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1.
Fam Pract ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Media coverage of Lyme disease (LD) has led to an increase in consultations for presumed LD in Europe. However, LD is confirmed in only 10%-20% of patients, with a significant number remaining in a diagnostic dead-end. OBJECTIVES: To reach a deeper understanding of how patients themselves contribute to the diagnostic process. To describe the genesis of the LD hypothesis in care pathways. METHODS: In 2019, 30 patients from a prospective cohort consulting in the infectious diseases department at University Hospital in Marseille for presumed LD were recruited for semistructured interviews. The inclusion criteria were: suffering from subjective symptoms for 6 months, no clinical or paraclinical argument suggesting current LD. The patients' medical trajectories were collected using a biographical approach. RESULTS: The diagnosis of LD was primarily triggered by identification with personal testimonies found on the Internet. Most of patients were leading their own diagnostic investigation. The majority of participants were convinced they had LD despite the lack of medical evidence and the scepticism of their referring GP. CONCLUSION: GPs should first systematically explore patients' aetiologic representations in order to improve adherence to the diagnosis especially in the management of medically unexplained symptoms. Long COVID-19 syndrome challenge offers an opportunity to promote active patient involvement in diagnosis.

2.
Vaccine ; 40(47): 6802-6805, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069772

ABSTRACT

Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a disabling and life-threatening disease caused by three poliovirus (PV) serotypes. The virus spreads from person to person and can infect a person's spinal cord, causing paralysis. In 1988, when the WHO registered 350,000 cases of poliomyelitis in the world and 70,000 which occurred in Africa alone, global poliomyelitis eradication was proposed by the World Health Organization to its member States. On 25 August 2020, while the world was waging war against the Coronavirus pandemic, a historic milestone was reached: Africa was officially declared polio-free. It is an important result obtained thanks to an intensive large-scale vaccination campaign. The road was far from smooth, nevertheless, according to the WHO, a great effort needs to be made in order to facilitate access to vaccination and to promote its implementation in those countries where coverage is low and vaccine hesitancy is high because the risk of the spread of poliomyelitis is still relevant. Eradication of the virus in Africa provides us with an excellent opportunity to commemorate the many scientists who contributed to achieving this epoch-making goal: first of all, Jonas Salk, who developed a killed-virus vaccine in 1952, and, especially, Albert Sabin, who in 1961 launched programs of mass immunisation with his oral vaccine against poliomyelitis.


Subject(s)
Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Child , Humans , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated , Mass Vaccination
3.
Intensiv- und Notfallbehandlung ; 47(3):156-161, 2022.
Article in German | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067042

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung ultrasound is an im-portant tool for distinguishing between causes and therapies of cardiorespiratory diseases in emergency departments (ED). Aim and method: Based on a case report, the importance of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in the context of emergency di-agnostics and intensive care therapy will be illustrated. Case report: A 78-year-old male presented to the ED with dyspnea und weakness. A double mRNA-Covid vaccination was completed 3 months before. His medical history revealed multiple myeloma. Using POCUS, a severe Covid-19 pneumonia could be suspected, and at the same time other differential diagnoses were ruled out. PCR confirmed a SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patient was admitted to our intensive care unit with severe Covid-19 pneumonia fol-lowed by a complicated and ultimately le-thal course. Conclusion(s): In immunocompro-mised patients, there is still a high risk of a severe and complex course despite vaccina-tion. POCUS allows evaluation of probable Covid-19 pneumonia and rapid exclusion of possible differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2022 Dustri-Verlag Dr. K. Feistle.

4.
Industrial Psychiatry Journal ; 31(2):262-266, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066880

ABSTRACT

Context: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has led to several psychological symptoms among frontline doctors of which sleep disturbances are common. Stress due to isolation and disease-related factors are known to be associated with sleep disturbances. Aim: The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of poor sleep and its association with psychological symptoms among doctors working in COVID-19 tertiary hospital. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 150 doctors who were treating COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: The survey contained a semi-structured questionnaire including sociodemographic details, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scale. Analysis was done using the SPSS v20. Results: Of 150 doctors, we found 67 (44.67%) and 83 (55.33%) doctors were poor sleepers and good sleepers, respectively. Those who were married (P = 0.001), had higher working hours per month (P = 0.001), the presence of family history of psychiatric illness (P = 0.008), and history of substance use (P = 0.007) were associated with poor sleep. Furthermore, poor sleep was associated with higher stress (P = 0.001), anxiety (P = 0.001), and depression (P = 0.001). A multiple logistic regression revealed that family history of psychiatric illness (odds ratio [OR]-5.44, P = 0.01) and the presence of substance use (OR-7.77, P = 0.01) predicted poor sleep. Conclusion: Sleep pattern abnormalities were present in 45% of the frontline COVID-19 doctors studied. Family history of psychiatric illness and substance use was associated with higher chances of having poor sleep. It is important to recognize and manage sleep abnormalities as these could be initial signs of a psychiatric disorder or manifestations of underlying stress, especially in the vulnerable population.

