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1.
Future of Food: Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2081142

ABSTRACT

Rising environmental issues, animal welfare concerns and vulnerable food supply chain especially during pandemics, as COVID-19 demands an effective and long-term solution for food security in future. All of these challenges encourage the researchers to find more reliable and clean ways of food production such as cultured meat. This process involved the production of animal meat in lab using large bioreactors without raising animals. Cultured meat production is widely accepted among animal rights activists and it can solve the issues related to conventional farming such as excessive use of land resource, animal slaughter, foodborne diseases and antibiotic resistance. Despite of all these advantages, it is facing some serious challenges, which includes technical, social and ethical limitations. Extracting specific cell line, development of animal-free growth media, upgradation of bioreactors, development of desired scaffolds and changing the public perception towards lab grown meat are fundamental challenges that need to be discuss. This review intends to summarize both technical and social challenges that are halting the availability of cultured meat in market and suggests some feasible recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

2.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(6):403-407, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2073616

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV), exhibit high mutation rates and strong tendency to recombine. These properties enable them to easy overcome the host species barrier and adapt to new hosts. It is currently known that six CoV are able to infect pigs. Four of them, belong to the genus Alphacoronavirus - transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TEGV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV). One of them belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus - porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, PHEV, and the last one, to the genus Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV). PHEV was one of the first identified swine CoVs and is still widespread, causing subclinical infections in pigs in several countries. PRCV, a spike deletion mutant of TGEV, is considered as non-pathogenic. Since vaccines are available only for some porcine CoVs, prevention should focus mainly on a high level of biosecurity. In view of the diversity of CoVs and the potential risk factors associated with zoonotic emergence, updating the knowledge concerning this area is essential.

3.
Hypertension. Conference: American Heart Association's Hypertension ; 79(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064361

ABSTRACT

Background: During COVID-19, this study examined data on adolescents' eating habits. It proposes a new 'gateway food model' for ultra-processed foods (UPF). This model shows that certain UPFs when increased (decreased) drive consumption of other UPFs as well. This has important implications for managing hypertension risk factors since studies show that those in the highest tertile of UPF consumption have a higher risk of hypertension (adjusted HR, 1.21;CI, 1.06, 1.37;p = 0.004) (Mendonca, 2016). Method(s): The study enrolled 315 participants aged 13-19 years in Florida, U.S. Participants' PIE scores (Processed Intake Evaluation scores, scale 0-100), were calculated based on averaged consumption of 12 ultra-processed food products. PIE scores, before COVID-19 in 2019, and after COVID-19 restrictions were eased in 2022, were assessed in the study. Result(s): The participants' mean age was 16.2+/-1.4 years. The study classified participants into UPF+ (n=135) and UPF- (n=180) groups according to whether they increased or decreased their UPF intake during COVID-19. For both groups, a stepwise regression was employed to identify significant factors for change in UPF intake. In the UPF+ group, increased intake of candy, store pastries, or frozen desserts was associated with increased UPF intake across all other UPFs as well (+31.2, +12.0, or +10.5 respective change in PIE score, p<0.01). Correspondingly, in the UPFgroup, reduced intake of biscuits, white bread, or processed meat was associated with decreased overall UPF intake across all other UPFs as well (-9.6, -9.4, -8.6 respective change in PIE score, p<0.01). Conclusion(s): Hypertension can begin during childhood and may be mediated by a focus on modifiable risk factors such as high UPF intake. These results indicate that for adolescents whose consumption of UPFs has not yet been established, certain gateway UPFs (candy, store pastries, and frozen desserts) should be given priority for preventive dietary interventions since increased intake in these UPFs leads to consumption of all other UPFs as well. In contrast, if an adolescent's UPF eating is already established, other UPFs (biscuits, white bread, or processed meat) can be targeted by dietary interventions as they decrease intake across all other UPFs.

