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1.
PEC Innov ; 1: 100096, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095879

ABSTRACT

Objective: Assess potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on a subset of Post-9/11 U.S. Veterans included in a study of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). Methods: Two measures were added to a structured health interview for Veterans during temporary pandemic research shutdown: a validated health questionnaire [1] previously completed by survey, and a semi-structured instrument developed to assess whether pandemic conditions affected responses to the health questionnaire and identify unique impacts. Interviews were conducted between August 2020 - February 2021. Scaled items were calculated and t-tests used to compare results. Open-ended items were coded using thematic analyses. Results: Veterans identified eight major areas of impact with negative and positive impacts: mental health, family, social, work/employment, access to resources, physical health, finances, and education. Innovation: The temporary shut-down of a large health study for Post-9/11 Veterans provided an opportunity to devise an instrument to assess COVID-19's impact on health and well-being. The instrument was accepted as of the first Veteran instrument in a pandemic SDOH research repository [2], and is being used in other studies. Conclusion: This study highlights the need to assess and understand interrelated relationships of factors impacting health and well-being, especially as COVID-19 moves from pandemic to endemic with reverberating effects across multiple social determinants of health (SDOH).

2.
Brain Behav ; : e2803, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094156

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate mental health symptoms (anxiety, depression, and sleep status) and their associated factors among people infected with the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant during the quarantine period in Shanghai. METHODS: To investigate the mental health symptoms among participants with SARS-CoV-2 omicron infection, an anonymous online survey questionnaire was used. The survey panel included the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and 22-item Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS). Group comparisons and correlation analyses were employed to explore the epidemiological characteristics of patients and factors related to depression and anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 960 participants completed the survey. Of the total respondents, 583 participants (60.7%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 34.33 (9.21) years (95% CI: 33.74-34.91). The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among the participants was 13.7% (n = 151, 95% CI: 11.6%-15.7%) and 8.6% (n = 90, 95% CI: 6.9%-10.3%), respectively. Age-stratified analysis showed that the prevalence of anxiety among the 36- to 45-year-old group (12.9%; n = 35, 8.9%-16.9%) was significantly higher than that of the 18- to 15-year-old group (7.4%; n = 42, 5.3%-9.6%, p = .011). Spearman's correlation analyses showed that rumination (assessed by the RRS) was significantly and positively correlated with depression (rho = .706, p < .001) and anxiety symptoms (rho = .758, p < .001). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that female and middle-aged populations manifest higher susceptibility to mental health distress during the current Omicron wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Population-specific psychological crisis intervention is warranted to improve the quality of epidemic prevention methods and to promote the mental well-being of the public.

3.
Scand J Prim Health Care ; : 1-8, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087491

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the prevalence of long-COVID symptoms in patients with a history of mild or asymptomatic infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the factors associated with developing long-COVID. DESIGN: A nationwide cohort study. Using a centralized database, we have identified patients with and without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection 1-6 months before data collection. Patients were asked to fill out an online questionnaire through text messages. SETTING: Israeli general practice. SUBJECTS: 2755 persons participated in the study in September 2021 (a response rate of 7.5%): 819 with and ,936 without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We asked patients to provide details about their demographic status, medical history, COVID-related variables and the presence of long-COVID symptoms. RESULTS: Most prevalent long-COVID symptoms were decreased smell sensation (35.1% vs. 4.3%, p < 0.001), decreased taste sensation (25.2% vs. 3.2%, p < 0.001), memory disturbances (36.9% vs. 14.4%, p < 0.001), dyspnea (24.2% vs. 10.7%, p < 0.001) and arthralgia (33% vs. 16.3%, p < 0.001). Risk factors associated with long-COVID included female gender, symptomatic COVID-19, overweight or obesity and the presence of dyslipidemia. About 34.6% of participants reported not returning to their baseline health condition after the acute illness. CONCLUSION: Long-COVID is frequently seen following a mild symptomatic COVID-19 infection and, to a lesser extent, following an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Primary care physicians should be aware of these symptoms and consider this option in their differential diagnosis. Health policymakers should expect a significant impact of this syndrome on public health.Key PointsLong-COVID has emerged as a significant health problem with a serious impact on normal daily function• Long-COVID symptoms were evident in patients with mild symptomatic disease and in asymptomatic patients to a lesser extent.• Risk factors for having Long-COVID symptoms include female gender, symptomatic disease, increased BMI, and the presence of dyslipidemia.• Fatigue, dyspnea, weakness, decreased libido, weight changes, memory, and sleep disturbances were associated with not returning to the baseline health state.