5.
International Journal of Morphology ; 40(4):1088-1093, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066762

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to determine whether body composition is a condition influencing the effect of awake prone positioning (APP) in patients with COVID-19 connected to high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). We conducted a retrospective observational study and analyzed the therapeutic outcomes of 83 patients treated with HFNC in the medicine department of Hospital El Carmen (HEC), Santiago, Chile. The following information was obtained from the electronic clinical record (Florence clinical version 19.3) and the kinesic registry: i) patient history, ii) medical diagnosis, iii) body mass index (BMI), iv) characteristics of the APP and v) characteristics of the process of connection to CNAF. It was observed that there were significant differences in overweight and obese patients who used the PPV (p=0.001) through the ROX index (IROX) at the end of treatment with CNAF, occurring in the same way when evaluating the effects of the APP and in the PAFI in these same groups. In conclusion, BMI is a further aggravating factor that conditions the health of patients with COVID-19, and elevated BMI can negatively affect the treatment of these patients. On the other hand, the use of APP and CNAF proved to be effective in patients with COVID-19. Copyright © 2022, Universidad de la Frontera. All rights reserved.

6.
Nurse Media Journal of Nursing ; 12(2):185-195, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2067347

ABSTRACT

Background: Changes that occur in the life of older people during the COVID-19 pandemic present many challenges towards achieving better quality of life However, only a limited number of studies that evaluate factors affecting the quality of life of older people during the COVID-19 pandemic are available. Purpose: This study aimed to identify the quality of life and factors affecting the quality of life of older people during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design using anonymous online questionnaires of 208 respondents who were selected using purposive sampling. This study was conducted during September to December 2020 in North Sumatra and Yogyakarta provinces. The QoL was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire in the Indonesian version. The descriptive statistics were calculated for socio-demographics, while their association with quality of life was analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistics. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the predictor factors affecting the quality of life of older people. Results: The results of the study showed that the mean and standard deviation for physical domain factors was 64.46(11.81);64.61(11.98) for the psychological domain;64.85(12.81) for the social domain, and 61.08(13.01) for the environmental domain. Factors significantly associated with the quality of life included age, retirement, living situation, health insurance, and medical history (p<0.05). However, the predictor factor affecting the quality of life of older people during the COVID-19 pandemic was medical history (β-value=0.25). Conclusion: Predictor factor affected the quality of life was medical history. The study suggests the government and health care professionals, specifically community health nurses, to promote the utilization of Integrated Elderly Health Service (IEHS) among older adults and families to maintain the quality of health. Copyright © 2022 NMJN.

7.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 307(7951), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064986
8.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 306(7950), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064962
9.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 167(1 Supplement):P74-P75, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064505

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate longterm laryngotracheal outcomes in patients who required 10 or more days of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for COVID-19. Method(s): This is a prospective cohort study of patients previously hospitalized for active COVID-19 infection between January 2020 and March 2021 who required intubation for 10+ days. Subjects who met criteria were enrolled at an outpatient laryngology clinic, where they underwent a clinical evaluation with head and neck exam, nasolaryngoscopy, and patient-reported outcome measures (Voice Handicap Index, EAT-10). Medical history was collected through electronic medical record review. Result(s): In total, 166 patients met criteria based on chart review. Of these patients, 31 (18.6%) were deceased since discharge. Enrolled subjects included 16 patients, 2 women and 14 men, with mean (SD) age of 57.4 (14.12) years. The mean duration (SD) of IMV was 36.8 (21.8) days. Fourteen of 16 patients underwent tracheostomy for prolonged endotracheal intubation. The mean time (SD) from hospital admission to intubation was 2.7 (3.2) days, intubation to tracheostomy or extubation was 13.9 (5.3) days, and tracheostomy to decannulation was 38.1 (22.6) days. Conclusion(s): Patients who required prolonged mechanical ventilation to treat COVID acute respiratory distress syndrome demonstrated significant laryngeal or tracheal pathology during laryngoscopy at 1-year follow-up, though subjectively, their self-reported voice and swallowing deficits were mild.

10.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 167(1 Supplement):P127-P128, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064495

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pediatric epistaxis is highly prevalent, yet patient characteristics, frequency of office cauterizations, and outcomes have been minimally described. This study examined the epidemiology and prevalence of epistaxis and potential impact by COVID-19. Method(s): A retrospective summary was performed on all patients (0-18 years) seen/treated for epistaxis by pediatric otolaryngologists within a single health care system across northeast and southeast United States between January 1, 2013, and October 31, 2021. Demographics, geographics, medical history, and office and operating room cauterization were reviewed. Data were analyzed using chi2 and logistic regression. Result(s): Of 9770 unique patients, with 26,699 epistaxis encounters, 62% were male. Median age at first encounter was 8.5 years;50% of patients were White. Encounters were most frequent during the fall (September-November) and least frequent during winter (December-February) with no significant differences. The incidence of epistaxis has significantly increased since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (P<.001). Overall, 27% received a procedural intervention, 54% required more than a single visit. Logistic regression revealed age, ethnicity, and geographical region as independent predictors of receiving a procedure on the first encounter, with a model receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve with area=0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.76). Similarly, procedural intervention, history of allergies, and nasal steroid use were independent predictors of recurrent visits, with a model ROC curve with area=0.79 (95% CI, 0.78-0.80). Conclusion(s): The incidence of pediatric epistaxis is not significantly correlated with seasonality. However, there has been a significant increase in epistaxis encounters during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recurrent visits for pediatric epistaxis were significantly predicted by procedural intervention, allergies, and nasal steroid use.