4.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112:S651-S654, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2058566

ABSTRACT

Even though the presence of ammunition-derived metallic lead fragments in donated firearms-hunted meat has been recognized for more than a decade, the vast majority of donated hunted meat is not inspected to discard meat containing lead fragments.1 An underlying lack of food safety standards for adulterated donated food increases risks to lowincome recipients, who are already disproportionately affected by elevated blood lead levels (BLLs).2 Primary prevention is needed for this overlooked source of lead exposure. LOW-LEVEL LEAD Primary prevention is recognized as the most effective way to address the epidemic of lead poisoning in the United States.3 The current blood lead reference level recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is 3.5 micrograms per deciliter (mg/dL). A strong body of scientific research demonstrates that leadbased ammunition frequently contaminates hunted meat and increases BLLs of humans and animals who consume it.1,7-9 Lead-contaminated hunted meat has been identified as the most poorly acknowledged and addressed example of food lead contamination, and scientists have called for this source of lead exposure to be acknowledged and addressed with health-protective measures.8,9 A 2013 consensus statement of experts in human, environmental, and wildlife toxicology supports reducing and eventually eliminating the introduction of lead into the environment from lead-based ammunition, emphasizing that shooting lead ammunition into the environment poses significant risks of lead exposure to humans and wildlife.10 In 2016, Arnemo et al. found that more than 99% of 570 scientific articles about environmental and health consequences of lead in ammunition raised concerns about lead toxicity.7 The authors highlighted that nonlead ammunition is as effective as lead-based ammunition and is comparably priced. Despite the well-established scientific basis for regulation of lead ammunition for hunting, the topic has been politicized by misinformation campaigns portraying concerns about ingesting lead ammunition as a product of antihunting agendas.11 Lead Contamination in Donated Hunted Meat Donated hunted meat is a vital source of protein distributed by food banks at a time when food bank use remains far above pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels.12 Published evidence of leadcontaminated meat in food banks has existed for more than a decade (Figure A, available as a supplement to the online version of this article at https://www.ajph.org).13 Investigations in multiple states have confirmed the presence of lead in donated meat.

5.
Journal of Animal Science ; 100:60-60, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2058014

ABSTRACT

Health and wellness of animals in our care is inexorably linked to their feeding experience (i.e., what and how food is offered). Usage of raw meat-based diets is longstanding and widespread in US zoos and aquaria, with a movement towards increased proportions of the diet from whole prey. Pet food industry has seen a steep rise in number and diversity of commercially available raw meat-based products for pets in recent decades, whereas the number of suppliers and products for zoo markets remain low. Budgetary constraints of zoos equate to lower quality ingredients than those in the premium pet food market. Zoo markets have not been immune to supply chain issues during the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, resulting in the challenges of higher cost and decreased supply. Advances to the well-being of our animals could be achieved by leveraging findings from pet food research to include value-added nutrients such as probiotics, natural antioxidants, and Omega-3 enriched oils. In cases where animal needs differ from nutrition provided by commercial products (e.g., medical cases, enhancing feeding experience), zoo nutritionists rely on in-house formulations to provide additional support. Often these cases require creative formulation leveraging items from the human-food market and other unconventional sources. Examples and practical applications of individualized formulations for zoo and aquaria will be discussed. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Animal Science is the property of Oxford University Press / USA and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(1):10-19, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056573

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to establish an indirect ELISA technique for detecting the SIgA antibody against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to evaluate its mucosal immunity. Firstly, the S1D gene (534-789 aa) of PEDV was cloned into the pET-28a(+) vector, and induced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) by IPTG, the product of which was in the form of inclusion bodies. According to Western-blot, the target protein S1D with antigenic activity was 32 ku in molecular weight and could be well detected. Then, the S1D protein was denatured by 8 mol/L urea, purified and gradient as the coating antigen to establish an indirect ELISA for detecting the PEDV specific SIgA antibody in nasal or oral mucus by optimizing conditions. And the optimal antigen coating concentration of ELISA was 2 micro g mL, the working concentrations of nasal mucus was 1:1 and the optimal blocking solution was 50 g/L skimmed milk, while the working concentrations and optimal blocking solution were 1:2 and 30 g/L BSA in oral mucus, the working concentrations of the enzyme-labeled antibody was 1:2 000 in nasal and oral mucus. Finally, 84 samples of oral and nasal mucus from immunized pigs were detected by S1D of ELISA, and the coincidence rate could reach 95.2% compared with purified PEDV of ELISA. In conclusion, the indirect ELISA established in this study provided a quick, simple, sensitive, and specific method to detect PEDV specific SigA for evaluating the level of PEDV mucosal immunity.

