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1.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Online) ; 26(9):2483-2504, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832115

ABSTRACT

As the number of confirmed cases and resulting death toll of the COVID‐19 pandemic continue to increase around the globe ‐ especially with the emergence of new mutations of the SARS‐CoV‐2 virus in addition to the known alpha, beta, gamma, delta and omicron variants ‐ tremendous efforts continue to be dedicated to the development of interventive therapeutics to mitigate infective symptoms or post‐viral sequelae in individuals for which vaccines are not accessible, viable or effective in the prevention of illness. Many of these investigations aim to target the associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, or ARDS, which induces damage to lung epithelia and other physiologic systems and is associated with progression in severe cases. Recently, stem cell‐based therapies have demonstrated preliminary efficacy against ARDS based on a number of preclinical and preliminary human safety studies, and based on promising outcomes are now being evaluated in phase II clinical trials for ARDS. A number of candidate stem cell therapies have been found to exhibit low immunogenicity, coupled with inherent tropism to injury sites. In recent studies, these have demonstrated the ability to modulate suppression of pro‐inflammatory cytokine signals such as those characterizing COVID‐19‐associated ARDS. Present translational studies are aiming to optimize the safety, efficacy and delivery to fully validate stem cell‐based strategies targeting COVID‐19 associated ARDS for viable clinical application.

2.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(2):214-223, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1811430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frailty in older adults is a rapidly growing unmet medical need. It is an aging-related syndrome characterized by physical decline leading to higher risk of adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of Lomecel-B, an allogeneic medicinal signaling cell (MSC) formulation, in older adults with frailty. DESIGN: This multicenter, randomized, parallel-arm, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled phase 2b trial is designed to evaluate dose-range effects of Lomecel-B for frailty on physical functioning, patient-reported outcomes (PROs), frailty status, and biomarkers. SETTING: Eight enrolling clinical research centers, including the Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Target enrollment is 150 subjects aged 70-85 years of any race, ethnicity, or gender. Enrollment criteria include a Clinical Frailty Score of 5 ("mild") or 6 ("moderate"), a 6MWT of 200-400 m, and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) ≥2.5 pg/mL. INTERVENTION: A single intravenous infusion of Lomecel-B (25, 50, 100, or 200 million cells) or placebo (N=30/arm). Patients are followed for 365 days for safety, and the efficacy assessments performed at 90, 180, and 270 days. MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint is change in 6MWT in the Lomecel-B-treated arms versus placebo at 180 days post-infusion. Secondary and exploratory endpoints include change in: 6MWT and other physical function measures at all time points;PROs;frailty status;cognitive status;and an inflammatory biomarkers panel. A pre-specified sub-study examines vascular/endothelial biomarkers. Safety is evaluated throughout the trial. RESULTS: The trial is conducted under a Food and Drug Administration Investigational New Drug (IND), with Institutional Review Board approval, and monitoring by an NIH-appointed independent Data Safety Monitoring Board. CONCLUSION: This clinical trial investigates the use of a regenerative medicine strategy for frailty in older adults. The results will further the understanding of the potential for Lomecel-B in the geriatric condition of frailty.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794649

ABSTRACT

As the number of confirmed cases and resulting death toll of the COVID-19 pandemic continue to increase around the globe - especially with the emergence of new mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in addition to the known alpha, beta, gamma, delta and omicron variants - tremendous efforts continue to be dedicated to the development of interventive therapeutics to mitigate infective symptoms or post-viral sequelae in individuals for which vaccines are not accessible, viable or effective in the prevention of illness. Many of these investigations aim to target the associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, or ARDS, which induces damage to lung epithelia and other physiologic systems and is associated with progression in severe cases. Recently, stem cell-based therapies have demonstrated preliminary efficacy against ARDS based on a number of preclinical and preliminary human safety studies, and based on promising outcomes are now being evaluated in phase II clinical trials for ARDS. A number of candidate stem cell therapies have been found to exhibit low immunogenicity, coupled with inherent tropism to injury sites. In recent studies, these have demonstrated the ability to modulate suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine signals such as those characterizing COVID-19-associated ARDS. Present translational studies are aiming to optimize the safety, efficacy and delivery to fully validate stem cell-based strategies targeting COVID-19 associated ARDS for viable clinical application.