11.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 167(1 Supplement):P196, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064419

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Lung cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States, with the highest incidence among cigarette smokers. Approximately 70% to 80% of head and neck cancers have also been linked to tobacco use, making it the strongest risk factor. Though not associated with smoking, thyroid nodules are an extremely common pathology, estimated in up to 50% of the adult population on autopsy, with most nodules found incidentally. With current lung cancer screening guidelines among heavy smokers, 15 million people are eligible for screening with low-dose chest computerized tomography (CT). The purpose of this study is to investigate incidental findings of head and neck pathology and determine their clinical relevance in this population of heavy smokers. Method(s): A retrospective chart review was conducted utilizing a database of patients who underwent a chest CT through a successful community-based hospital lung cancer screening program in 2020. Demographics, medical history, imaging reports, and any pathology results were analyzed. Result(s): A total of 1227 patients received a lung screening CT scan in 2020. The median age of the patient population was 64 (range 50-79) years. Of the patients, 612 (50%) were male, and 1133 (92%) were White. Only 15 (.01%) were found to have thyroid findings noted on their CT report. Two patients were excluded from further analysis due to insufficient availability of chart information. Six patients did receive follow-up for their thyroid findings, and 2 had surgery with benign pathology. Conclusion(s): The results of our study demonstrate a lack of significant thyroid findings on lung cancer screening CT for heavy smokers. Of those with significant thyroid findings, we found that few patients underwent further workup. Given the low incidence of findings in this cohort, which may have had lower numbers than other years because of the COVID-19 pandemic, we plan to increase the power of our study by including the prior 5 years of data.

12.
Heart ; 108(Suppl 3):A42-A43, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064241

ABSTRACT

49 Table 1Exercise Prescription template using the FITT-VP (frequency, intensity, type, time, volume and progress) principle of exercise prescription.Exercise type Frequency (per week) Intensity Time (mins/session) Volume (weekly mins) Progression As always if you develop any concerning symptoms during exercise please stop and seek medical advice 49 Table 2‘How do I estimate exercise intensity?’ patient guide as part of the exercise prescription template and patient information leafletIntensity RPE (Rating of perceived exertion) % of HR max** Talk test 0 Resting 1 2 Very light No noticeable change in breathing or sweating Low 3 Somewhat light <55% Can talk and sing 4 Light Moderate 5 Somewhat moderate 55–74% Can talk, can’t sing Increased breathing and sweating 6 Moderate 7 Somewhat hard Feeling ‘out of breath’ and increased sweating High 8 Very hard 75–90% Can’t talk or sing 9 Extremely hard 10 Maximal exertion **%HR max will not be an accurate measure of exercise intensity if your heart rate is effected by certain medications or conditions 49 Figure 1Levels of self reported physical activity based on the NAPQ-short questionnaire and WHO 2020 physical activity guidelines[Figure omitted. See PDF] 49 Figure 2Variety of patients with a diagnosis of a cardiac condition or a family history of a cardiac condition receiving an exercise prescription. HCM;hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, DCM;dilated cardiomyopathy, ARVC;arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, LQTS;long QT syndrome, Brugada;brugada Syndrome, CPVT;catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, SADS;sudden adult death syndrome, Other;Friedreich’s ataxia, ischemic heart disease, supraventricular tachycardia)[Figure omitted. See PDF]ConclusionsCompared to the general adult Irish population, self reported adherence to the WHO PA Guidelines was 6% lower among the CRY Clinic patient cohort (33% vs. 27%). Additionally, reported resistance exercise levels was lower (30%) than aerobic exercise (72%). This is despite resistance exercise being additionally beneficial for many cardiac conditions. During the period of data collection, access to gyms and group exercise was limited due to pandemic government restrictions that likely effected resistance exercise more than aerobic exercise. In fact, a significant increase in recreational walking during covid restrictions was previously reported. Exercise is often discussed during medical consultation but rarely prescribed. In our cohort only 0.5% of patients received an Ex Rx. The reported barriers to Ex Rx are lack of time, perceived lack of patient engagement, complex co-morbidities and clinician education. Attempts were made in the form of education and resource provision to clinicians to challenge perceived barriers. Ex Rx are important in the CRY Clinic not only for the known benefits of PA but as inappropriate exercise can be harmful for some cardiac conditions. The Ex Rx enabled the benefit of PA to be gained by the safe promotion of appropriate exercise to such patients (figure 2). The introduction of this PA assessment and Ex Rx was a successful call to action to incorporate exercise as medicine to the CRY Clinic. ‘Walking is a (wo)mans best medicine’ (Hippocrates 460BC).