7.
Meat Research / Roulei Yanjiu ; 36(6):29-35, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056249

ABSTRACT

To clarify the most suitable fish paste for preparing lion's head meatballs, this study investigated the effect of adding 6 different silver carp fish pastes: fresh unwashed (group 1-1), fresh washed (group 1-2), frozen unwashed without antifreeze agent (group 2-1), frozen washed without antifreeze agent (group 2-2), frozen unwashed with antifreeze agent (group 3-1), and frozen washed with antifreeze agent (group 3-2) on the basic nutrients, color, texture properties, waterholding capacity, sensory and flavor properties, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARs) value, and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content of pork/fish composite meatballs. The results showed that the contents of protein and fat in meatballs from groups 2-1 and 2-2 were lower than those in groups 3-1 and 3-2, and the contents of water, protein and fat were 61.68%, 11.32% and 19.41% for group 2-1, and 62.45%, 11.09% and 19.33% for group 2-2, respectively. The gel properties, hardness, elasticity, cohesion, and sensory quality of groups 3-1 and 3-2 were significantly higher than those of groups 2-1 and 2-2 (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference compared with groups 1-1 and 1-2. The odor response value of groups 3 was lower than that of groups 1, and groups 3 had the highest sweetness value (3 039.66) and lowest bitterness value (534.59). The TBARs value and TVB-N content in groups 1-2, 2-2, and 3-2 (with washed fish paste) were significantly lower than those in groups 1-1, 2-1 and 3-1 (with unwashed fish paste) (P < 0.05). Since fresh fish paste is not easy to store and subject to spoilage, frozen washed fish paste with antifreeze agent can be used to produce composite meatballs.

8.
LWT - Food Science & Technology ; 168:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2049617

ABSTRACT

This study characterized Yersinia enterocolitica and other Yersinia spp. isolated from retail and processed meats sampled in Yangling, Shaanxi Province, China (2018–2019). The detection rate of Yersinia -positive samples was 14.30% (86/600). Yersinia was commonly prevalent in beefs (32.00%), frozen meats (25.00%), packaged meats (21.65%), and meats from supermarkets (17.23%). Y. enterocolitica was identified as the most prevalent species (50.00%, 62/124), followed by Y. frederiksenii (24.19%), Y. intermedia (16.94%), and Y. kristensenii (8.87%). Most Y. enterocolitica isolates were of bio-serotype 1A/nt (67.74%). Sixty-three isolates (50.81%) carried yst B and two isolates (1.61%) carried rfb C. Yersinia isolates were commonly resistant to ampicillin (91.94%), cefazolin (71.77%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (56.45%), cefoxitin (28.23%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (1.61%). Sixty-six isolates (53.23%) were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Pulse field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the genetic homology of Yersinia isolates between pork, beef, and chicken was low, as was that of biotype 1A isolates. The results indicate that Y. enterocolitica and other Yersinia spp. (especially bio-serotype 1A/nt, ampicillin-resistant, and yst B-carrying strains) are prevalent in retail and processed meats in the study area, which provides valuable baseline data for food safety and public health safeguarding. • Yersinia spp. with different characteristics were prevalent in retail meat. • Yersinia enterocolitica was the most commonly detected species. • Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A isolates carried gene yst B and resisted multiple antibiotics. • The genetic relationship of Yersinia isolates between pork, beef, and chicken was diverse. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of LWT - Food Science & Technology is the property of Academic Press Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

9.
International Hatchery Practice ; 35(4):27-28, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045268
10.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(12):1500-1508, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040500

