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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 223, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-COVID-19 syndrome is characterized by diverse symptoms and abnormalities that persist beyond 12 weeks from the onset of acute COVID-19. Severity disease has been associated with more musculoskeletal alterations such as muscle weakness, dyspnea, and distance walking. The aim was to evaluate the impact of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) on body composition and investigate risk factors associated with sarcopenia in post-COVID-19 patients three months after moderate or severe COVID-19 infections. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. 530 patients with PCR-confirmed diagnoses of moderate to severe COVID-19, > 18 years old, oxygen saturation ≤ 93%, PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300, who required hospitalization and were discharged were included. We excluded those who died before the follow-up visit, declined to participate, or could not be contacted. RESULTS: The mean age was 53.79 ± 12.90 years. IMV subjects had lower phase angle and handgrip strength and higher impedance index, frequency of low muscle mass, and low muscle strength than those without IMV. The risk factors of sarcopenia were > 60 years of age, diabetes, obesity, IMV, and prolonged hospital stay. The multivariate model showed that age > 60 years (OR: 4.91, 95% CI: 2.26-10.63), obesity (OR: 3.73, 95% CI: 1.21-11.54), and interaction between prolonged length of hospital stay and IMV (OR: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.21-7.02) were related to a higher risk of sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: Obesity and the interaction between prolonged length of hospital stay and IMV are associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia at 3 months after severe or moderate COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Body Composition , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Strength , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 883950, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872087

ABSTRACT

Background: The current standard of care during severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is based on low tidal volume (VT) ventilation, at 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight. The time-controlled adaptive ventilation (TCAV) is an alternative strategy, based on specific settings of the airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) mode. Briefly, TCAV reduces lung injury, including: (1) an improvement in alveolar recruitment and homogeneity; (2) reduction in alveolar and alveolar duct micro-strain and stress-risers. TCAV can result in higher intra-thoracic pressures and thus impair hemodynamics resulting from heart-lung interactions. The objective of our study was to compare hemodynamics between TCAV and conventional protective ventilation in a porcine ARDS model. Methods: In 10 pigs (63-73 kg), lung injury was induced by repeated bronchial saline lavages followed by 2 h of injurious ventilation. The animals were then randomized into two groups: (1) Conventional protective ventilation with a VT of 6 mL/kg and PEEP adjusted to a plateau pressure set between 28 and 30 cmH2O; (2) TCAV group with P-high set between 27 and 29 cmH2O, P-low at 0 cmH2O, T-low adjusted to terminate at 75% of the expiratory flow peak, and T-high at 3-4 s, with I:E > 6:1. Results: Both lung elastance and PaO2:FiO2 were consistent with severe ARDS after 2 h of injurious mechanical ventilation. There was no significant difference in systemic arterial blood pressure, pulmonary blood pressure or cardiac output between Conventional protective ventilation and TCAV. Levels of total PEEP were significantly higher in the TCAV group (p < 0.05). Driving pressure and lung elastance were significantly lower in the TCAV group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: No hemodynamic adverse events were observed in the TCAV group compared as to the standard protective ventilation group in this swine ARDS model, and TCAV appeared to be beneficial to the respiratory system.

3.
Nutrition ; 101: 111677, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to identify associations between extremes in body weight status (underweight and excess body weight) before a COVID-19 diagnosis and clinical outcomes in patients infected with SARS coronavirus type 2. METHODS: A multicenter cohort study was conducted in eight different states in northeastern Brazil. Demographic, clinical (previous diagnosis of comorbidities), and anthropometric (self-reported weight and height) data about individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 were collected. Outcomes included hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and death. Multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted based on age, sex and previous comorbidities, were used to assess the effects of extremes in body weight status on clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1308 individuals were assessed (33.6% were elderly individuals). The univariable analyses showed that only hospitalization was more often observed among underweight (3.2% versus 1.2%) and overweight (68.1% versus 63.3%) individuals. In turn, cardiovascular diseases were more often observed in all clinical outcomes (hospitalization: 19.7% versus 4.8%; mechanical ventilation: 19.9% versus 13.5%; death: 21.8% versus 14.1%). Based on the multivariable analysis, body weight status was not associated with risk of hospitalization (underweight: odds ratio [OR]: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 95%, 0.50-2.41 and excess body weight: OR: 0.81; 95 CI, 0.57-1.14), mechanical ventilation (underweight: OR: 0.92; 95% CI, 0.52-1.62 and excess weight: OR: 0.90; 95% CI, 0.67-1.19), and death (underweight: OR: 0.61; 95% CI, 0.31-1.20 and excess body weight: OR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.63-1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Being underweight and excess body weight were not independently associated with clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 in the herein analyzed cohort. This finding indicates that the association between these variables may be confounded by both age and comorbidities.