13.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):639, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063507

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Despite the large numbers of reports on patient risk factors for poor clinical outcomes with COVID-19, little is known about how these risks may differ for solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients versus non-SOT (NSOT) patients. Method(s): We reviewed demographic and comorbid conditions in a cohort of SOT (n=129) and NSOT patients (n=708) admitted to our center for COVID-19 between December 2019 and February 2021. Patient characteristics were compared between groups using the t-test or chi-square test. Univariable and multivariable (stepwise reduced) logistic regression models were constructed for our outcomes of interest. Result(s): Patient age and sex were similar between SOT and NSOT cohorts. However, SOT patients were more likely to be of Hispanic ethnicity (64% v. 39%, p<0.001). Both SOT and NSOT had similar incidence of neurologic conditions (23% and 21%, p=0.476), but SOT patients were more likely to have comorbid conditions including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular condition, or lung disease (all p<0.001). Several clinical factors were associated with ICU admission in NSOT patients, including patient age, diabetes, cardiac disease, neurologic disease, obesity, and hepatobiliary disease (all p < 0.05). In contrast, only cardiac disease was associated with ICU admission for SOT patients (p=0.010). Multivariable analysis of factors associated with increased mortality revealed that neurologic condition (OR 3.0, 95% CI 0.8-11.4) and lung disease (OR 3.5, 95% CI 0.7-18.2) were significant for SOT patients in a model including age, sex, and other comorbid conditions. In contrast, for NSOT patients, history of a neurologic condition (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.0) and age >65 (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.1-8.7) were significantly associated with death in a multivariate analysis. Conclusion(s): It has been previously unclear whether risk factors associated with poor outcomes in NSOT patients with COVID-19 will be similarly important in SOT recipients. Our analysis demonstrated different risk associations in contemporaneous patient cohorts at a single academic center. This observation suggests that SOT-specific approaches for risk stratification would be beneficial for patient evaluation and triage.

14.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S127, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062131

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Wearing face masks to detain the COVID 19 pandemic in schools has become an integral part of fighting the virus. The most effective mask is the FFP2 mask. There is a lot of public concern, especially regarding wearing a face mask at school and especially during school sports. It is therefore important to determine whether wearing a FFP2-mask during physical activ-ity leads to changes measurable in cardiopulmonary exercise test-ing in children. Method(s): Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed two times by children aged 8-10 years as an incremental step test on a treadmill with and without a FFP2 within an interval of 2 weeks. A general questionnaire included medical history and sports par-ticipation since childhood. Result(s): We included 10 children (mean age 8.4 +/- 0.7 years, 6 males, 4 females). The mean parameters measured at peak exercise were comparable between both examinations (mean Peak VO2 = 39.3 +/- 3.4 vs 45.6 +/- 13.9 ml/min/kg;mean Peak HR 192/min +/- 9 vs 188/min +/- 12, mean O2pulse 6 +/- 1.4 ml/min vs. 7 +/- 1.8, mean VE 43.2 +/- 12.9 ml/min vs. 41.5 +/- 12.7 ml/min). Neither did the respiratory gases (O2 and CO2) measured 1 min into each step differ significantly (s. figure). This study is cur-rently ongoing. Conclusion(s): Since there were no significant differences with respect to peak parameters as well as with respect to the respiratory param-eters measured during each step, there is no indication to withhold physical activity even at peak capacity from children during a pan-demic which makes wearing face masks mandatory.

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A1320, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060986