4.
Environ Adv ; 9: 100310, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086163

ABSTRACT

We report wastewater surveillance of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 based upon 24-h composite influent samples taken weekly from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada between January 3, 2021 and July 10, 2021. Samples were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the N1 and N2 gene fragments of SARS-CoV-2 and a region of the replication associate protein of the pepper mottle mosaic virus (PMMoV) serving as endemic control. Only a small proportion of samples had quantifiable levels of N1 or N2. Overall case rates are weakly correlated with the concentration (gene copies/L) and with the flux of viral material influent to the WWTP (gene copies/day); the latter accounts for influent flow variations. Poisson multimodal rank correlation accounts for differences between the four WWTP and shows a significant correlation with a significant positive intercept. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis confirms a cut-off of cases based on amplified/not-amplified experimental data. At the optimal cut point of 19 (N1) or 17 (N2) cases/week/100,000 the sensitivity and specificity is about 75% for N1 and 67% for N2.

5.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075075

ABSTRACT

In March 2022, the Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) surged during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Shanghai, but over 90% of patients were mild. This study included 1139 COVID-19 patients mildly infected with the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 in Shanghai from May 1 to 10, 2022, aiming to clarify the demographic characteristics and clinical symptoms of patients with mild Omicron infection. The clinical phenotypes of Omicron infection were identified by model-based cluster analysis to explore the features of different clusters. The median age of the patients was 41.0 years [IQR: 31.0-52.0 years] and 73.0% were male. The top three clinical manifestations are cough (57.5%), expectoration (48.3%), and nasal congestion and runny nose (43.4%). The prevalence of nasal congestion and runny nose varied significantly across the doses of vaccinations, with 23.1% in the unvaccinated population and 30%, 45.9%, and 44.3% in the 1-dose, 2-dose and 3-dose vaccinated populations, respectively. In addition, there were significant differences for fever (23.1%, 26.0%, 28.6%, 18.4%), head and body heaviness (15.4%, 14.0%, 26.7%, 22.4%), and loss of appetite (25.6%, 30.0%, 33.6%, 27.7%). The unvaccinated population had a lower incidence of symptoms than the vaccinated population. Cluster analysis revealed that all four clusters had multisystemic symptoms and were dominated by both general and respiratory symptoms. The more severe the degree of the symptoms was, the higher the prevalence of multisystemic symptoms will be. The Omicron variant produced a lower incidence of symptoms in mildly infected patients than previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, but the clinical symptoms caused by the Omicron variant are more complex, so that it needs to be differentiated from influenza.

6.
Microorganisms ; 10(10)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066265

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: General infection control measures have been implemented at the societal level against COVID-19 since the middle of 2020, namely, hand hygiene, universal masking, and social distancing. The suppressive effect of the social implementation of general infection control measures on pediatric infections has not been systematically assessed. (2) Methods: We addressed this issue based on publicly available data on 11 pediatric infections reported weekly by sentinel sites in Osaka and Iwate prefectures in Japan since 2010. We obtained the 5-year average for 2015-2019 and compared it to the weekly report for 2020-2021. (3) Results: The rate of 6 of the 11 pediatric infections decreased significantly during 2020-2021, regardless of the magnitude of the prevalence of COVID-19 in both areas. However, only RSV infection, one of the six infections, was endemic in 2021. Exanthem subitum was not as affected by COVID-19 countermeasures as other diseases. (4) Conclusions: The social implementation of infectious disease control measures was effective in controling certain infectious diseases in younger age groups, where compliance with the countermeasures should not be as high as that of adults.

