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2.
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; 8(3):279-313, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024695

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, continues to be a global concern. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are an important element of the fight against COVID-19 in China. The combined application of TCMs and conventional medicines in the treatment of COVID-19 has achieved beneficial results, including the resolution of symptoms, prevention of disease progression, and reduced mortality. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current applications of TCMs with respect to COVID-19, as well as update the preclinical and clinical research, including chemical analysis, molecular mechanisms, quality control, drug development, and studies of clinical efficacy. The expectation is that a better understanding of the roles of TCMs against COVID-19 will improve the response to COVID-19, both in China and globally. © 2022 World Journal of Traditonal Chinese Medicine Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

3.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 410, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993380

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed huge burdens to the whole world, seriously affecting global economic growth, and threatening people's lives and health. At present, some therapeutic regimens are available for treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia, including antiviral therapy, immunity therapy, anticoagulant therapy, and others. Among them, injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is currently a promising therapy. The preclinical studies and clinical trials using MSCs and small extracellular vesicles derived from MSCs (MSC-sEVs) in treating COVID-19 were summarized. Then, the molecular mechanism, feasibility, and safety of treating COVID-19 with MSCs and MSC-sEVs were also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Extracellular Vesicles , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans
4.
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics ; 35(3):407-412, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1972753

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) relies on the central molecular machine RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for the viral replication and transcription. Remdesivir at the template strand has been shown to effectively inhibit the RNA synthesis in SARS-CoV-2 RdRp by deactivating not only the complementary UTP incorporation but also the next nucleotide addition. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the second inhibitory point remains unclear. In this work, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations and demonstrated that such inhibition has not directly acted on the nucleotide addition at the active site. Instead, the translocation of Remdesivir from +1 to-1 site is hindered thermodynamically as the post-Translocation state is less stable than the pre-Translocation state due to the motif B residue G683. Moreover, another conserved residue S682 on motif B further hinders the dynamic translocation of Remdesivir due to the steric clash with the 1′-cyano substitution. Overall, our study has unveiled an alternative role of motif B in mediating the translocation when Remdesivir is present in the template strand and complemented our understanding about the inhibitory mechanisms exerted by Remdesivir on the RNA synthesis in SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. © 2022 Chinese Physical Society.

5.
Chemical Engineering Journal Advances ; : 100374, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1966422

ABSTRACT

Modeling complex chemical reaction networks has inspired a considerable body of research, and a variety of approaches to modeling nonlinear pathways are being developed. Here, a general methodology is formulated to convert an arbitrary reaction network into its equivalent electrical analog. The topological equivalence of the electrical analog is mathematically established for unimolecular reactions using Kirchoff's laws. The modular approach is generalized to bimolecular and nonlinear autocatalytic reactions. It is then applied to simulate the dynamics of nonlinear autocatalytic networks without making simplifying assumptions, such as use of the quasi-steady state/Bodenstein approximation and the assumption of an absence of nonlinear steps in the intermediates. This is among the few papers that quantify the dynamics of a nonlinear chemical reaction network by generating and simulating an electrical network analog. As a realistic biological application, the early phase of the spread of COVID-19 is modeled as an autocatalytic process, and the predicted dynamics are in good agreement with experimental data. The rate-limiting step of viral transmission is identified, leading to novel mechanistic insights.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934093

ABSTRACT

Tissue injury and inflammatory response trigger the development of fibrosis in various diseases. It has been recognized that both innate and adaptive immune cells are important players with multifaceted functions in fibrogenesis. The activated immune cells produce various cytokines, modulate the differentiation and functions of myofibroblasts via diverse molecular mechanisms, and regulate fibrotic development. The immune cells exhibit differential functions during different stages of fibrotic diseases. In this review, we summarized recent advances in understanding the roles of immune cells in regulating fibrotic development and immune-based therapies in different disorders and discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms with a focus on mTOR and JAK-STAT signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Fibrosis/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Signal Transduction/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/therapy , Humans , Lymphopoiesis/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Myofibroblasts/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
7.
iScience ; 25(8): 104685, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914522