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Challenges in Cystic Fibrosis Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is seen in 30-50% of patients (most commonly Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonitis) but cystic lung disease is extremely rare (1). Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is an inflammatory lung disease that is characterized by infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells (2), and associated with lung cysts. Oftentimes, it is associated with HIV, lymphoma, and primary Sjogren's Syndrome (SS) (2), however there are rare reports of LIP associated with SLE (1). We present a case of a young male with incidental lung cysts who was found to have a new diagnosis of SLE. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old male with a past medical history of premature birth at 5 months and prior mild COVID-19 infection presented with 3 weeks of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and unintentional 15-pound weight loss. He endorsed dry mouth, frequent cavities, and a new rash involving his chest, face, and lower extremities. Physical exam was significant for malar rash and dry mucous membranes. Labs revealed pancytopenia, sedimentation rate 61 mm/hour and C-reactive protein 5.54 mg/L. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed several thin-walled cysts in all bilateral lung lobes (predominant in right upper lobe) and bilateral axillary lymph nodes [Figure 1]. CT abdomen and pelvis was unremarkable. Autoimmune work-up resulted in a positive antinuclear antibody >1:1280, double stranded DNA antibody elevated at 34, elevated SSA and SSB antibodies (>8.0 and 1.4 respectively), and decreased Complement 3 (59.5 mg/dl) and 4 (10.1 mg/dl) levels. Peripheral smear, right axillary lymph node and bone marrow biopsies were negative for malignancy. He was started on prednisone and Plaquenil with symptomatic improvement. There is high suspicion of LIP given the clinical and radiological findings. He will follow up in clinic to obtain PFTs and schedule a lung biopsy. DISCUSSION: Interstitial lung disease in SLE presents in middle-aged patients at a later part of their disease course, with a female preponderance (2,3). An initial presentation of SLE and secondary SS in a young male and associated cystic lung disease is rare. The suspicion for LIP in association with SLE is high in our patient given variable size and distribution of lung cysts and coexisting secondary Sjogren's syndrome, although no ground glass or nodular opacities were found on CT chest as reported in typical LIP (3). Though this patient has no pulmonary symptoms, cysts/LIP in SLE tend to progress and have a high incidence of developing lymphomas, gammaglobulinemia and amyloidosis (2,3). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to establish a histopathological diagnosis and obtain baseline PFTs to monitor pulmonary disease manifestations. In addition to controlling the primary disease with antirheumatic drugs, steroids have been found to be useful in acute pulmonary flares (2). Reference #1: Maeda R, Isowa N, Miura H, Tokuyasu H. Systemic lupus erythematosus with multiple lung cysts. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2009 Jun;8(6):701-2. doi: 10.1510/icvts.2008.200055. Epub 2009 Mar 12. PMID: 19282324. Reference #2: Yood RA, Steigman DM, Gill LR. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1995 Apr;4(2):161-3. doi: 10.1177/096120339500400217. PMID: 7795624. Reference #3: Filipek MS, Thompson ME, Wang PL, Gosselin MV, L Primack S. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: radiographic and high-resolution CT findings. J Thorac Imaging. 2004 Jul;19(3):200-3. doi: 10.1097/01.rti.0000099464.94973.51. PMID: 15273618. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Matthew Fain No relevant relationships by Christina Fanous No relevant relationships by Rathnavali Katragadda No relevant relationships by CHRISELYN PALMA

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A2637, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060976

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Late Breaking Chest Infections Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: (1) Assess the characteristics of COVID-19 patients who developed pulmonary cysts, bullae, blebs, and pneumatoceles. (2) Investigate outcomes of patients who developed cystic lung disease from COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search using Pubmed, Cochrane, and Embase was performed for case reports from 2020 to 2022 describing COVID-19 patients who developed lung cysts, bullae, blebs and pneumatoceles. The following data were extracted: patient demographics, presence of underlying lung disease, history of smoking, maximum oxygen requirements during acute illness, imaging findings, complications, and patient mortality. RESULTS: 65 publications (11 case series and 54 case reports) with a total sample size of 76 patients were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 52.2 ± 15.8 years. A majority of the cases were males (n=67, 88.2%). Twelve (15.8%) cases had an underlying lung disease, such as COPD or asthma, and 16 (21.1%) cases had a history of smoking tobacco. We categorized severity of illness based on the levels of oxygen requirement defined as: (1) mild - 0 to 2 liters of oxygen, (2) moderate - greater than 2 liters of oxygen to face mask/venturi mask and (3) severe - high flow nasal cannula, non-invasive ventilation, or mechanical ventilation. The majority of patients (n=40, 52.6%) had severe illness while 7 (9.2%) and 17 (22.4%) presented with mild and moderate disease, respectively. Of the 25 (32.9%) patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation, duration of ventilator days was provided for 14 patients, with a median of 40 days (interquartile range=54). Twenty-one (27.6%) patients were found to have cysts on imaging, 26 (34.2%) were found to have bullae, 3 (3.9%) were found to have blebs, 15 (19.7%) were found to have pneumatoceles, and 11 (14.5%) were found to have more than one of the aforementioned findings. A total of 53 (69.7%) patients developed pneumothorax and 12 (15.8%) developed pneumomediastinum. Seventeen (22.4%) patients were on the mechanical ventilator while pulmonary complications occurred. Additionally, 41 (53.9%) required chest tube placement, 16 (21.1%) required surgical intervention including open thoracotomy or video assisted thoracoscopy. A total of 47 (61.8%) cases reported either resolution of symptoms and complications, or improved imaging findings following interventions. The rate of inpatient mortality was 11.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe COVID-19 may have a higher risk for developing cystic lung disease, hence, increasing the risk for complications such as pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Patients who had severe COVID-19 may benefit from closer follow up and serial imaging for early detection of cystic lung disease. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kavita Batra No relevant relationships by Rajany Dy No relevant relationships by Christina Fanous No relevant relationships by Wilbur Ji No relevant relationships by Max Nguyen No relevant relationships by Omar Sanyurah