4.
World J Stem Cells ; 14(3):264-266, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1792158

ABSTRACT

Theoretically, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are very promising as adjuvant therapy to alleviate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute lung injury and cytokine storm. Several published studies, which used MSCs to alleviate COVID-19-associated acute lung injury and cytokine storm, reported promising results. However, the evidence came from a case report, case series, and clinical trials with a limited number of participants. Therefore, more studies are needed to get robust proof of MSC beneficial effects.

6.
Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S429-S430, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1783370

ABSTRACT

India experienced a devastating second wave of the covid 19 pandemic triggered by the delta variant, which peaked in end of April and early May 2021 with average daily new cases hitting 300,000 to 400,000 and daily death toll reaching 3000 to 3500. ECMO emerged as an option for severe post covid ARDS and was offered in many centers across India for patients who were worsening despite full ventilatory support and prone positioning. A small minority of these patients who showed no improvement despite several weeks on ECMO were referred for lung transplantation to our center. Out of the 63 ECMO pts we received for Lung Transplantation 5 patients received Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) infusion over and above standard treatment after getting necessary clearance from hospital Ethics committee and consent from patients' family We conducted a case control study on critically ill post covid ARDS patients on ECMO referred for lung transplantation to our center. 5 patients received 2 million umbilical cord derived MSCs/kgwt infused over 30 minutes, for 3 doses on days 0, 3 and 6 and was compared to other local ECMO patients (control group;n=58). The primary outcome was safety and secondary outcome was all cause mortality. All 5 patients tolerated MSC infusions well with no side effects observed. Out of the 5 patients who received MSC infusions 3 pts (60%) recovered and were weaned off ECMO successfully. 1 pt (20%) did not improve and expired, 1 pt (20%) did not recover and underwent successful lung transplantation and was discharged home. In the ECMO control group, 15 patients (26%) recovered without transplant, 23 pts (40%) underwent successful lung transplantation and 20 pts (34%) expired. MSC IV infusion is safe and well tolerated without side effects in covid ARDS pts on ECMO. The efficacy of MSC in repairing the covid destroyed lung should be further evaluated in large randomised controlled studies. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785735

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a sudden decline of renal function and represents a global clinical problem due to an elevated morbidity and mortality. Despite many efforts, currently there are no treatments to halt this devastating condition. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoparticles secreted by various cell types in both physiological and pathological conditions. EVs can arise from distinct parts of the kidney and can mediate intercellular communication between various cell types along the nephron. Besides their potential as diagnostic tools, EVs have been proposed as powerful new tools for regenerative medicine and have been broadly studied as therapeutic mediators in different models of experimental AKI. In this review, we present an overview of the basic features and biological relevance of EVs, with an emphasis on their functional role in cell-to-cell communication in the kidney. We explore versatile roles of EVs in crucial pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to AKI and give a detailed description of the renoprotective effects of EVs from different origins in AKI. Finally, we explain known mechanisms of action of EVs in AKI and provide an outlook on the potential clinical translation of EVs in the setting of AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Extracellular Vesicles , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism
8.
Phytomed Plus ; 2(2): 100252, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783697

ABSTRACT

Purpose Pulmonary fibrosis caused by COVID-19 pneumonia is a serious complication of COVID-19 infection, there is a lack of effective treatment methods clinically. This article explored the mechanism of action of berberine in the treatment of COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019, COVID-19) pneumonia pulmonary fibrosis with the help of the network pharmacology and molecular docking. Methods We predicted the role of berberine protein targets with the Pharmmapper database and the 3D structure of berberine in the Pubchem database. And GeneCards database was used in order to search disease target genes and screen common target genes. Then we used STRING web to construct PPI interaction network of common target protein. The common target genes were analyzed by GO and KEGG by DAVID database. The disease-core target gene-drug network was established and molecular docking was used for prediction. We also analyzed the binding free energy and simulates molecular dynamics of complexes. Results Berberine had 250 gene targets, COVID-19 pneumonia pulmonary fibrosis had 191 gene targets, the intersection of which was 23 in common gene targets. Molecular docking showed that berberine was associated with CCl2, IL-6, STAT3 and TNF-α. GO and KEGG analysis reveals that berberine mainly plays a vital role by the signaling pathways of influenza, inflammation and immune response. Conclusion Berberine acts on TNF-α, STAT3, IL-6, CCL2 and other targets to inhibit inflammation and the activation of fibrocytes to achieve the purpose of treating COVID-19 pneumonia pulmonary fibrosis.