ABSTRACT

Noncoding RNAs are important regulators of mucoinflammatory response, but little is known about the contribution of airway long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in COVID-19. RNA-seq analysis showed a more than 4-fold increased expression of IL-6, ICAM-1, CXCL-8, and SCGB1A1 inflammatory factors; MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins; and SPDEF, FOXA3, and FOXJ1 transcription factors in COVID-19 patient nasal samples compared with uninfected controls. A lncRNA on antisense strand to ICAM-1 or LASI was induced 2-fold in COVID-19 patients, and its expression was directly correlated with viral loads. A SARS-CoV-2-infected 3D-airway model largely recapitulated these clinical findings. RNA microscopy and molecular modeling indicated a possible interaction between viral RNA and LASI lncRNA. Notably, blocking LASI lncRNA reduced the SARS-CoV-2 replication and suppressed MUC5AC mucin levels and associated inflammation, and select LASI-dependent miRNAs (e.g., let-7b-5p and miR-200a-5p) were implicated. Thus, LASI lncRNA represents an essential facilitator of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated airway mucoinflammatory response.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894590

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The co-morbidities contribute to the inferior prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Recent reports suggested that the higher co-morbidity rate between COVID-19 and heart failure (HF) leads to increased mortality. However, the common pathogenic mechanism between them remained elusive. Here, we aimed to reveal underlying molecule mechanisms and genetic correlation between COVID-19 and HF, providing a new perspective on current clinical management for patients with co-morbidity. METHODS: The gene expression profiles of HF (GSE26887) and COVID-19 (GSE147507) were retrieved from the GEO database. After identifying the common differentially expressed genes (|log2FC| > 1 and adjusted P < 0.05), integrated analyses were performed, namely, enrichment analyses, protein-protein interaction network, module construction, critical gene identification, and functional co-expression analysis. The performance of critical genes was validation combining hierarchical clustering, correlation, and principal component analysis in external datasets (GSE164805 and GSE9128). Potential transcription factors and miRNAs were obtained from the JASPER and RegNetwork repository used to construct co-regulatory networks. The candidate drug compounds in potential genetic link targets were further identified using the DSigDB database. RESULTS: The alteration of 12 genes was identified as a shared transcriptional signature, with the role of immune inflammatory pathway, especially Toll-like receptor, NF-kappa B, chemokine, and interleukin-related pathways that primarily emphasized in response to SARS-CoV-2 complicated with HF. Top 10 critical genes (TLR4, TLR2, CXCL8, IL10, STAT3, IL1B, TLR1, TP53, CCL20, and CXCL10) were identified from protein-protein interaction with topological algorithms. The unhealthy microbiota status and gut-heart axis in co-morbidity were identified as potential disease roads in bridging pathogenic mechanism, and lipopolysaccharide acts as a potential marker for monitoring HF during COVID-19. For transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, regulation networks tightly coupling with both disorders were constructed, and significant regulator signatures with high interaction degree, especially FOXC1, STAT3, NF-κB1, miR-181, and miR-520, were detected to regulate common differentially expressed genes. According to genetic links targets, glutathione-based antioxidant strategy combined with muramyl dipeptide-based microbe-derived immunostimulatory therapies was identified as promising anti-COVID-19 and anti-HF therapeutics. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified shared transcriptomic and corresponding regulatory signatures as emerging therapeutic targets and detected a set of pharmacologic agents targeting genetic links. Our findings provided new insights for underlying pathogenic mechanisms between COVID-19 and HF.