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A2565-A2566, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060965

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Rare Pulmonary Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Aspergillus is a group of opportunistic endemic fungal species that causes pathology within the respiratory tract and sinuses of individuals with predisposing factors, such as immunosuppression. While less frequently discussed, aspergillosis thyroiditis represents the most common fungal thyroiditis. We present a case of this condition that was misdiagnosed as amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old male was evaluated in outpatient pulmonary clinic after a chest CT revealed new upper lobe mass-like pleural based infiltrates with accompanying symptoms of dyspnea on exertion and fevers. His medical history was significant for orthotopic heart transplant 6 months ago due to a combination of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy with further decompensation from COVID-19 infection. After transplant, he was diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis secondary to amiodarone that was being treated with prednisone and methimazole. Given the concern for infection on imaging, he was admitted to the hospital and underwent urgent bronchoscopic evaluation. During the procedure, he was noted to have severe extrinsic tracheal compression. His neck imaging was consistent with a nodular goiter. The BAL revealed Aspergillosis fumigatus and he was subsequently treated with isavuconazium. Given the compression on the trachea and persistent dyspnea, the decision was to pursue total thyroidectomy. Surgery occurred 2 months after treatment was initiated for the Aspergillosis and with improvement on serial chest CTs. Pathologic examination of the thyroid tissue revealed extensive invasive aspergillus with abscesses involving both lobes. DISCUSSION: Aspergillus infection leading to disseminated disease typically occurs in individuals that have a compromised immune system such as seen in malignancy, solid organ transplant, chronic steroid use, and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Recently, it has been cited that up to 15% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care develop aspergillus infection. After initial aspergillosis infection has been established, the thyroid gland is a site for dissemination due to its rich vascular supply. In addition, due to the angioinvasive properties of the pathogen, the fungus can breakdown tissue planes and easily travel from its site of origin. Thereby a primary infection in the respiratory tract can lead to dissemination to the neck structures due to its proximity. When thyroid invasion occurs, the common complaints are neck pain and swelling. Thyroid laboratory findings encompass the full spectrum including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and euthyroid. Given these non-specific findings, clinicians need to be conscious of this disease entity. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with immunocompromising conditions, findings of neck pain, swelling, and abnormal thyroid laboratory values should broaden the differential for clinicians to include aspergillosis thyroiditis. Reference #1: Alvi, Madiha M et al. "Aspergillus thyroiditis: a complication of respiratory tract infection in an immunocompromised patient.” Case reports in endocrinology vol. 2013 (2013): 741041. doi:10.1155/2013/741041 Reference #2: Marui, Suemi, et al. "Suppurative thyroiditis due to aspergillosis: a case report.” Journal of Medical Case Reports 8.1 (2014): 1-3. Reference #3: Kuehn, Bridget M. "Aspergillosis Is Common Among COVID-19 Patients in the ICU.” JAMA 326.16 (2021): 1573-1573. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by A. Whitney Brown, value=Honoraria Removed 04/03/2022 by A. Whitney Brown No relevant relationships by A. Whitney Brown, value=Honoraria Removed 04/03/2022 by A. Whitney Brown No relevant relationships by A. Whitney Brown, value=Consulting fee Removed 04/03/2022 by A. Whitney Brown No relevant relationships by Kristen Bussa Advisory Committee Member relationship with Boehringer Ingelheim Please note: 2019-2021 Added 04/03/2022 by Christopher King, value=Consulting f e Advisory Committee Member relationship with Actelion Please note: 2019-2022 Added 04/03/2022 by Christopher King, value=Consulting fee Advisory Committee Member relationship with United Therapeutics Please note: 2019-2022 Added 04/03/2022 by Christopher King, value=Consulting fee Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Actelion Please note: 2019-2022 Added 04/03/2022 by Christopher King, value=Consulting fee Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with United Therapeutics Please note: 2020-22 Added 04/03/2022 by Christopher King, value=Consulting fee No relevant relationships by Haresh Mani No relevant relationships by Mary Beth Maydosz No relevant relationships by Alan Nyquist No relevant relationships by Anju Singhal No relevant relationships by Amy Thatcher

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A2555-A2556, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060961