ABSTRACT

Based on the M gene sequence of TGEV and PEDV and VP2 gene sequence of PoRV, the optimal reaction system and amplification procedure were established by optimizing primer, probe concentration and annealing temperature, and the Quantitative PCR method of TaqMan probes for three viruses is successfully established. On this basis, after further optimization of conditions, a triple real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method for detecting TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV was established. The detection sensitivity of this method for TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 2.49 copies/ L, 4.36 copies/ L, and 4.96 copies/ L respectively. The maximum value of CV in repeated trials detected by TGEV, PEDV and PoRV were 2.5%, 3.8%, 4.3%, and the maximum value of CV in repeated trials between groups were 3.7%, 3.4%, 3.2%, which are no more than 5%.indicating that the established method has good reproducibility. Using this method to detect PRV, PCV1, and PRRSV virus samples, there is no cross-reaction, indicating that the method is specific. Using the established method to detect 40 clinical diseases, the samples were tested, and the positive rates of TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 5%, 30%, and 12.5%respectively. The mixed infection rate of TGEV and PEDV was 2.5%, the mixed infection rate of PEDV and PoRV was 5%. The results of the multiple fluorescence quantitative PCR method are consistent with those of the detection of a single fluorescent RT-PCR method, indicating that the established method has good clinical application value.

11.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1421-1427, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040498

ABSTRACT

Recently, the variation and isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea Virus (PEDV) has been a focus of industry research. Whether porcine aminopeptidase (pAPN) is a functional receptor of PEDV infection is still controversial. Therefore, this article aims to review the latest progress on pAPN as a receptor of PEDV and its role during infection, to clarify whether pAPN is a functional receptor and to provide a reference for isolation and subsequent study of PEDV.

12.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1341-1347, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040497

ABSTRACT

The recombinant expression plasmid pIRES-S1 was constructed according to the gene sequence of PEDV S1 in NCBI (GenBank:JQ517274). The plasmid pIRES-S1 was transfected into ST cells by electrotransfer. After G418 pressurization screening, western-blot detection and suspension domestication, a stable transduction cell pool expressing S1 protein was obtained. The results of Western-blot showed that S1 protein have good reactivity. An indirect ELISA was established by using S1 protein as coating antigen, and the ELISA was used to detect PEDV clinical serum and PEDV negative serum of imported breeder pigs. Take the serum neutralization test as the standard, the results showed that the sensitivity of the ELISA was 96.3% and the specificity was 97.7%.It was significantly consistent with the serum neutralization test (kappa value=0.882, P < 0.05). The ELISA was used to detect the tracking serum of PEDV back-feeding pigs. The results showed that it could accurately evaluate the growth and decline of PEDV Ig G antibody level in infected pigs. Our results suggested that the ELISA based on S1 protein established in this study has high sensitivity and specificity. It could be used to detect PEDV antibody in clinical serum samples and provide an effective basis for immune evaluation of PEDV in pigs.

13.
Journal of South China Agricultural University ; 41(5):27-35, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040361

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare monoclonal antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) N protein, and develop an indirect immuno-fluorescence assay method used for detecting PEDV. Method: The expressed recombinantly PEDV N protein was used as an immunogen and 8-week-old female BALB/c mice were immunized. Then their spleen cells with high antibody titer were isolated and fused with SP2/0 cells. The hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against PEDV N protein were screened. In Vero cells infected with PEDV, monoclonal antibody of anti-PEDV N protein was used as the primary antibody and FITC-goat-anti-mouse IgG was used as the secondary antibody to develop indirect immuno-fluorescence assay method used for detecting PEDV. Result: The prepared hybridoma cell lines could stably secrete anti-PEDV N protein antibodies, ELISA antibody titer in cell supernatant was above 1:3 200, and in mouse ascites above 1:1 000 000. While monoclonal antibodies were applied in established indirect immuno-fluorescence assay, the optimal conditions were that cells were fixed with 80% () acetone at -20 degrees C for 30 min;The primary antibody was diluted 1 000 times by PBS buffer solution and incubated at 4 degrees C overnight;The secondary antibody was diluted 100 times by PBS buffer solution and incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine reproductive virus (PRV), porcine enteric a corone virus (PEAV), porcine rotavirus (PoRV) and PEDV were detected by established indirect immuno-fluorescence assay method, only PEDV showed positive, all the else viruses showed negative.