9.
Pain Physician ; 25(2):193-207, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1776968

ABSTRACT

Background: Regenerative medicine interventions are applied to assist in the repair, and to potentially replace or restore damaged tissue through the use of autologous/allogenic biologics and it continues to expand. The anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and regenerative properties of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and investigation into their therapeutic efficacy and safety in patients with severe chronic low back pain, have not been demonstrated in controlled studies. Multiple pain generators have been hypothesized to be responsible in severe spinal degeneration and it is difficult to identify a single pain generator;consequently, resulting in inadequate therapeutic results. Objectives: The study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of autologous bone marrow MSCs in the treatment of chronic low back pain due to severe lumbar spinal degeneration with involvement of multiple structures. Study Design: Prospective, open-label, nonrandomized, parallel-controlled, 2-arm exploratory study. Setting: A private, specialized, interventional pain management and regenerative medicine clinic. Methods: The treatment group patients received a one-time bone marrow concentrate injection into spinal structures (i.e., discs, facets, spinal nerves, and sacroiliac joints), along with conventional treatment, whereas, the control group received conventional treatment with nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs, over-the-counter drugs, structured exercise programs, physical therapy, spinal injections and opioids, etc., as indicated. Outcomes Assessment: Outcomes were assessed utilizing multiple instruments, including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Numeric Rating Scale (NRS-11), EuroQOL 5-Dimensional Questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), Global Mental Health (GMH), and Global Physical Health (GPH). Multiple outcomes were assessed with primary outcomes being minimal clinically important differences (MCID) in ODI scores between the groups and/or a 2-point reduction in pain scores. In the study group, total nucleated cells, colony forming units-fibroblast, CD34-positive cell numbers and platelets were also recorded, along with post-procedure magnetic resonance imaging changes. Outcomes were assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: Significant improvement was achieved in functional status measured by ODI, pain relief measured by NRS-11, and other parameters measured by EQ-5D-3L, GMH, and GPH, in the study group relative to the control group at all time periods. The results showed significant improvements at 12-month follow-up with 67% of the patients in the study group achieving MCID utilizing ODI when compared to 8% in the control group. Greater than 2-point pain reduction was seen in 74% of the patients at 3 months, 66% of the patients at 6 months, and 56% of the patients at 12 months. Both MCID and pain relief of 2 points were significantly different compared to the control group. Opioid use decreased in the investigational group, whereas, there was a slight increase in the control group. Age, gender, opioid use, and body mass index did not affect the outcomes in the stem cell group. Limitations: Single center, nonrandomized study. Conclusions: The first available controlled study utilizing BM-MSCs in severe degenerative spinal disease with interventions into multiple structures simultaneously, including disc, facet joints, nerve roots, and sacroiliac joint based on symptomatology, showed promising results.