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Lung Transplantation Cases SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Hyperammonemia is an uncommon yet serious complication that has been described in patients after solid organ transplantation, most commonly after lung transplantation. It has an incidence of about 2-4 % and a high fatality rate. Given the myriad of etiologies that can lead to encephalopathy post lung transplantation, hyperammonemia can easily be missed unless we have a high index of suspicion. Unlike in hepatic cirrhosis, non cirrhotic hyperammonemia can result in rapidly rising high levels of ammonia which can result in cerebral edema, seizures and long term neurological deficits. Hence, quick diagnosis and a multi faceted treatment approach is required for a favorable outcome CASE PRESENTATION: 37 year old man with COVID pneumonia and respiratory failure on ECMO support underwent bilateral orthotopic lung transplant. He had no significant past medical history. ECMO was decannulated on post op day 4 and by day 6 he was progressing well and working with physical therapy. On post op day 11 he had an abrupt decline in mental status and had an episode of seizure. Initial ammonia level was 181 uMol/L (Normal < 45 uMol/L) with a peak level of 248 uMol/L. Bronchial wash was positive for Ureaplasma species by PCR. CT head did not reveal any signs of cerebral edema. Management included daily hemodialysis, Sodium phenyl butyrate, Levocarnitine, Rifaximin, Lactulose and Doxycycline. Mental status started improving and ammonia levels normalized in the next 4 days. He was subsequently discharged home from the hospital without any neurological deficits. DISCUSSION: The etiology of post lung transplant hyperammonemia is not very clear. The etiology with the most evidence is an infection with urease producing bacteria as in our patient. Based on this, obtaining a PCR screening for these organisms in the Donor/recipient has been proposed. Obtaining a screening ammonia level at around day 7 post transplant has also been suggested. Given the high mortality and morbidity associated with this condition an aggressive multimodal treatment approach is required that includes renal replacement therapy, Nitrogen scavengers, bowel decontamination and empiric antibiotics. Hemodialysis has been shown to be more effective than continuous veno-venous hemodialysis for ammonia clearance. Antibiotics such as Azithromycin and Doxycycline that would be effective against urease producing organisms should be administered. In patients with signs of raised intracranial pressure, prompt neuroimaging and also measures to reduce cerebral edema must be instituted. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical signs of hyperammonemia should be promptly recognized in post lung transplant patients and managed aggressively given high mortality rates without treatment. A multi-pronged treatment approach with Intermittent high flux hemodialysis, bowel decontamination and agents targeting the urea cycle should be used to rapidly decrease the ammonia levels. Reference #1: Krutsinger D, Pezzulo A, Blevins AE, Reed RM, Voigt MD, Eberlein M. Idiopathic hyperammonemia after solid organ transplantation: Primarily a lung problem? A single-center experience and systematic review. Clin Transplant. 2017 May;31(5). doi: 10.1111/ctr.12957. Epub 2017 Apr 7. PMID: 28295601. Reference #2: Leger RF, Silverman MS, Hauck ES, Guvakova KD. Hyperammonemia Post Lung Transplantation: A Review. Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med. 2020 Oct 26;14:1179548420966234. doi: 10.1177/1179548420966234. PMID: 33192115;PMCID: PMC7594252. Reference #3: Anwar S, Gupta D, Ashraf MA, Khalid SA, Rizvi SM, Miller BW, Brennan DC. Symptomatic hyperammonemia after lung transplantation: lessons learnt. Hemodial Int. 2014 Jan;18(1):185-91. doi: 10.1111/hdi.12088. Epub 2013 Sep 2. PMID: 23998793. DISCLOSURES: Research Grant relationship with Alung Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Bindu Akkanti, value=Grant/Research Support No relevant relationships by Soma Jyothula no disclosure on file for Manish Patel;No relevant relationships by Sandeep Patri

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A2480-A2481, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060951

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Extraordinary Cardiovascular Reports SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: The incidence of acute pericarditis is 3.32 per 100,000 person-years (11). Patone et. Al, found that 0.001% had acute pericarditis after a dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, while 11.9% were COVID-19 positive (11). 1.5% of patients with COVID- 19 developed new onset pericarditis and six-month all-cause mortality was 15.5% (2). CASE PRESENTATION: 48-year-old male with no known past medical history who presented with acute onset of sharp, left-sided chest pain and associated with dyspnea on exertion. He was not vaccinated for COVID-19 and denied being around any sick contacts. On physical examination he was afebrile, normotensive and saturating 99% on room air. EKG initially showed diffuse ST elevations in leads II,III, aVF, V2-V6. Initial high sensitivity trop was <6. He was incidentally found to be COVID positive. Initial echocardiogram was not suggestive of wall motion abnormalities or pericardial effusions. He was not initiated on management for COVID-19 pneumonia as he was asymptomatic and on room air. He was started on colchicine 0.6 mg BID and ibuprofen 400 TID for pericarditis treatment and symptoms resolved on follow up. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 causing pericarditis is relatively rare and our patient presented with pericarditis and no associated respiratory symptoms. The clinical signs of pericarditis include: a pleuritic or sharp chest pain relieved by leaning forwards, a pericardial friction rub auscultated near the left sternal border and EKG changes including diffuse ST elevations or PR depressions seen in the leads I,II,III, aVL, aVF and the precordial leads V2-V6 (3). The common complications seen with pericarditis are pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, and constrictive pericarditis (1). A common etiology for pericarditis is a viral illness which can be seen to precede the cardiac symptoms and be seen as flu-like symptoms or as gastrointestinal symptoms. Treatment is with colchicine and NSAIDs. Aspirin has been the drug of choice in patient's who present with pericarditis following a myocardial infarction, solely because the other NSAIDs have been studied and shown to interfere with myocardial healing (3)(4). NSAIDs were believed to be harmful in patient's diagnosed with COVID, due to upregulation of ACE2 receptors in multiple sites which is used by SARS-COV-2 as a point of entry into cells (9). Drake et. Al, looked at patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, and found use of NSAIDs did not play any significant role in mortality (10). First-line therapy for pericarditis is NSAIDs and colchicine. Second line therapy can be with corticosteroids and refractory therapy is generally with intravenous human immunoglobulins, Azathioprine or anti-IL1 agents such as Anakinra (12). CONCLUSIONS: COVID 19 continues to present with varying levels of comorbidities. Timely diagnosis and intervention of pericarditis precipitated by COVID-19 can lead to near complete recovery and prevent fatal outcomes. Reference #1: Dababneh E, Siddique MS. Pericarditis. [Updated 2021 Aug 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing;2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431080/ Reference #2: Buckley BJR, Harrison SL, Fazio-Eynullayeva E, Underhill P, Lane DA, Lip GYH. Prevalence and clinical outcomes of myocarditis and pericarditis in 718,365 COVID-19 patients. Eur J Clin Invest. 2021 Nov;51(11):e13679. doi: 10.1111/eci.13679. Epub 2021 Sep 18. PMID: 34516657;PMCID: PMC8646627.1 Reference #3: Little WC, Freeman GL. Pericardial disease. Circulation. 2006 Mar 28;113(12):1622-32. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.561514. Erratum in: Circulation. 2007 Apr 17;115(15):e406. Dosage error in article text. PMID: 16567581. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Atika Azhar No relevant relationships by Berty Baskaran No relevant relationships by Andres Cordova Sanchez No relevant relationships by Harvir Gambhir No relevant relationships by Hanish Jai