5.
J Int Med Res ; 50(5): 3000605221101970, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) with multiple programmed levels of positive end expiratory pressure (programmed multi-level ventilation; PMLV) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study from November 2020 to February 2021. PMLV was used with PCV in all patients with intensive care admission until improvement in oxygenation (fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2] ≤0.50 and oxygen saturation [SpO2] >92%). The observed outcomes were improvement of hypoxemia, length of mechanical ventilation, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) stability, and adverse events. RESULTS: Of 188 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19-related ARDS, we analyzed 60 patients treated with PMLV. Hypoxemia improved in 55 (92%) patients, as measured by the change in partial pressure of oxygen/FiO2 and SpO2/FiO2 ratios on day 3 versus day 1, and in 32 (66%) ventilated patients on day 7 versus day 3. The median (interquartile range) length of mechanical ventilation for survivors and non-survivors was 8.4 (4.7-14.9) and 6.7 (3.6-10.3) days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PMLV appears to be a safe and effective ventilation strategy for improving hypoxemia in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS. Further studies are needed comparing the PMLV mode with the conventional ARDS ventilatory approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
6.
Microorganisms ; 10(6)2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869714

ABSTRACT

The effect of routine inhalation therapy on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has not been well-defined. This randomized controlled trial included 175 eligible adult patients with COVID-19 who were treated with mechanical ventilation at the University Hospital of Split between October 2020 and June 2021. Patients were randomized and allocated to a control group (no routine inhalation) or one of the treatment arms (inhalation of N-acetylcysteine; 5% saline solution; or 8.4% sodium bicarbonate). The primary outcome was the incidence of VAP, while secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality. Routine inhalation therapy had no effect on the incidence of bacterial or fungal VAP nor on all-cause mortality (p > 0.05). Secondary analyses revealed a significant reduction of Gram-positive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) VAP in the treatment groups. Specifically, the bicarbonate group had a statistically significantly lower incidence of Gram-positive bacterial VAP (4.8%), followed by the N-acetylcysteine group (10.3%), 5% saline group (19.0%), and control group (34.6%; p = 0.001). This difference was driven by a lower incidence of MRSA VAP in the bicarbonate group (2.4%), followed by the N-acetylcysteine group (7.7%), 5% saline group (14.3%), and control group (34.6%; p < 0.001). Longer duration of ventilator therapy was the only significant, independent predictor of any bacterial or fungal VAP in the multivariate analysis (aOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29, p = 0.038 and aOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10, p = 0.028, respectively). In conclusion, inhalation therapy had no effect on the overall VAP incidence or all-cause mortality. Further studies should explore the secondary findings of this study such as the reduction of Gram-positive or MRSA-caused VAP in treated patients.

7.
Metabolites ; 12(6)2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869712

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection may lead to serious complications, e.g., need for mechanical ventilation or death in some cases. A retrospective analysis of patients referred to our COVID Emergency Department, indiscriminately, was performed. A routine lab analysis measured amino acids in plasma and urine of patients. Data of surviving and deceased patients and those requiring or not requiring mechanical ventilation were compared, and logistic regression analyses have been performed. Deceased patients were older, had higher blood glucose, potassium, AST, LDH, troponin, d-dimer, hsCRP, procalcitonin, interleukin-6 levels (p < 0.05 for all). They had lower plasma serine, glycine, threonine, tryptophan levels (p < 0.01), higher tyrosine and phenylalanine levels (p < 0.05), and higher fractional excretion of arginine, methionine, and proline (p < 0.05) than survivors. In a regression model, age, severity score of COVID-pneumonia, plasma levels of threonine and phenylalanine were predictors of in-hospital mortality. There was a difference in ventilated vs. non-ventilated patients in CT-scores, glucose, and renal function (p < 0.001). Using logistic regression, CT-score, troponin, plasma level, and fractional excretion of glycine were predictors of ventilation. Plasma levels and renal excretion of certain amino acids are associated with the outcome of COVID-19 infection beside other parameters such as the CT-score or age.