10.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 145, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the widespread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, in spite of the newly emerging vaccines, mutated strains remain a great obstacle to supportive and preventive measures. Coronavirus 19 survivors continue to face great danger of contacting the disease again. As long as no specific treatment has yet to be approved, a great percentage of patients experience real complications, including among others, lung fibrosis. High oxygen inhalation especially for prolonged periods is per se destructive to the lungs. Nevertheless, oxygen remains the first line support for such patients. In the present study we aimed at investigating the role of amniotic fluid-mesenchymal stem cells in preventing versus treating the hyperoxia-induced lung fibrosis in rats. METHODS: The study was conducted on adult albino rats; 5 pregnant female rats were used as amniotic fluid donors, and 64 male rats were randomly divided into two groups: Control group; where 10 rats were kept in normal atmospheric air then sacrificed after 2 months, and hyperoxia-induced lung fibrosis group, where 54 rats were exposed to hyperoxia (100% oxygen for 6 h/day) in air-tight glass chambers for 1 month, then randomly divided into the following 5 subgroups: Hyperoxia group, cell-free media-treated group, stem cells-prophylactic group, stem cells-treated group and untreated group. Isolation, culture and proliferation of stem cells were done till passage 3. Pulmonary function tests, histological examination of lung tissue under light and electron microscopes, biochemical assessment of oxidative stress, IL-6 and Rho-A levels, and statistical analysis of data were performed. F-test (ANOVA) was used for normally distributed quantitative variables, to compare between more than two groups, and Post Hoc test (Tukey) for pairwise comparisons. RESULTS: Labelled amniotic fluid-mesenchymal stem cells homed to lung tissue. Stem cells administration in the stem cells-prophylactic group succeeded to maintain pulmonary functions near the normal values with no significant difference between their values and those of the control group. Moreover, histological examination of lung tissues showed that stem cells-prophylactic group were completely protected while stem cells-treated group still showed various degrees of tissue injury, namely; thickened interalveolar septa, atelectasis and interstitial pneumonia. Biochemical studies after stem cells injection also showed decreased levels of RhoA and IL-6 in the prophylactic group and to a lesser extent in the treated group, in addition to increased total antioxidant capacity and decreased malondialdehyde in the stem cells-injected groups. CONCLUSIONS: Amniotic fluid-mesenchymal stem cells showed promising protective and therapeutic results against hyperoxia-induced lung fibrosis as evaluated physiologically, histologically and biochemically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperoxia , Amniotic Fluid , Animals , Female , Humans , Hyperoxia/complications , Hyperoxia/pathology , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stem Cells/pathology
11.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 134, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to their immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed to have therapeutic potential to improve clinical outcomes in COVID-19. However, the safety and efficacy profile of MSC infusion therapy in patients with non-severe COVID-19 infection has not been completely established; there is, in particular, a substantial void in the literature on dose-dependent studies of MSC infusion in patients with low clinical risk COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This phase 1 double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial examines the safety, feasibility, and tolerability of 2 doses (high and low) of DW-MSC in patients with low clinical risk COVID-19. A total of 9 patients were enrolled in this study and randomized into low-dose (TL), high-dose (TH), and placebo (C) groups. Subjects in the TL and TH groups received single intravenous infusions of 5.0 × 107 cells and 1.0 × 108 cells, respectively. The main outcome was the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) during the 28-day study period. Vital signs and various inflammatory markers were also monitored weekly during the observation period. RESULTS: There were no apparent differences in clinical characteristics between study groups (TL, TH, and C) at baseline. All patients did not show the progression of severity during the study period. During the course of the study, 6 episodes of TEAE were observed in 5 subjects; however, none of the TEAEs were severe. During the follow-up period, 8 subjects recovered and were discharged from the hospital without complications. A subject exhibited abnormal liver function biomarkers at the end of the study period. Changes in inflammatory markers throughout the clinical course were not vastly different across study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical trial has provided reliable results regarding the safety of MSCs in low clinical risk COVID-19 subjects treated with MSCs. However, further confirmation of the therapeutic efficacy aspects of MSC will require large-scale randomized controlled trials in subjects with varying severity profiles for COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04535856. Registered 2 September 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04535856.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods
12.
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin ; 12(2):206-216, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1766368

ABSTRACT

After severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the third coronavirus epidemic that soon turned into a pandemic. This virus causes acute respiratory syndrome in infected people. The mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection will probably rise unless efficient treatments or vaccines are developed. The global funding and medical communities have started performing more than five hundred clinical examinations on a broad spectrum of repurposed drugs to acquire effective treatments. Besides, other novel treatment approaches have also recently emerged, including cellular host-directed therapies. They counteract the unwanted responses of the host immune system that led to the severe pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. This brief review focuses on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) principles in treating the COVID-19. The US clinical trials database and the world health organization database for clinical trials have reported 82 clinical trials (altogether) exploring the effects of MSCs in COVID-19 treatment. MSCs also had better be tried for treating other pathogens worldwide. MSC treatment may have the potential to end the high mortality rate of COVID-19. Besides, it also limits the long-term inability of survivors. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin is the property of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

13.
Discovery Medicine ; 31(162):7-14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1762440

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, COVID-19 was first identified in Wuhan, China and resulted in a formidable outbreak in provinces and cities in China that became a pandemic. The outbreak likely began as several cases caused by probable zoonotic transmission, followed by human-to-human transmission via droplets or contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated items. COVID-19 mainly affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia in human, and severely affected patients may have multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Despite recent progress in vaccine development, the management of multiple organ failure caused by immune injury is mainly supportive. COVID-19 is more contagious than SARS and MERS, although it has a lower mortality rate. The 2019 outbreak of COVID-19 has been classified by the WHO as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, which has drawn attention to the challenge of the disease and caused questioning of scientific strategies for preventing infection and improving clinical outcomes. This article reviews the latest developments on transmission and clinical management and control of COVID-19 infection.

