on-site monitoring, thereby providing low-cost and disposable biosensors.

18.
Rev. Fac. Med. Hum ; 20(3): 478-488, Jul-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English, Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-841466

ABSTRACT

Tras su erradicación en la región de las Américas en el 2016, ha reemergido y el número de casos va en progresivo aumento. Objetivo: Profundizar y actualizar los aspectos más importantes de la epidermiología molecular del virus sarampión en las Américas. Métodos: La búsqueda y análisis de la información se realizó en un periodo de cinco meses (primero de noviembre de 2019 al 31 de marzo de 2020) para lo cual se emplearon las siguientes palabras: measles, epidemiology molecular, América,outbreak, genotype, epidemic, en las bases de datos PubMed, Hinari, SciELO y Medline. Así mismo, se tomaron en cuenta los informes epidemiológicos de la Organización Panamericana De La Salud (OPS)y entidades gubernamentales de distintos países de América. Resultados: Dos linajes del genotipo D8están diseminándose ampliamente en la región de las Américas. Y aunque aún no podemos conocer el impacto de la actual pandemia producida por el SARS-CoV-2, la baja tasa de inmunización, los elevados movimientos migratorios antes del 2020, factores socioculturales y religiosos sumados a la crisis socia y política que afectan a algunos países de la región, están contribuyendo a que este problema sea creciente. Conclusión: La revisión brinda el conocimiento de la epidemiología molecular del virus. Su empleo y correcta interpretación permitirá establecer un adecuado manejo y medidas de contención con el fin de recuperar la condición de enfermedad erradicada en las Américas.


Introduction: Measles is one of the most contagious diseases that affect humans. After its eradicationin the Americas region in 2016, it has reemerged and the number of cases is progressively increasing..Objective: To deepen and update the most important aspects of the measles virus molecularepidermiology in the Americas. Methods: The search and analysis of the information was carriedout over a period of five months (November 1, 2019 to March 31, 2020) for which the following wordswere used: measles, molecular epidemiology, America, outbreak, genotype, epidemic, in the PubMed,Hinari, SciELO and Medline databases Likewise, the epidemiological reports of the Pan American HealthOrganization (PAHO) and government entities from different countries of America were taken intoaccount. Results: Two lineages of the D8 genotype are spreading widely in the Americas region. Andalthough we still cannot know the impact of the current pandemic produced by the SARS-CoV-2, thelow immunization rate, the high migratory movements before 2020, socio-cultural and religious factorsadded to the social and political crisis that affect to some countries in the region, they are helping toincrease this problem. Conclusion: The review provides knowledge of the molecular epidemiologyof the virus. Its use and correct interpretation will allow establishing adequate management andcontainment measures in order to recover the eradicated disease condition in the Americas.

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