14.
Food Sci Anim Resour ; 42(5): 762-774, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040318

ABSTRACT

The COVID 19 pandemic resulted in a considerable influence on the world economy. Being a big sector of the economy, the food supply chain struggled. The meat supply chain was most notably affected as every part of the supply chain from farm to shelf was closely inter-related. With the closure of businesses and restaurants the demand for at home food from grocery stores increased. Meat production facilities were impacted when the virus spread to the workers causing facilities to close or line speeds to slow. The combination of these two issues, in turn, led to there being less meat on the shelves. With less meat animals being harvested, there was less demand for livestock leading to farmers having an excess in slaughter ready animals. The decreased demand for livestock led to economic issues as money was lost in multiple sections of the supply chain. Aside from the economy and supply chain issues, other issues include concerns over the safety of meat products due to decreased safety protocols to increase line speed. Additionally, concerns of animal welfare with the excess of animals being culled were raised due to decreased capacity in processing facilities. While this review paper mainly focuses on characterizing the impact of COVID 19 on the meat supply chain in the USA, the compiled information should be able to provide practical insights to the meat/food industry across the globe to develop potential mitigating strategies against the COVID 19 and/or any similar pandemic incidences in the future.

15.
Immunotargets Ther ; 11: 37-54, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039538

ABSTRACT

Alpha-gal syndrome is an unconventional food allergy, characterized by IgE-mediated hypersensitivity responses to the glycan galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) and not to a food-protein. In this review, we discuss how alpha-gal syndrome reframes our current conception of the mechanisms of pathogenesis of food allergy. The development of alpha-gal IgE is associated with tick bites though the possibility of other parasites promoting sensitization to alpha-gal remains. We review the immune cell populations involved in the sensitization and effector phases of alpha-gal syndrome and describe the current understanding of why allergic responses to ingested alpha-gal can be delayed by several hours. We review the foundation of management in alpha-gal syndrome, namely avoidance, but also discuss the use of antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, and the emerging role of complementary and alternative therapies, biological products, and oral immunotherapy in the management of this condition. Alpha-gal syndrome influences the safety and tolerability of medications and medical devices containing or derived from mammalian products and impacts quality of life well beyond food choices.

16.
Revista de Politica Agricola ; 31(1):105-122, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034170

ABSTRACT

The relationship between international trade and animal health is particularly important in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) of the World Trade Organization - WTO. Supported by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), SPS measures are scientifically justified and play an important role in placing epidemiology at the center of decisions related to health and animal trade. The objective of this study was to discuss the interactions between the international meat trade and the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases of viral origin, in a debate on how the current Covid-19 pandemic could change the consumer behavior related to health and hygiene issues, and how the meat sector was affected by SPS measures, highlighting the relevance of Brazil in this context.

17.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(1):42-49, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034018

ABSTRACT

Poultry industry is dynamically developing worldwide, and the threat from infectious viral diseases also increases. One of them is an acute, highly contagious avian infectious bronchitis (IB), caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the fowl. IBV is characterized by extensive variations in the surface spike protein gene. Those genetic variations lead to rapid changes in IBV serotypes that need to be constantly monitored to assess the epidemiological situation in the field. The aim of this article was to present current knowledge and recent epidemiology, based on IBV field strains circulation. Several serotypes can be simultaneously present in a region and as they cross-protect poorly, broiler chickens can be infected more than once within their short period of life. Careful, constant monitoring is necessary to respond fast in case of new genetic IBV variants development. Some of these strains have global range, while the prevalence of others is limited to some geographical areas. Thus, the understanding the IB epidemiology, virus spread and the occurrence of individual strains allows to use the optimal vaccination schedule to limit the disease and improve the poultry production. Finaily, a good recognition of the IB problem in Central and Eastern Europe on the example of Poland as the largest European poultry producer, can be a key factor in the quickest response to emerging new IBV variants. Some practical solutions may help to introduce the similar and effective procedures also in other regions of the world with high intensity of poultry production.