14.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760084

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-coV-2, which emerged in Wuhan in November 2019, has increasingly spread causing a global pandemic that infected more than 444 million people, resulting in severe social and economic ramifications, and claimed more than 6,010,000 lives by March 5, 2022. The pandemic attracted global attention with consequential multiple economic, social, and clinical studies. Among causes of poor clinical outcome of the disease are therapeutic challenges, leading to spirals of studies in search for better therapeutic alternatives. Despite the worsening circumstances of the pandemic, no drug has yet shown remarkable efficacy in the clinical management of COVID-19 patients in large-scale trials. Many potential therapeutic strategies, including the use of nucleotide analogs, chloroquine phosphate, arbidol, protease inhibitors (lopinavir/ritonavir), plasma, monoclonal antibodies, plastic antibodies based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), nanomaterials, vaccine, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have emerged with various degrees of successes. Remdesivir and dexamethasone have now been licensed based on the results of randomized controlled trials. Baricitinib, the Janus kinase (JAK) 1/2 inhibitor, is also an attractive candidate due to its properties as a potent anti-inflammatory agent and its hypothesized off-target antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2. Besides, human plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients is theoretically expected to be safe and effective for both therapy and post-exposure prophylaxis. In light of the literature, the correlation between the reduction of C5aR1/C5aR2 and IL6-IL6R axis, using the available anti-IL6R mAb would be crucial. More, MSCs are a potential therapeutic choice for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The coronavirus spike (S) protein that mediates the process of the infection via binding of host cells to the virus receptor is an essential focus for vaccine development. Importantly, with the number of patients increasing daily, there is an urgent need for effective therapeutic intervention. In this review, we expatiated on several strategies deployed for the treatment of COVID-19 infection.

15.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742296

ABSTRACT

Major depression is a devastating disease affecting an increasing number of people from a young age worldwide, a situation that is expected to be worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic. New approaches for the treatment of this disease are urgently needed since available treatments are not effective for all patients, take a long time to produce an effect, and are not well-tolerated in many cases; moreover, they are not safe for all patients. There is solid evidence showing that the antioxidant capacity is lower and the oxidative damage is higher in the brains of depressed patients as compared with healthy controls. Mitochondrial disfunction is associated with depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and this dysfunction can be an important source of oxidative damage. Additionally, neuroinflammation that is commonly present in the brain of depressive patients highly contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is evidence showing that pro-inflammatory diets can increase depression risk; on the contrary, an anti-inflammatory diet such as the Mediterranean diet can decrease it. Therefore, it is interesting to evaluate the possible role of plant-derived antioxidants in depression treatment and prevention as well as other biomolecules with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential such as the molecules paracrinely secreted by mesenchymal stem cells. In this review, we evaluated the preclinical and clinical evidence showing the potential effects of different antioxidant and anti-inflammatory biomolecules as antidepressants, with a focus on difficult-to-treat depression and conventional treatment-resistant depression.

16.
Cytotherapy ; 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and their secreted products are a promising therapy for COVID-19 given their immunomodulatory and tissue repair capabilities. Many small studies were launched at the onset of the pandemic, and repeated meta-analysis is critical to obtain timely and sufficient statistical power to determine efficacy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All English-language published studies identified in our systematic search (up to February 3, 2021) examining the use of MSC-derived products to treat patients with COVID-19 were identified. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed for all studies. Nine studies were identified (189 patients), four of which were controlled (93 patients). Three of the controlled studies reported on mortality (primary analysis) and were pooled through random-effects meta-analysis. MSCs decreased the risk of death at study endpoint compared with controls (risk ratio, 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.74; P = .02; I2 = 0%), although follow-up differed. Among secondary outcomes, interleukin-6 levels were most commonly reported and were decreased compared with controls (standardized mean difference, -0.69; 95% CI, -1.15 to -0.22; P = .004; I2 = 0%) (n = 3 studies). Other outcomes were not reported consistently, and pooled estimates of effect were not performed. Substantial heterogeneity was observed between studies in terms of study design. Adherence to published ISCT criteria for MSC characterization was low. In two of nine studies, RoB analysis revealed a low to moderate risk of bias in controlled studies, and uncontrolled case series were of good (3 studies) or fair (2 studies) quality. CONCLUSION: Use of MSCs to treat COVID-19 appears promising; however, few studies were identified, and potential risk of bias was detected in all studies. More controlled studies that report uniform clinical outcomes and use MSC products that meet standard ISCT criteria should be performed. Future iterations of our systematic search should refine estimates of efficacy and clarify potential adverse effects.