9.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(5)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853315

ABSTRACT

Introduction. As a novel global epidemic, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 brought great suffering and disaster to mankind. Recently, although significant progress has been made in vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, there are still no drugs for treating COVID-19. It is well known that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has achieved excellent efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. As a treasure-house of natural drugs, Chinese herbs offer a promising prospect for discovering anti-COVID-19 drugs.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We proposed that Rhei Radix et Rhizome-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (RS) may have potential value in the treatment of COVID-19 patients by regulating immune response, protecting the cardiovascular system, inhibiting the production of inflammatory factors, and blocking virus invasion and replication processes.Aim. We aimed to explore the feasibility and molecular mechanisms of RS against COVID-19, to provide a reference for basic research and clinical applications.Methodology. Through literature mining, it is found that a Chinese herbal pair, RS, has potential anti-COVID-19 activity. In this study, we analysed the feasibility of RS against COVID-19 by high-throughput molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we predicted the molecular mechanisms of RS against COVID-19 based on network pharmacology.Results. We proved the feasibility of RS anti-COVID-19 by literature mining, virtual docking and molecular dynamics simulations, and found that angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and 3C-like protease (3 CL pro) were also two critical targets for RS against COVID-19. In addition, we predicted the molecular mechanisms of RS in the treatment of COVID-19, and identified 29 main ingredients, 21 potential targets and 16 signalling pathways. Rhein, eupatin, (-)-catechin, aloe-emodin may be important active ingredients in RS. ALB, ESR1, EGFR, HMOX1, CTSL, and RHOA may be important targets against COVID-19. Platelet activation, renin secretion, ras signalling pathway, chemokine signalling pathway, and human cytomegalovirus infection may be important signalling pathways against COVID-19.Conclusion. RS plays a key role in the treatment of COVID-19, which may be closely related to immune regulation, cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammation, virus invasion and replication processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19 Vaccines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Feasibility Studies , Flavonoids , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rhizome , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Kexue Tongbao/Chinese Science Bulletin ; 67(10):933-947, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1793661

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused the outbreak to spread on a global scale due to its high transmission rate and ineffective prevention and treatment. The disease is caused by a new type of single-stranded RNA coronavirus, which was named SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. As of November 2021, more than 210 countries and regions around the world have been affected by the coronavirus, and a total of more than 240 million confirmed cases have been reported worldwide, and the death toll has exceeded 4 million. Although the vaccine immunizations have alleviated the COVID-19 pandemic to some extent, however from the perspective of clinical treatment, the development of effective antiviral therapeutics for COVID-19 remains urgent and long-term need. Remdesivir (Veklury, Gilead), which was approved by the US FDA in October 2020, is currently the only officially approved coronavirus polymerase inhibitor. However, the clinical efficacy of remdesivir for COVID-19 remains contentious, as the statistical differences in both mortality rate and clinical improvement between drug-treated and control groups were not clearly verified in several trials. Very recently following remdesivir, Merck announced the first effective antiviral pill against COVID-19 called molnupiravir, which has finished phase III clinical trials with proven efficacy to reduce the risk of hospitalizations and deaths by 50% in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. Based on this result, Merck received the first authorization from the UK (as of November 9, 2021). It is also known that one more antiviral pill developed by Pfizer with the compound code PF-07321332, is already in the final stages of trial data analysis, so it is expected that this will be the second orally available drug for authorization application in the coming few months. Despite the encouraging results achieved by Merck and Pfizer's scientists, the practical challenges and high attrition rates on new drug development remain a difficult reality for the medicinal chemists and pharmaceutical scientists. In this article, we provide an overview of the research hotspots of the development for COVID-19 treatment agents, especially on the representative antiviral compounds that have potential inhibitory effects against SARS-CoV-2. By focusing on specific biotargets of SARS-CoV-2 and their drug molecules, mechanism strategies, and their clinical testing results, we summarize the opportunities and challenges faced by drug developers in stopping the COVID-19 pandemic. This review further provides the current status on development of COVID-19 chemotherapeutics and outlines some future perspectives on potential innovation strategies to mitigate the risk in the new drug discovery. © 2022, Science Press. All right reserved.

