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1.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(6): 3133-3137, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934390

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 infection caused by SARS-Corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused large number of infections and mortality globally. There are no proven medications to prevent and treat COVID-19, nevertheless several potential pharmacotherapeutic agents have been tried. Remdesivir was found to be effective in few studies. Aims: To assess the outcome in COVID-19 confirmed cases receiving Remdesivir as compared to conventional therapy. Methodology: This study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in South India after the approval of the Institutional ethical committee. It was a medical records-based retrospective, longitudinal study. Medical records of the inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 infection were reviewed from the period of June 15, 2020 to September 15, 2020. This study was conducted to assess the clinical and laboratory profile and outcome in the patients admitted with moderate and severe COVID-19 disease who received Remdesivir. Statistical Analysis: The analysis was done using SPSS Inc. released 2009, PASW statistics for Windows version 18.0, Chicago. Results: One hundred eleven (N = 111) patients were included in the study. 56 patients received the conventional treatment (Hydroxychloroquine HCQ) and 55 patients received Remdesivir. It was seen that among patients treated with HCQ, 24 (42.9%) required non-invasive ventilation and seven (12.7%) patients treated with Remdesivir required it (P = 0.001). It was noticed that the mean duration of hospitalization was 16.6 days in HCQ group and was 11.4 days in Remdesivir group (P = 0.021). Conclusion: The study demonstrates that Remdesivir does have benefit in reducing the mortality and duration of hospital stay. There was reduced requirement of non-invasive and invasive ventilation among patients treated with Remdesivir.

2.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly ; 38(1):287, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1918984

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To identify association of underlying pre-morbidities with disease severity and mortality in hospitalized patients with Corona virus disease 2019. Methods: Total 884 COVID RT-PCR positive patients admitted to KRL Hospital Islamabad from April 2020 to August 2020 were included in this cross-sectional study. Pre-morbidities recorded were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, chronic respiratory disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, chronic neuro-psychiatric conditions (stroke and depression) and malignancy. Oxygen requirement, requirement of invasive ventilation, and outcome (recovered versus died) was documented. WHO categories for disease severity were used. Demographic profile and symptoms were also noted. SPSS 22 was used for data analysis. Pearson's Chi square test was used to see association between premorbidities and disease severity categories, oxygen requirement, invasive ventilation and outcome. Pearson's correlation was applied to analyze the correlation between individual pre-morbidities and disease severity categories. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was 40 ± 12.21 years with 98.5% being males. Majority patients (74.8%) were asymptomatic. Fever was the most common symptom. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were the most commonly recorded co-morbidity. Significant correlation (p-value < 0.05) was found between the presence of underlying pre-morbidities and disease severity as well as oxygen requirement, requirement of invasive ventilation and mortality. Conclusion: Results are compatible with worldwide studies and underlying pre-morbidities are convincing risk factors for disease severity and mortality.

3.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly ; 37(5):1435, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1898293

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To identify association of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with disease severity and mortality. Methods: Total 720 Corona Virus RT-PCR positive patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were admitted to KRL Hospital Islamabad from April 2020 to August 2020. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was recorded on admission and then serially. NLR cut-off was 3.0. WHO categories for disease severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe) were used. Demographic profile, symptoms and co-morbidities were recorded. Results: The mean age of patients was 40 ± 12.4 years with 96% being males. Majority patients (76.5%) were asymptomatic. Amongst symptoms, fever was the most common symptom. Diabetes mellitus was most common recorded co-morbidity. The mean NLR 2.5 ± 2.78. Significant association was found between NLR and disease severity as well as mortality. Difference in mean NLR amongst disease severity categories was also significant Conclusion: Results are compatible with worldwide studies and NLR is a cheap and easily available marker of disease severity and mortality.

4.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly ; 37(7):1984, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1898292

ABSTRACT

Objective: To detect association of lymphopenia with disease severity and mortality. Methods: Total 874 COVID RT-PCR positive patients admitted to KRL Hospital Islamabad from April 2020 to August 2020 were included in this cross-sectional study. Lymphopenia was defined as <1100 cells/micro-L. WHO categories for disease severity were used. Demographic profile, absolute lymphocyte counts and comorbidities were recorded. Pearson's Chi Square test was used to see association between lymphopenia and disease severity as well as disease outcome. Regression analysis was used to see whether lymphopenia would predict disease severity. Comparison of means of absolute lymphocyte count in different disease categories was done by ANOVA. Tukey's test range was then used to find the means different from each other. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: The mean age of patients was 40 ± 12.3 years. Majority patients (73.9%) were asymptomatic. Lymphopenia was present in 6.9% of total patients. Significant association was found between lymphopenia and disease severity as well as lymphopenia and mortality (< 0.001). Lymphopenia was found to be a predictor of disease severity using regression analysis (< 0.001). Comparison of mean absolute lymphocyte count was significant among disease severity categories (< 0.001). On post-hoc analysis, difference in absolute lymphocyte count was significant moving from asymptomatic to mild and then moderate disease category. However no significant difference was seen in absolute lymphocyte count between moderate and severe categories. Conclusion: Results are compatible with worldwide studies and lymphopenia is valid as a marker of disease severity and mortality.