17.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; : e0018821, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673345

ABSTRACT

The lung is the primary site of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced immunopathology whereby the virus enters the host cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Sophisticated regeneration and repair programs exist in the lungs to replenish injured cell populations. However, known resident stem/progenitor cells have been demonstrated to express ACE2, raising a substantial concern regarding the long-term consequences of impaired lung regeneration after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, clinical treatments may also affect lung repair from antiviral drug candidates to mechanical ventilation. In this review, we highlight how SARS-CoV-2 disrupts a program that governs lung homeostasis. We also summarize the current efforts of targeted therapy and supportive treatments for COVID-19 patients. In addition, we discuss the pros and cons of cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells or resident lung epithelial stem/progenitor cells in preventing post-acute sequelae of COVID-19. We propose that, in addition to symptomatic treatments being developed and applied in the clinic, targeting lung regeneration is also essential to restore lung homeostasis in COVID-19 patients.

18.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667054

ABSTRACT

The novel pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently utilized in clinics for pulmonary inflammatory diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. Given that MSCs offer a promising treatment against COVID-19, they are being used against COVID-19 in more than 70 clinical trials with promising findings. Genetically engineered MSCs offer promising therapeutic options in pulmonary diseases. However, their potential has not been explored yet. In this review, we provide perspectives on the functionally modified MSCs that can be developed and harnessed for COVID-19 therapy. Options to manage the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its variants using various bioengineering tools to increase the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Bioengineering/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
19.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:65-70, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1662719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) also known as Anakinra is a receptor antagonist of IL-1 especially IL-1β. IL-1β increased in infected COVID-19 patient groups. This study aimed that the IL-1Ra contained in Conditioned Medium Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (CM-WJMSCs) has the potential to inhibit IL-1β which is one of the cytokine storms that occur in COVID patients through an in--silico approach. AIM: This study aims to determine the effect of in silico approach pro-inflammatory protein interleukin 1β (IL-1 β) and IL-1Ra protein as cytokine WJ-MSCs for potential treatment of COVID-19 disease. METHODS: 3D structure using the homology modeling method on Swiss Model web-server. Molecular docking was performed to analyze the binding mode of the IL-1β related to COVID-19 with IL-1Ra and the docking results were fixed using FireDock web-server. RESULTS: These results of the docking of proteins between IL-1β and the CM-WJMSCs component, namely IL-1Ra showed that IL-1Ra has criteria for docking on IL-1β such as the good score for QMEAN, good CscoreLB, and BS-score results, and the lowest energy obtained was −585.1 KJ/mol. It can be predicted that IL-1Ra can inhibit IL-1β which causes cytokine storms in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Based on the result, CM-WJMSC has potential treatment on the severity of COVID-19 infection. © 2022 Wahyu Widowati, Kusworini Handono, Marlina Marlina, Ika Adhani Sholihah, Diana Krisanti Jasaputra, Teresa Liliana Wargasetia, Mawar Subangkit, Ahmad Faried, Ermi Girsang, I Nyoman Lister, Chrismis Novalinda Ginting, Ita Margaretha Nainggolan, Rizal Rizal, Hanna Kusuma, Linda Chiuman.

20.
Am J Stem Cells ; 10(5):79-89, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1661402

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) started in December 2019 and affected the whole world in a short time. The course of the disease depends on the person's immune system, physical properties, health status, etc. as it varies according to its characteristics while it is asymptomatic in some people, it causes fatal processes that start with flu-like symptoms such as cough, fever, respiratory distress in some people and progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe pneumonia and multi-organ dysfunction, and the basic mechanism underlying these effects known as a cytokine storm. There is no specific effective antiviral drug or vaccine in treatment yet. Supportive/alternative treatment methods are needed as both the desired effect cannot be achieved and undesirable side effects are seen with the current treatments used in the clinic. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are frequently preferred recently from basic studies to clinical studies and are effective and safe in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Graft-versus-Host disease. MSCs can secrete many types of cytokines through paracrine secretion or directly interact with immune cells leading to immunomodulation. According to the results of the completed studies;it has been stated that the cytokine storm caused by the overstimulation of the immune system decreases and even damage of the cytokine storm on organs decreases, respiratory distress is relieved and contributes to the healing process by repairing damaged tissues. In this review, clinical trials completed/ongoing on MSCs recommended for treating COVID-19, a global problem, are reviewed and the review is prepared to specify the existence of such a route to clinicians.

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