8.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 8850666221105423, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868913

ABSTRACT

Objective: There exists controversy about the pathophysiology and lung mechanics of COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), because some report severe hypoxemia with preserved respiratory system mechanics, contrasting with "classic" ARDS. We performed a detailed hourly analysis of the characteristics and time course of lung mechanics and biochemical analysis of patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for COVID-19-associated ARDS, comparing survivors and non-survivors. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the data stored in the ICU information system of patients admitted in our hospital ICU that required IMV due to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia between March 5th and April 30th, 2020. We compare respiratory system mechanics and gas exchange during the first ten days of IMV, discriminating volume and pressure controlled modes, between ICU survivors and non-survivors. Results: 140 patients were included, analyzing 11 138 respiratory mechanics recordings. Global mortality was 38.6%. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.092, 95% (CI 1.014-1.176)) and need of renal replacement therapies (OR 10.15, (95% CI 1.58-65.11)) were associated with higher mortality. Previous use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) also seemed to show an increased mortality (OR 4.612, (95% CI 1.19-17.84)) although this significance was lost when stratifying by age. Respiratory variables start to diverge significantly between survivors and non-survivors after the 96 to 120 hours (hs) from mechanical ventilation initiation, particularly respiratory system compliance. In non survivors, mechanical power at 24 and 96 hs was higher regardless ventilatory mode. Conclusions: In patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and requiring mechanical ventilation, non survivors have different respiratory system mechanics than survivors in the first 10 days of ICU admission. We propose a checkpoint at 96-120 hs to assess patients improvement or worsening in order to consider escalating to extracorporeal therapies.

9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 58: 66-72, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866779

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The frontal QRS-T (fQRS) angle has been investigated in the general population, including healthy people and patients with heart failure. The fQRS angle can predict mortality due to myocarditis, ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and chronic heart failure in the general population. Moreover, no studies to date have investigated fQRS angle in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Thus, the purpose of this retrospective multicentre study was to evaluate the fQRS angle of COVID-19 patients to predict in-hospital mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation. METHODS AND RESULTS: An electrocardiogram was performed for 327 COVID-19 patients during admission, and the fQRS angle was calculated. Mechanical ventilation was needed in 119 patients; of them, 110 died in the hospital. The patients were divided into two groups according to an fQRs angle >90° versus an fQRS angle ≤90°. The percentages of mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation according to fQRS angle were 67.8% and 66.1%, respectively, in the fQRs >90° group and 26.1% and 29.9% in the fQRS ≤90°group. Heart rate, oxygen saturation, fQRS angle, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and C-reactive protein level were predictors of mortality on the multivariable analysis. The mortality risk increased 2.9-fold on the univariate analysis and 1.6-fold on the multivariate analysis for the fQRS >90° patient group versus the fQRS ≤90° group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, a wide fQRS angle >90° was a predictor of in-hospital mortality and associated with the need for mechanical ventilation among COVID-19 patients.

10.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(3): 257-268, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864618

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and factors associated with mortality in patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in whom pneumothorax developed. Patients and Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis conducted using a large administrative database of adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in the United States from February 1, 2020, to June 10, 2021. We characterized the clinical features of patients in whom pneumothorax developed and the factors associated with mortality and stratified pneumothorax by the timing of the initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and by the time of hospital admission (early versus late). Results: A total of 811,065 adult patients had a positive test result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, of whom 103,858 (12.8%) were hospitalized. Pneumothorax occurred in 1915 patients (0.24% overall and 1.84% among hospitalized patients). Over time, the use of steroids and remdesivir increased, whereas the use of IMV, pneumothorax rates, and mortality decreased. The clinical characteristics associated with pneumothorax were male sex; the receipt of IMV; and treatment with steroids, remdesivir, or convalescent plasma. Most patients with pneumothorax received IMV, but pneumothorax developed before the initiation of IMV and/or early during hospitalization in majority. Multivariable analysis revealed that pneumothorax increased the risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.24). In patients who did not receive IMV, pneumothorax led to nearly twice the mortality (aHR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.56-2.54). Increased mortality was also noted when pneumothorax occurred before IMV (aHR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.11-1.69) and within 7 days of hospital admission (aHR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.29-1.98). Conclusion: The overall incidence of pneumothorax in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 was low. Pneumothorax is an independent risk factor for death.

11.
J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci ; : 1-5, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1857930

ABSTRACT

The high frequency ventilation (HFV) can well support the breathing of respiratory patient with 20%-40% of normal tidal volume. Now as a therapy of rescue ventilation when conversional ventilation failed, the HFV has been applied in the treatments of severe patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), etc. However, the gas exchange mechanism (GEM) of HFV is still not fully understood by researchers. In this paper, the GEM of HFV is reviewed to track the studies in last decades and prospect for the next likely studies. And inspired by previous studies, the GEM of HFV is suggested to be continually developed with various hypotheses which will be testified in simulation, experiment and clinic trail. One of the significant measures is to study the GEM of HFV under the cross-disciplinary integration of medicine and engineering. Fully understanding the GEM can theoretically support and expand the applications of HFV, and is helpful in investigating the potential indications and contraindications of HFV.