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A2387, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060941

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Variety in Risk Factors and Treatment of VTE SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: The year of 2020 will be a year never forgotten when the COVID-19 pandemic began. The healthcare system is going into a crisis facing a disease that is unknown and overwhelming. Companies were frantic to find a solution to help prevent so many unnecessary deaths. Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was granted emergency use by the FDA after proving efficacy in early trials. Many side effects were unknown and discovered as time went on. Unprovoked isolated pulmonary embolisms are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24 year old male with no significant past medical history presented to the emergency department due to shortness of breath, hemoptysis and chest pain. He denied any family history or personal history of clotting disorders. He received the mRNA COVID-19 Pfizer vaccine 5 days prior to symptom onset. He describes it as constant sharp pain with varying intensity that he rates a 6/10 and can reach a 10/10 pain exacerbated with lying flat and deep breathing. He also states he has been coughing up a teaspoon amount of blood with this chest pain. Physical examination revealed reduced breath sounds in the left lower lobe. Patient was hemodynamically stable. Labs were stable and hemoglobin was stable throughout the hospital course. Fibrinogen was elevated and hypercoagulable work-up was negative. CTA of chest was performed and revealed left-sided pulmonary emboli involving the left lower lobe with pulmonary infarction. Therefore, he was managed by Eliquis. DISCUSSION: Pfizer released a safety and efficacy report of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. Many of the common side effects reported were pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and fever [1]. Adverse events that were reported were shoulder injury, right axillary lymphadenopathy, paroxysmal ventricular arrhythmia, and right leg paresthesia [1]. Isolated PE in a young healthy patient was never reported as an adverse event from the Pfizer safety and efficacy report. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 has been proven to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism because it is a prothrombotic virus [2]. Vaccination reports of pulmonary embolism are increasing, however, isolated PE without a DVT is still very underreported and rare. The literature states that a lot of patients that are having PE after mRNA vaccine also have associated thrombocytopenia, however, this is not what this patient demonstrates [3]. A total of 43, 548 participants were observed for the safety and efficacy report of the Pfizer COVID-19 report and not a single patient demonstrated an isolated pulmonary embolism event [1]. CONCLUSIONS: This case is a demonstration of a rare occurrence of isolated PE with no evidence of DVT in such close proximity to receiving the mRNA COVID-19 Pfizer vaccination.There are few reports of pulmonary embolism in healthy patients with no history of clotting disorders and further data are needed to support this association. Reference #1: Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, et al. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(27):2603-2615. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2034577 Reference #2: Hesam-Shariati S, Fatehi P, Abouzaripour M, Fathi F, Hesam-Shariati N, Hesam Shariati MB. Increased pulmonary embolism in patients with COVID-19: a case series and literature review. Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2021;7(1):16. Published 2021 Jun 12. doi:10.1186/s40794-021-00145-3 Reference #3: Muster V, Gary T, Raggam RB, Wölfler A, Brodmann M. Pulmonary embolism and thrombocytopenia following ChAdOx1 vaccination. Lancet. 2021;397(10287):1842. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00871-0 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Muhammad Azaz Cheema No relevant relationships by Morcos Fahmy No relevant relationships by Christina Gearges No relevant relationships by Asma Iftikhar

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