7.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 8(1): 198, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Up to 25% of concussed individuals experience persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCSs) which may interfere with the return to pre-injury activities and cause significant stress. Given that multiple etiological factors are thought to contribute to PPCSs, an interdisciplinary approach is recommended. This pilot study aims to primarily investigate the feasibility of a novel interdisciplinary treatment for PPCSs. Given this intervention is novel, uncertainty exists in terms of potential recruitment and retention rates, adverse events, and treatment adherence and fidelity. These factors will be explored to inform the feasibility of a phase-2 randomised controlled trial. Preliminary efficacy of this intervention will also be explored. METHODS: Fifteen individuals with mild traumatic brain injury and PPCSs will receive up to 12 weeks of interdisciplinary treatments including psychology, physiotherapy, and medical interventions. Primary feasibility outcomes including data on recruitment and retention rates and treatment adherence will be explored descriptively. The cognitive therapy rating scale will be used to assess treatment fidelity. A single-case series with multiple baseline design will be used to explore preliminary efficacy. Participants will be randomly assigned to baseline phases of 2, 4, or 6 weeks. Regarding patient-centred secondary outcomes, the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire will be assessed three times a week during baseline and treatment phases. Secondary outcomes also include measures of mood, sleep and fatigue, physical functioning, return to activity, and health-related quality of life. Patient-centred outcomes will be assessed at baseline, pretreatment, post-treatment, and one- and three-month follow-up. Thematic analysis of participant experiences will be explored through qualitative interviews. DISCUSSION: Results from this trial will inform the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of this interdisciplinary concussion intervention and whether proceeding to a future definitive phase-2 randomised controlled trial is worthwhile. Understanding the end-user perspective of the treatment will also enable modifications to the treatment protocol for future trials to best suit the needs of individuals with PPCSs after mTBI. Outcomes from this trial can be directly translated into community rehabilitation programmes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR, ACTRN12620001111965. Registered 27 October 2020, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=379118.

8.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 167(1 Supplement):P144-P145, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064489

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom associated with COVID-19 infection. While often transient, nearly 1 in 8 patients experience persistent dysfunction after initial infection resolution. Given the known association between impaired olfaction and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), this persistent COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction may impede early detection of cognitive decline. Method(s): Patients with confirmed COVID-19-associated hyposmia (n=73), MCI (n=58), and normal controls (n=86) were prospectively enrolled. Demographic data were collected alongside formal olfactory testing via AROMA (Affordable Rapid Olfaction Measurement Assay) at time of initial enrollment. MCI was assessed via MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment). Multivariate logistic regressions were utilized to evaluate for associations between variables and etiology of olfactory dysfunction. Result(s): After controlling for age and gender, when compared against normal controls, the inability to smell licorice, cinnamon, and lemon at the lowest 3 concentrations increased odds of COVID-19 hyposmia by 10.8 (95% CI, 4.6-25.6), 5.7 (95% CI, 2.7-11.7), and 5.3 (95% CI, 2.6-10.8), respectively. While the inability to smell coffee (9.9 odds ratio [OR];95% CI, 2.02-48.1), eucalyptus (6.7 OR;95% CI, 2.2-20.0), and rose (4.0 OR;95% CI, 1.7-9.7) were associated with MCI, decreased ability to smell licorice, cinnamon, and lemon were not. When combined into a composite score and compared against controls, decreased detection of licorice, cinnamon, and lemon was associated with a 16.5 OR (95% CI, 6.6-41.3) for COVID-19 hyposmia. This composite score was not significantly associated with MCI (1.2 OR;95% CI, 0.6-2.2) and, as such, performed well at discriminating between COVID-19 and MCI patients (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve=0.76). Conclusion(s): Distinct patterns of impaired olfaction were noted for COVID-19. We show that this etiology-specific phenotype has good discriminative performance when differentiating from MCI-associated hyposmia, which may allow for continued utilization of olfactory screening for MCI even among those with previous COVID-19 infection.