12.
Shanghai Chest ; (6)2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863514

ABSTRACT

Background: Reports identify rates of prolonged intubation as high as 28% in patients who are hospitalized for worsening respiratory status due the SARS-CoV-2 infection. This has placed a toll on healthcare systems around the world. However, we believe we are only seeing the beginnings of complications associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Subglottic tracheal stenosis is a known complication of prolonged intubation and may therefore be on the rise in the wake of the current pandemic. The European Laryngology Society created the Laryngotracheal Stenosis Committee to alert the international medical community of the rise in airway complications associated with long-Term intubation and high rates of tracheostomy seen in the recent months during the pandemic. Optimal surgical management of the unique features of subglottic stenosis following COVID-19 disease, especially in severely deconditioned patients, has yet to be reported. Case Description: We report the surgical management of blind-end Myer-Cotton Grade IV subglottic stenoses in two patients who required prolonged mechanical ventilatory support for respiratory failure resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 infection with a two stage minimally invasive recanalization strategy. Patients underwent two-step minimally invasive process for recanalization. The first step is to re-establish a patent tracheal lumen under direct visualization utilizing both a rigid bronchoscope from proximally as well as a flexible bronchoscope distal to the stenosis from the tracheostomy stoma. Once the tracheal lumen is re-established, proper dilation of the airway and hemostasis is achieved in standard fashion. Both patients have had roughly 6 months of follow-up and have tolerated their silicone T-Tubes capped at all times. Neither patient currently require any oxygen supplementation and continue to phonate well. While they are not at their baseline in terms of physical activity, they are continuing their rehabilitation process. Conclusions: While the definitive treatment continues to be surgical resection, the endoscopic approach to re-establishing the tracheal lumen is a safe and effective method with little to no morbidity and mortality. This will allow for uninhibited rehabilitation following prolonged mechanical ventilatory support and hospital stay following severe COVID-19 infection. © 2022 Audiology and Speech Research. All rights reserved.

13.
Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica ; 42:S73-S78, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863392

ABSTRACT

Patients affected by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have a high likelihood of needing prolonged intubation. As observed worldwide during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the need for tracheotomy in patients with prolonged respiratory failure has dramatically increased. Tracheotomy in these patients offers several advantages over prolonged translaryngeal intubation: improved patient comfort may allow a reduction in intravenous administration of analgesics, sedatives and muscle relaxant drugs, enhance mobility with particular regard to respiratory muscles, and patients may achieve autonomy earlier. However, there is still debate about the optimal timing and surgical technique of tracheotomy. Similarly, debate is still open regarding the relative merits of open surgical tracheotomy (ST) versus percutaneous dilatational techniques (PDT). In general, PDT is commonly used in elective tracheotomy in adult patients in intensive care units;ST may be preferred depending upon the practitioner’s experience and patient’s characteristics. Correct timing of tracheotomy should be individualised and the indication for tracheotomy should balance the problems related to prolonged intubation and the risk of early or late complications related to the surgical procedure. © Società Italiana di Otorinolaringoiatria e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

14.
Innov Pharm ; 12(3)2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863619

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the impact of therapeutic dose versus prophylactic dose anticoagulation regimens on outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of consecutive mechanically ventilated adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and initiated on anticoagulation from February 1 st to May 31 st , 2020. The primary endpoint was 14-day mortality. Secondary endpoints included 30-day mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation, major bleeding, and new thromboembolic event. Results: Of the 121 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19, 33 in the therapeutic-dose group and 34 patients in the prophylactic-dose group were included in the final analysis. The therapeutic-dose group had a decreased 14-day mortality compared to the prophylaxis dose group (9.1% vs 41.2%, p=0.004). In addition, 30-day mortality was also lower in the therapeutic anticoagulation group (24.2% vs. 52.9%, p=0.024). A longer hospital LOS (45.7 vs 26 days, p=0.003) and duration of mechanical ventilation (33.9 vs 13.3 days, p<0.001) were observed in patients on therapeutic anticoagulation in comparison to the prophylaxis dosing group. A higher rate of major bleeding was observed in patients who received therapeutic anticoagulation. Conclusion: In this analysis of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients in the ICU, therapeutic dose anticoagulation was associated with a significantly lower 14-day mortality, but increased bleeding.