11.
Theranostics ; 12(6): 2722-2740, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780236

ABSTRACT

Aging is a natural process, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, i.e., aging-related diseases, such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, Alzheimer disease, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, obesity and other metabolic abnormalities. Metformin, the most widely used antidiabetic drug, has been reported to delay aging and display protective effect on attenuating progression of various aging-related diseases by impacting key hallmark events of aging, including dysregulated nutrient sensing, loss of proteostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered intercellular communication, telomere attrition, genomic instability, epigenetic alterations, stem cell exhaustion and cellular senescence. In this review, we provide updated information and knowledge on applications of metformin in prevention and treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. We focus our discussions on the roles and underlying mechanisms of metformin in modulating aging and treating aging-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Metformin , Aging/pathology , Cellular Senescence , Genomic Instability , Humans , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Telomere
12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760315

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of antibiotic resistance and lack of effective drugs for treating infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria in animal and human medicine have forced us to find new antibacterial strategies. Natural products have served as powerful therapeutics against bacterial infection and are still an important source for the discovery of novel antibacterial drugs. Curcumin, an important constituent of turmeric, is considered safe for oral consumption to treat bacterial infections. Many studies showed that curcumin exhibited antibacterial activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial action of curcumin involves the disruption of the bacterial membrane, inhibition of the production of bacterial virulence factors and biofilm formation, and the induction of oxidative stress. These characteristics also contribute to explain how curcumin acts a broad-spectrum antibacterial adjuvant, which was evidenced by the markedly additive or synergistical effects with various types of conventional antibiotics or non-antibiotic compounds. In this review, we summarize the antibacterial properties, underlying molecular mechanism of curcumin, and discuss its combination use, nano-formulations, safety, and current challenges towards development as an antibacterial agent. We hope that this review provides valuable insight, stimulates broader discussions, and spurs further developments around this promising natural product.

13.
Virol J ; 19(1): 49, 2022 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745442

ABSTRACT

The newly identified Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a global health emergency (COVID-19) because of its rapid spread and high mortality. Since the virus epidemic, many pathogenic mechanisms have been revealed, and virus-related vaccines have been successfully developed and applied in clinical practice. However, the pandemic is still developing, and new mutations are still emerging. Virus pathogenicity is closely related to the immune status of the host. As innate immunity is the body's first defense against viruses, understanding the inhibitory effect of SARS-CoV-2 on innate immunity is of great significance for determining the target of antiviral intervention. This review summarizes the molecular mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 escapes the host immune system, including suppressing innate immune production and blocking adaptive immune priming. Here, on the one hand, we devoted ourselves to summarizing the combined action of innate immune cells, cytokines, and chemokines to fine-tune the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the related immunopathogenesis. On the other hand, we focused on the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 on innate immunity, including enhancing viral adhesion, increasing the rate of virus invasion, inhibiting the transcription and translation of immune-related mRNA, increasing cellular mRNA degradation, and inhibiting protein transmembrane transport. This review on the underlying mechanism should provide theoretical support for developing future molecular targeted drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Nevertheless, SARS-CoV-2 is a completely new virus, and people's understanding of it is in the process of rapid growth, and various new studies are also being carried out. Although we strive to make our review as inclusive as possible, there may still be incompleteness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate
14.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine, BIBM 2021 ; : 2179-2186, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1722861