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A836, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060701

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest as a severe immunologic syndrome known as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). HLH is a hyper-inflammatory state with a lethal mortality rate, especially when discovered late in the disease process. The optimal timely approach to diagnosis and treatment of secondary HLH in COVID-19 is unclear, however, risk stratification with Hscore using biomarkers can be useful to increase confidence in an HLH diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old morbidly obese male with a history of well controlled mild intermittent asthma presented to the hospital complaining of a one week history of dyspnea and cough after failing outpatient COVID-19 treatment. Upon arrival, he was hypoxic on room air and was placed on non-invasive ventilation. He unfortunately decompensated further and was transferred to the intensive care unit where he was intubated for severe hypoxia and increased work of breathing. His course was complicated by superimposed bacterial pneumonia, vasopressor dependent septic shock, and anuric acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. He remained profoundly hypoxic despite rescue therapy with multiple sessions of prone ventilation. On hospital day seventeen his platelets declined acutely and a serotonin release assay confirmed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. His clinical status remained tenuous into the third week of admission. Notably, he developed persistent fever with associated bicytopenia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, fibrinogen, triglycerides, and aspartate aminotransferase. His calculated Hscore was 189. Hematology recommended initiating HLH therapy with daily dexamethasone and etoposide, however the latter was held due to the patient's rapid hemodynamic decline. The patient succumbed to illness after a twenty-day hospitalization. His HLH was confirmed with a positive postmortem soluble-IL-2-receptor test. DISCUSSION: Proposals of routine HLH screening in critically ill patients are endorsed to promote early detection of this morbid condition. Calculating Hscore using vital signs, imaging, laboratory tests, and patient history can guide suspicion of diagnosis, since HLH-specific markers are often not feasible. Hscores more than 169 correspond to 93% sensitivity and 86% specificity in HLH diagnosis. Immunosuppression is standard therapy with hematology guidance due to the complex pathophysiology and limited research. CONCLUSIONS: This case emphasizes the importance of understanding the relationship between COVID-19 and secondary HLH. A timely diagnosis is vital in order to attempt to effectively treat a syndrome that carries a 65% mortality rate. Reference #1: Dimopoulos G, Mast Q. de, Markou N, et al. Favorable Anakinra responses in severe COVID-19 patients with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Cell Host Microbe 2020;doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.05.007. PubMed PMID: 32411313. Reference #2: Bauchmuller K, Manson JJ, Tattersall R, et al. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in adult critical care. J Intensive Care Soc 2020;21:256–68. Reference #3: Schnaubelt, Sebastian MDa,∗;Tihanyi, Daniel MDb;Strassl, Robert MDc;Schmidt, Ralf MDc;Anders, Sonja MDb;Laggner, Anton N. MDa;Agis, Hermine MDd;Domanovits, Hans MDa Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in COVID-19, Medicine: March 26, 2021 - Volume 100 - Issue 12 - p e25170 doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000025170 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kristina Catania No relevant relationships by Katie Kennedy No relevant relationships by Josef Kinderwater No relevant relationships by MaryKate Kratzer no disclosure submitted for Ogugua Obi;

10.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(8)2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055321

ABSTRACT

Kan Jang®, the fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. ex. Nees and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim extracts, is a herbal medicinal product for relieving symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of Kan Jang®/Nergecov® on duration and the relief of inflammatory symptoms in adults with mild COVID-19. 86 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and mild symptoms for one to three days received supportive treatment (paracetamol) and six Kan Jang® (daily dose of andrographolides-90 mg) or placebo capsules a day for 14 consecutive days in this randomized, quadruple-blinded, placebo-controlled, two-parallel-group study. The primary efficacy outcomes were the decrease in the acute-phase duration and the severity of symptoms score (sore throat, runny nose, cough, headache, fatigue, loss of smell, taste, pain in muscles), an increase in cognitive functions, physical performance, quality of life, and decrease in IL-6, c-reactive protein, and D-dimer in blood. Kan Jang®/Nergecov® was effective in reducing the risk of progression to severe COVID-19, decreasing the disease progression rate by almost 2.5-fold compared to placebo. Absolute risk reduction by Kan Jang treatment is 14%, the relative risk reduction is 243.9%, and the number Needed to Treat is 7.14. Kan Jang®/Nergecov® reduces the duration of disease, virus clearance, and days of hospitalization and accelerates recovery of patients, relief of sore throat, muscle pain, runny nose, and normalization of body temperature. Kan Jang®/Nergecov® significantly relieves the severity of inflammatory symptoms such as sore throat, runny nose, and muscle pain, decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 level in the blood, and increases patients' physical performance (workout) compared to placebo. In this study, for the first time we demonstrate that Kan Jang®/Nergecov® is effective in treating mild COVID-19.