15.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 26(5): 613-618, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863137

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited information on clinical profile and outcomes of patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) who developed pulmonary barotrauma (PBT) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Patients and methods: In a retrospective observational study, all SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients admitted from March 28, 2020, to August 31, 2020, at Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital and Research Center and Seven Hills Hospital (Reliance Facility), Mumbai, India, of 18 years and above on MV and developed PBT, were included. Results: A total of 14 SARS-CoV-2 patients of 45 on MV (31.0%) developed PBT of 1,029 hospitalized. All patients were male and divided as per admission into PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ≤100 (median 80) and P/F >100 (median 222) group. Pneumothorax developed in seven and six cases of P/F ≤100 and P/F >100 groups, respectively. Three patients in each group developed subcutaneous emphysema, while four developed pneumomediastinum in P/F >100 group. Twelve patients (7, P/F ≤100, and 5, P/F >100) were on invasive, while two (P/F >100) were on noninvasive MV. The mean P/F on the day of PBT was reduced by 27.5 and 65.3%, while peak inspiratory pressure was elevated with a median of 36 and 28 cm H2O in P/F ≤100 and P/F >100 groups, respectively. The median highest tidal volume (420 mL), positive-end expiratory pressure (8 vs 6 cm H2O) on the day of PBT, and length of hospital stay (11 vs 25 days) did not differ between two groups. Survival was 28.6% (4/14). Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 patients requiring MV with PBT had poor outcomes. Clinicians should be vigilant about the diagnosis of PBT. How to cite this article: Kargirwar KV, Rathod D, Kumar V, Patel M, Shah M, Choudhury H, et al. Clinical Profile of Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection Developing Pulmonary Barotrauma on Mechanical Ventilation. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(5):613-618.

16.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862747

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been linked to several life-threatening disease processes. Developing a point-of-care testing platform for the immediate and accurate detection of IL-6 concentrations could present a valuable tool for improving clinical management in patients with IL-6-mediated diseases. Drawing on an available biobank of samples from 35 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, a novel quantum-magnetic sensing platform is used to determine plasma IL-6 concentrations. A strong correlation was observed between IL-6 levels measured by QDTI10x and the Luminex assay (r = 0.70, p-value < 0.001) and between QDTI80x and Luminex (r = 0.82, p-value < 0.001). To validate the non-inferiority of QDTI to Luminex in terms of the accuracy of IL-6 measurement, two clinical parameters-the need for intensive care unit admission and the need for mechanical intubation-were chosen. IL-6 concentrations measured by the two assays were compared with respect to these clinical outcomes. Results demonstrated a comparative predictive performance between the two assays with a significant correlation coefficient. Conclusion: In short, the QDTI assay holds promise for implementation as a potential tool for rapid clinical decision in patients with IL-6-mediated diseases. It could also reduce healthcare costs and enable the development of future various biomolecule point-of-care tests for different clinical scenarios.

17.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 10(1): 19, 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flow-controlled ventilation (FCV), a novel mode of mechanical ventilation characterised by constant flow during active expiration, may result in more efficient alveolar gas exchange, better lung recruitment and might be useful in limiting ventilator-induced lung injury. However, data regarding FCV in mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that the use of FCV is feasible and would improve oxygenation in moderate COVID-19 ARDS compared to conventional ventilation. DESIGN: Open-label repeated-measures controlled trial. SETTING: From February to April 2021, patients with moderate COVID-19 ARDS were recruited in a tertiary referral intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Patients with moderate ARDS (PaO2/FIO2 ratio 100-200 mmHg, SpO2 88-94% and PaO2 60-80 mmHg) were considered eligible. Exclusion criteria were: extremes of age (< 18 years, > 80 years), obesity (body mass index > 40 kg/m2), prone positioning at the time of intervention, mechanical ventilation for more than 10 days and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Eleven patients were recruited. INTERVENTION: Participants were ventilated in FCV mode for 30 min, and subsequently in volume-control mode (VCV) for 30 min. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Feasibility of FCV to maintain oxygenation was assessed by the PaO2/FiO2 ratio (mmHg) as a primary outcome parameter. Secondary outcomes included ventilator parameters, PaCO2 and haemodynamic data. All adverse events were recorded. RESULTS: FCV was feasible in all patients and no adverse events were observed. There was no difference in the PaO2/FIO2 ratio after 30 min of ventilation in FCV mode (169 mmHg) compared to 30 min of ventilation in VCV mode subsequently (168 mmHg, 95% CI of pseudo-medians (- 10.5, 3.6), p = 0.56). The tidal volumes (p < 0.01) and minute ventilation were lower during FCV (p = 0.01) while PaCO2 was similar at the end of the 30-min ventilation periods (p = 0.31). Mean arterial pressure during FCV was comparable to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Thirty minutes of FCV in patients with moderate COVID-19 ARDS receiving neuromuscular blocking agents resulted in similar oxygenation, compared to VCV. FCV was feasible and did not result in adverse events. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT04894214.