18.
J Endourol ; 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028988

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients who form kidney stones are typically advised to limit intake of nondairy animal protein. Plant-based meat products may be a processed substitute protein source for these patients and have recently gained popularity because of health concerns, increased retail availability, decreased environmental impact, and meat supply shortages during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite these perceived benefits and tangential association with whole food plant-based diets, the potential lithogenic risks associated with these products are not well characterized. Methods: The U.S. Department of Agriculture database was queried with a sample of plant-based meat products widely available to U.S. consumers. Nutrient profile data were compiled and compared with animal protein data using standardized serving sizes. Primary protein sources were identified using verified ingredient lists. Oxalate content was extrapolated based on dietary data sources. Results: A total 47 plant-based meat products (16 beef, 11 pork, 10 chicken, and 10 seafood) were analyzed. Compared with their respective animal protein, most products contained on average fewer calories (plant-based beef 77%, pork 94%, chicken 86%, and seafood 83%) and less protein (plant-based beef 68%, pork 96%, chicken 53%, and seafood 54%). Most products used soy protein as the primary protein source (55%). Soy-based beef contained the highest average oxalate content (18 mg per serving), whereas soy-based seafood contained the lowest (7 mg). The most common non-soy protein source was pea protein (30%), containing trace amounts of oxalate. Sodium content was higher in most plant-based products overall (72%) and in each category (plant-based beef 109%, pork 128%, chicken 100%, and seafood 148%). Calcium content was higher (plant-based beef 317%, pork 144%, chicken 291%, and seafood 295%) compared with animal protein. Conclusions: Most plant-based meat products consist of protein sources that are, relative to animal protein sources, higher in oxalate, sodium, and calcium. Stone-forming patients should be counseled about the potential lithogenic risk of these processed products.

19.
Economic Affairs ; 67(2):37-42, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026767

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stresses on food supply chain in the country, with bottlenecks in processing, transportation and logistics, as well as momentous shifts in consumption pattern and demand for fish and other meat. In this study, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on consumption pattern of fish, chicken, egg, mutton, beef and pork, market availability and as well as prices in North Eastern Region of India was analysed in this study. The study based on primary data collected through online survey method for which a questionnaire framed in Google Form. The sample comprises of total 104 respondents. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for repeated measure differences between before COVID-19 and during COVID-19 levels of consumption of fish and other non vegetarian food items and quality of fishes supplied during two periods were analysed. It was found that the reduction in consumption of fishes, chicken and beef, during COVID-19 pandemic, were statistically significant. Whereas, the Wilcoxon signed rank test statistics for mutton and pork turned out to be insignificant. During COVID-19 the consumption of local fishes increased due non availability and distortion of fish supply chain. The quality of fishes in terms of freshness, size and odour were also impacted. Due poor availability of fishes, prices of fish increased during COVID-19. The increase in fish prices and poor availability of fishes resulted to shift in purchase of processed fish products in the North Eastern Region in India. The disruption in transportation, logistics, lockdown, etc during COVID-19 impacted trade of fishes as well as its consumption in the region. Hence, efforts for increasing of local supply of fishes as well as the development of resilient supply chain with sufficient storage facilities is needed to cope up under such unprecedented situation.

20.
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine ; 20(1):17-24, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026591

ABSTRACT

Background: Poultry and livestock are a leading sub-sector of agriculture, playing an important role to fulfill the protein requirements of the human diet and contributing to the national economy in Bangladesh. This sub-sector is often vulnerable due to frequent outbreaks of diseases in animals and unrest situations worldwide that hamper earning a profit up to the expected mark. Due to pandemic COVID-19, the Bangladesh government was bound to announce a countrywide lockdown and periodical restriction of movement in March 2020 to minimize the spread of the infection. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on poultry and livestock health.

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