11.
Protein Pept Lett ; 29(7): 605-610, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for entering the host cells. Production of the ACE2 molecule is important because of its potency to use as a blocker and therapeutic agent against SARS-CoV-2 for the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The recombinant human ACE2 (rhACE2) is prone to form an inclusion body when expressed in the bacterial cells. METHODS: We used the SUMO tag fused to the rhACE2 molecule to increase the expression level and solubility of the fusion protein. Afterward, the freeze-thawing method plus 2 M urea solubilized aggregated proteins. Subsequently, the affinity of solubilized rhACE2 to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike was assayed by ELISA and SPR methods. RESULTS: SUMO protein succeeded in increasing the expression level but not solubilization of the fusion protein. The freeze-thawing method could solubilize and recover the aggregated fusion proteins significantly. Also, ELISA and SPR assays confirmed the interaction between solubilized rhACE2 and RBD with high affinity. CONCLUSION: The SUMO tag and freeze- Conclusion: The SUMO tag and freeze-thawing method would be utilized for high-level expression and solubilization of recombinant rhACE2 protein.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins/genetics , Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins/metabolism , Urea/metabolism
12.
Virol J ; 19(1): 156, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is an impressive regulator of the epigenetic control of the antiviral immune response. This study evaluated if the differential expression of TRIM28 correlates with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: A total of 330 COVID-19 patients, including 188 mild and 142 severe infections, and 160 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine the expression levels of TRIM28 in the studied patients. RESULTS: TRIM28 mRNA levels were significantly lower in both groups of patients versus the control group and in the severe group indicated further reduction in comparison to mild infection. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed the mean age, lower levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol, lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value and higher levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and differential expression of TRIM28 were linked to the severity of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: The results of this study proved that the downregulation of TRIM28 might be associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection. Further studies are required to determine the association between the COVID-19 infection severity and TRIM family proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents , Cholesterol , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL , Lipoproteins, LDL , RNA, Messenger , Tripartite Motif-Containing Protein 28/genetics , Tripartite Motif-Containing Protein 28/metabolism
13.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(11-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2046812

ABSTRACT

Rates of cognitive impairment among older adults are expected to increase substantially in the coming decades. Older adults may experience mild cognitive difficulties, characterized as a decline in cognition that does not significantly interfere with an individual's ability to complete activities of daily living. However, these individuals may need additional time, strategies, or help from a care partner (CP) to complete more complex functional activities. Cognitive training (CT) interventions have been shown to be beneficial for improving or stabilizing objective cognitive functioning, with less known about how CT may impact daily functioning or the lives of CPs. Additionally, CT is typically delivered in-person, which was not feasible during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, this study used a pre-post design to investigate the feasibility of a telehealth compensatory CT program for older adults with mild cognitive difficulties. It also examined the effects of program participation on participants' daily, emotional, and subjective cognitive functioning, as well as the effects CPs experienced through participation in the program. Feasibility was measured through tracking enrollment and completion rates, participant and clinician ratings of sessions' technological interference, and qualitative feedback from patients about the telehealth delivery. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate sets of pre- and post-measures completed by both participants and CPs. Results showed that older adults found the telehealth delivery to be feasible. After statistical correction, no significant differences were found between participant pre- and post-measures, though small to medium effect sizes were observed and participants qualitatively reported benefits from the CT. CPs experienced a significant increase on measures assessing the rewarding aspects of providing care, and they provided qualitative feedback on the benefits of the program without significant added burden. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043691