18.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(3): 239-249, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859967

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the outcomes of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) administered through a tabletop device for coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome in the respiratory intermediate care unit (RIMCU) at a tertiary care hospital in India. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively studied a cohort of hospitalized patients deteriorating despite low-flow oxygen support who received protocolized management with positive airway pressure using a tabletop NIV device in the RIMCU as a step-up rescue therapy from July 30, 2020 to November 14, 2020. Treatment was commenced on the continuous positive airway pressure mode up to a pressure of 10 cm of H2O, and if required, inspiratory pressures were added using the bilevel positive air pressure mode. Success was defined as weaning from NIV and stepping down to the ward, and failure was defined as escalation to the intensive care unit, the need for intubation, or death. Results: In total, 246 patients were treated in the RIMCU during the study period. Of these, 168 received respiratory support via a tabletop NIV device as a step-up rescue therapy. Their mean age was 54 years, and 83% were men. Diabetes mellitus (78%) and hypertension (44%) were the commonest comorbidities. Treatment was successful with tabletop NIV in 77% (129/168) of the patients; of them, 41% (69/168) received treatment with continuous positive airway pressure alone and 36% (60/168) received additional increased inspiratory pressure via the bilevel positive air pressure mode. Conclusion: Respiratory support using the tabletop NIV device was an effective and economical treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome. Further studies are required to assess the appropriate time of initiation for maximal benefits and judicious utilization of resources.

19.
Arch Med Res ; 53(4): 399-406, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) score has been used to estimate the extent of pulmonary damage in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and might be useful in patients with COVID-19. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine factors associated with the need for mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19, and to estimate the predictive value of the RALE score. METHODS: In a series of patients admitted between April 14 and August 28, 2020, with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19, we assessed lung involvement on the chest radiograph using the RALE score. We examined factors associated with the need for mechanical ventilation in bivariate and multivariate analysis. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) indicated the predictive value of the RALE score for need for mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Among 189 patients, 90 (48%) were judged to need mechanical ventilation, although only 60 were placed on a ventilator. The factors associated with the need for mechanical ventilation were a RALE score >6 points, age >50 years, and presence of chronic kidney disease. The AUC for the RALE score was 60.9% (95% CI 52.9-68.9), indicating it was an acceptable predictor of needing mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: A score for extent of pulmonary oedema on the plain chest radiograph was a useful predictor of the need for mechanical ventilation of hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Edema , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals, General , Humans , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Sounds
20.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 77: 103618, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859295

ABSTRACT

Background: There is concern that patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have variable prevalence reports of mortality. The survival rates are also inconsistently reported due to varying follow-up periods. Even if data on outcomes and baseline characteristics of ICU patients with COVID-19 is essential for action planning to manage complications, it is still left undisclosed in our study setting. Materials and method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 402 samples using a retrospective chart review of patient's data who were admitted in the past 2 years of the adult ICUs. All the data were entered and analyzed with SPSS version 21. A multivariable Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between outcome variables with independent factors and a p-value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant with a 95% confidence interval. We used text, tables, and figures for the result. Result: The overall prevalence of mortality among adult patients admitted to ICU during COVID-19 pandemics was 67.4%. From the multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors that were shown to have an association with an increase in ICU patient mortality were; lack of Vasopressor support, patients who had confirmed COVID 19 infection, core body temperature at admission greater than 37.5 °c, SPO2 at admission less than 90%, patients who had diagnosed ischemic heart disease (IHD), patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), patients who were intubated and mechanically ventilated (MV), and patient's ICU length of stay longer than two weeks. Conclusion: The prevalence of ICU mortality in adult patients was higher in Debre Tabor Comprehensive specialized hospital. Therefore, clinicians need to minimize factors that maximize patient mortalities like ARDS, hyperthermia, Desaturation, Covid infection, IHD, intubation and MV, lack of Vasopressor use, and prolonged ICU stay.

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