5.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(1): 123-132, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726362

ABSTRACT

Background: Initiation of tocilizumab (TCZ) treatment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the early phases of cytokine storm is crucial. This study evaluated the clinical experience of TCZ use in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Methods: This retrospective observational study included patients (>18 years) with confirmed COVID19 treated with TCZ alone/in combination with other drugs. Data related to demographics, clinical characteristics, radiological parameters, oxygen/ventilator/vasopressor support, treatment parameters, laboratory investigations pre- and post-TCZ treatment, and clinical outcomes were retrieved from medical records. Results: Out of 95 patients (mean age, 55 years), 68.4% and 31.6% of patients had moderate and severe COVID-19 disease, respectively. The mean time to TCZ administration from symptom onset was 8.7 days. At the time of admission, the mean oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 90.4% and mean concentration of fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) was 80.6%. The most commonly received dose of TCZ was 400 mg (84.2%) intravenously. The mean concentration of FiO2 and SpO2 improved significantly during the treatment (P < 0.001) compared to before TCZ initiation. The change in median levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) from baseline to post-treatment (63.0 vs. 4.5 mg/dL; P < 0.001) was significant. Post TCZ treatment, 73.6% of patients improved; whereas 26.4% of patients died. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (23.2%) and elevated transaminases (12.6%) were the most commonly reported adverse events. Conclusion: Tocilizumab administration during earlier phase of cytokine storm syndrome leads to reversal of abnormal SpO2 and FiO2 concentrations to normal levels and rapid decline of elevated CRP levels in patients with COVID-19.

6.
Pak J Med Sci ; 37(7): 1984-1988, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To detect association of lymphopenia with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Total 874 COVID RT-PCR positive patients admitted to KRL Hospital Islamabad from April 2020 to August 2020 were included in this cross-sectional study. Lymphopenia was defined as <1100 cells/micro-L. WHO categories for disease severity were used. Demographic profile, absolute lymphocyte counts and co-morbidities were recorded. Pearson's Chi Square test was used to see association between lymphopenia and disease severity as well as disease outcome. Regression analysis was used to see whether lymphopenia would predict disease severity. Comparison of means of absolute lymphocyte count in different disease categories was done by ANOVA. Tukey's test range was then used to find the means different from each other. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 40 ± 12.3 years. Majority patients (73.9%) were asymptomatic. Lymphopenia was present in 6.9% of total patients. Significant association was found between lymphopenia and disease severity as well as lymphopenia and mortality (< 0.001). Lymphopenia was found to be a predictor of disease severity using regression analysis (< 0.001). Comparison of mean absolute lymphocyte count was significant among disease severity categories (< 0.001). On post-hoc analysis, difference in absolute lymphocyte count was significant moving from asymptomatic to mild and then moderate disease category. However no significant difference was seen in absolute lymphocyte count between moderate and severe categories. CONCLUSION: Results are compatible with worldwide studies and lymphopenia is valid as a marker of disease severity and mortality.

7.
Pak J Med Sci ; 37(5): 1435-1439, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify association of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Total 720 Corona Virus RT-PCR positive patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were admitted to KRL Hospital Islamabad from April 2020 to August 2020. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was recorded on admission and then serially. NLR cut-off was 3.0. WHO categories for disease severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe) were used. Demographic profile, symptoms and co-morbidities were recorded. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 40 ± 12.4 years with 96% being males. Majority patients (76.5%) were asymptomatic. Amongst symptoms, fever was the most common symptom. Diabetes mellitus was most common recorded co-morbidity. The mean NLR 2.5 ± 2.78. Significant association was found between NLR and disease severity as well as mortality. Difference in mean NLR amongst disease severity categories was also significant. CONCLUSION: Results are compatible with worldwide studies and NLR is a cheap and easily available marker of disease severity and mortality.

8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100525, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed outcome of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 following treatment with convalescent plasma (CP) and the association with IgG levels in transfused CP. METHODS: A prospective cohort study. Primary outcome was improvement at day 14 defined as alive, not on mechanical ventilation, and moderate, mild, or recovered from COVID-19. Antibody levels in CP units were unknown at the time of treatment. IgG against the spike protein S1 was subsequently measured by ELISA. Neutralizing antibodies titers were determined in a subset. Outcome was assessed in relation to the mean antibody level transfused to the patients (≤4.0 versus >4.0). FINDINGS: Of 49 patients, 11 (22.4%) had moderate, 38 (77.6%) had severe disease, 28 were ventilated. At day 14, 24 (49.0%) patients improved, 9 (18.4%) died, and 13 (26.5%) were ventilated. In 14/98 (14.3%) CP units IgG was < 1.1 (cutoff calibration) and in 60 (61.2%) ≤4.0. IgG level and neutralizing antibody titer were correlated (0.85 p < 0.001). In patients receiving ≤4.0 antibody levels, 11/30 improved (36.7%) versus 13/19 (68.4%) in patients receiving >4.0 odds ratio (OR) 0.267 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.079-0.905], P = 0.030. In patients diagnosed >10 days prior to treatment, 4/14 (22.4%) improved in the ≤4.0 antibody group, versus 6/7 (85.7%) in the >4.0 antibody group, OR 0.048 (95% CI, 0.004-0.520), P = 0.007. No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with CP with higher levels of IgG against S1 may benefit patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. IgG against S1 level in CP predicts neutralization antibodies titers.

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