ABSTRACT

The current study investigated the impact of different doses of Nigella sativa seeds on the symptoms, the cluster of differentiation profile group, and inflammatory markers of mild COVID-19 cases. METHODS: The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients with mild and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection patients were randomly subdivided into seven subgroups: Group (GP) 1: received charcoal capsules as a control group, and GP 2: received three capsules of whole Nigella sativa seeds daily, two capsules in the morning and one in the evening; GP 3: received three capsules of whole Nigella sativa seeds every 12 h, GP 4: received five capsules in the morning and four capsules of whole Nigella sativa seeds in the evening, GP 5: received one capsule of Nigella sativa powder every 12 h; GP 6: received two capsules of Nigella sativa powder every 12 h; GP 7: received three capsules of Nigella sativa powder every 12 h; all treatment course was for ten days. Inflammatory parameters were assessed before and after interventions. RESULTS: 262 subjects were included in the final analysis. No significant difference was detected regarding age, gender, and nationality. No significant differences were detected between the inflammatory marker in all groups. The WBCs showed a significant difference between before and after the intervention. While for procalcitonin, a significant difference was demonstrated in groups 1,4, and 6. CONCLUSIONS: The current randomized clinical trial did not reveal a significant effect of ten days of treatment with various doses of Nigella sativa on symptoms, differentiation profile, and inflammatory markers of patients with COVID-19. As a natural product, the effect of Nigella sativa on disease requires weeks to manifest itself.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , COVID-19/drug therapy , Charcoal , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Phytotherapy , Powders , Procalcitonin , SARS-CoV-2 , Seeds
15.
Image Atlas of COVID-19 ; : 1-10, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041439

ABSTRACT

Computed tomography (CT) manifestations of asymptomatic patients with familial cluster transmission and of patients progressing from mild to common type are compiled in this chapter. Holding on to the thought that the imaging findings of asymptomatic infection and mild cases can be negative, we point out the fact that asymptomatic infection cases refer to individuals with positive nucleic acid results from respiratory tract specimens while with no reported symptoms or clinical signs recognized. Having said that, we emphasize asymptomatic infection is highly contagious through illustrating how the SARS-CoV-2 virus carried by an asymptomatic patient spreads into his family. Mild COVID-19 cases are infection cases with mild clinical symptoms and negative imaging findings. Some patients with mild type turned into the common type as the disease progressed, the CT manifestations of these cases are demonstrated.

16.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 8: 23337214221123708, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029678

ABSTRACT

Objective: Advanced age poses an increased risk for cognitive impairment, and therefore, poor knowledge regarding the risks associated with COVID-19 may confer vulnerability. We administered a COVID-19 Knowledge Questionnaire to older persons to evaluate the association between knowledge regarding public health recommendations, and cognitive status as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Method: Ninety-nine participants completed a 22-item questionnaire about COVID-19 symptoms, risks, and protective strategies, and they also completed the MoCA. Associations between knowledge and cognitive status were examined via Spearman correlations. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 72.6 (7.6) years, and MoCA scores averaged 23.4 (4.5) points. Higher MoCA total scores were significantly (p < .001) correlated with a greater number of correct questionnaire responses. Higher Orientation and Memory Index scores were moderately associated with an increased number of correct responses (p < .001), with the Executive Index exhibiting a significant albeit weaker association. MoCA Index scores assessing attention, language, and visuospatial functioning were not significantly associated with COVID-19 knowledge. Conclusions: Given the rapid transmission rate of the SARS CoV-2 infections, COVID knowledge lapses will likely have deleterious repercussions. Public health messages should ensure effective acquisition and retention of COVID specific information, especially in cognitively compromised older adults.

17.
2nd IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Technologies, CONIT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029218

ABSTRACT

This paper mines social media conversations collected using #sideeffects during the early phases of the Covid-19 vaccine roll out. The multi-dimensional analysis seeks to uncover post-vaccination symptoms and their intensity, latent underlying emotions, how the discourse spreads and is received, and ultimately separate the content into two groups according to their severity. The paper infers that people share their severe symptoms that cause major inconvenience and disruption using exaggerated emotions, and the follower networks of these authors are stronger. Tweets outlining mild symptoms are liked and retweeted many more times, and the friends networks of these authors are stronger. Both types of tweets (severe and mild) express heavy surprise and some fear. Classification of the tweets into mild and severe groups is attempted using boosting, neural network and BERT-based natural language transformer methods. BERT significantly outperforms the former two achieving a F1-score of 0.88. Given that the Covid-19 vaccine was developed and deployed rapidly, with limited clinical data on its side effects, this research fills an important gap in gathering such information under real-life settings. The paper thus concludes with a discussion of how these findings could be leveraged by public health organizations to combat vaccine hesitancy and maximize vaccine uptake. © 2022 IEEE.

18.
Iranian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 16(5):412-419, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026442

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: The COVID-19 disease is an emerging infectious disease that appeared in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. An uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response is one of the primary mechanisms causing death in this disease. In this study, the expression levels of some inflammatory cytokines, vitamin D, and some hematological and biochemical parameters were compared in patients with severe COVID-19 and mild types. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 blood samples were taken from 30 severe coronavirus patients and 30 mild coronavirus patients. The expression levels of cytokines such as IL (interleukin)-6, interferon (IFN)-α, IL-12, transforming growth factor (TGF) β, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were evaluated using Real-time PCR. A T-test was used for Statistical Analysis. Results: IL-6, IFN-α, IL-12, TGF-β, IL-8, and TNF-α cytokines in the peripheral blood of severe patients, were positive in 28/30 (93.33%), 27/30 (90%), 24/30 (80%), 25/30 (83.33%), 26/30 (86.66%), and 27/30 (90%) respectively. The positive rate of these cytokines in the mild patients were 20/30 (66.67%), 21/30 (70%), 18/30 (60%), 17/30 (56.67%), 19/30 (63.33%), 18/30 (60%), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between these two groups in terms of cytokines biomarkers. A significant difference was found between both groups in terms of the serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the mean number of lymphocytes and neutrophils as well as the mean percentage of neutrophils/ lymphocytes ratio (NLR). Conclusion: The expression of cytokine genes and their release into the peripheral blood was increased in both severe and mild patients with COVID-19. However, they were more intense in patients with severe symptoms than those with mild symptoms and can cause inflammatory and even destructive reactions. Vitamin D deficiency plays no role in causing severe COVID-19 in patients without risk factors. Severe COVID-19 is characterized by elevated serum levels of LDH and NLR≥3.45. © 2022. This is an original open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-noncommercial 4.0 International License which permits copy and redistribution of the material just in noncommercial usages with proper citation.

19.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 66(4): 512-521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026070

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the association between obesity and hospitalization in mild COVID-19 adult outpatients in Brazil. Methods: Adults with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection who sought treatment in two hospital (public and private) emergency departments were prospectively enrolled. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 at inclusion were followed by phone calls at days D7, D14 and D28. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to explore the association between obesity and other potential predictors for hospitalization. Results: A total of 1,050 participants were screened, and 297 completed the 28-day follow-up and were diagnosed with COVID-19 by RT-PCR. The median age was 37.2 (IQR 29.7-44.6) years, and 179 (60.0%) were female. The duration of symptoms was 3.0 (IQR 2.0-5.0) days, and 10.0 (IQR 8.0-12.0) was the median number of symptoms at inclusion. Ninety-five (32.0%) individuals had obesity, and 233 (78.5%) had no previous medical conditions. Twenty-three participants (7.7%) required hospitalization during the follow-up period. After adjusting, obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.63-4.83, P < 0.001) and older age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher risks of hospitalization. Conclusion: Obesity, followed by aging, was the main factor associated with hospital admission for COVID-19 in a young population in a low-middle income country. Our findings highlighted the need to promote additional protection for individuals with obesity, such as vaccination, and to encourage lifestyle changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Outpatients , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 915338, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022704

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has been keeping the world in suspense. Rapid tests, molecular diagnosis of acute infections, and vaccination campaigns with vaccines are building blocks of strategic pandemic control worldwide. For laboratory diagnostics, the quantification of the antibody titer of convalescents and vaccinated patients is thus increasingly coming to the fore. Methods: Here we present an evaluation on the comparability of five serological tests on a cohort of 13 patients with mild COVID-19 disease. Also participants who were vaccinated after recovery were included in this study. All common immune methods (ELISA, CLIA, PETIA) and SARS-CoV-2 specific antigens (N-, S1- and RBD-) were specifically tracked and directly compared for up to 455 days. The titer of recovered participants was also set to the degree of symptoms during infection and the occurrence of Long-COVID. In addition, relative comparability of different serological tests, all standardized to WHO, was set in reference to the neutralizing potential of the corresponding participants. Findings: The individual immune responses over 455 days after a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection remain stable, in contrast to vaccinated participants. All sero-tests reveal comparable performance and dynamics during the study and compared well to a surrogate neutralization test. Conclusion: The information presented here will help clinicians in the daily laboratory work in the selection and evaluation of different serological tests offered. The data also will support in respect of a sero-test-based neutralization cutoff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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