ABSTRACT

The overall global death rate for COVID-19 patients has escalated to 2.13% after more than a year of worldwide spread. Despite strong research on the infection pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms involved in a fatal course are still poorly understood. Machine learning constitutes a perfect tool to develop algorithms for predicting a patient's hospitalization outcome at triage. This paper presents a probabilistic model, referred to as a mortality risk indicator, able to assess the risk of a fatal outcome for new patients. The derivation of the model was done over a database of 2,547 patients from the first COVID-19 wave in Spain. Model learning was tackled through a five multistart configuration that guaranteed good generalization power and low variance error estimators. The training algorithm made use of a class weighting correction to account for the mortality class imbalance and two regularization learners, logistic and lasso regressors. Outcome probabilities were adjusted to obtain cost-sensitive predictions by minimizing the type II error. Our mortality indicator returns both a binary outcome and a three-stage mortality risk level. The estimated AUC across multistarts reaches an average of 0.907. At the optimal cutoff for the binary outcome, the model attains an average sensitivity of 0.898, with a 0.745 specificity. An independent set of 121 patients later released from the same consortium attained perfect sensitivity (1), with a 0.759 specificity when predicted by our model. Best performance for the indicator is achieved when the prediction's time horizon is within two weeks since admission to hospital. In addition to a strong predictive performance, the set of selected features highlights the relevance of several underrated molecules in COVID-19 research, such as blood eosinophils, bilirubin, and urea levels. © 2021 IEEE.

15.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 825667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715031

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a clinically common disease caused by many factors, which will lead to lung function decline and even respiratory failure. Jingyin granule has been confirmed to have anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects by former studies, and has been recommended for combating H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1) infection and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. At present, studies have shown that patients with severe COVID-19 infection developed lung fibrotic lesions. Although Jingyin granule can improve symptoms in COVID-19 patients, no study has yet reported whether it can attenuate the process of PF. Here, we explored the underlying mechanism of Jingyin granule against PF by network pharmacology combined with in vitro experimental validation. In the present study, the active ingredients as well as the corresponding action targets of Jingyin granule were firstly collected by TCMSP and literature data, and the disease target genes of PF were retrieved by disease database. Then, the common targets were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses, and then a PPI network and an ingredient-target network were constructed. Next, UPLC-MS was used to isolate and identify selected representative components in Jingyin granule. Finally, LPS was used to induce the A549 cell fibrosis model to verify the anti-PF effect of Jingyin granule in vitro. Our results indicated that STAT3, JUN, RELA, MAPK3, TNF, MAPK1, IL-6, and AKT1 were core targets of action and bound with good affinity to selected components, and Jingyin granule may alleviate PF progression by Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK2/STAT3), the mammalian nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. Overall, these results provide future therapeutic strategies into the mechanism study of Jingyin granule on PF.

16.
2021 International Conference on Biomedical Ontologies, ICBO 2021 ; 3073:116-121, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695372

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is found to be common among COVID-19 patients. In this study, we performed extensive literature mining and used the BioGRID COVID-19 interaction data to bridge the mechanistic and molecular link between COVID-19 and AKI. DAVID GO enrichment analysis of the BioGRID data allowed for further filtration of COVID-19 related interactors by their relevance to untoward kidney manifestations. Key physiological processes involved in this pathway include Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS) activation, complement activation, and most importantly, systemic inflammation. Discovered interactors like CD147, CD209, CypA, and MASP2 were found to be heavily implicated in the mentioned processes. The Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO) was used to represent our analyzed results, leading to further understanding of the COVID-19 associated AKI mechanisms. © 2021 Copyright for this paper by its authors.

17.
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) ; 62(2): 54-67, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594077

ABSTRACT

Intrauterine viruses can infect the decidua and placenta and cause adverse effects on the fetus during gestation. This review discusses the contribution of various viral infections to miscarriage and the molecular mechanisms by which viruses can cause devastating effects on healthy fetuses and induce miscarriage. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as newly emerged coronavirus was considered here, due to the concerns about its role during pregnancy and inducing miscarriage, as well. In this narrative review, an extensive literature search was conducted to find all studies investigating viral infections in miscarriage and their molecular mechanisms published over the past 20 years. The results of various studies investigating the roles of 20 viral infections in miscarriage are presented. Then, the mechanisms of pregnancy loss in viral infections were addressed, including alteration of trophoblast invasion and placental dysfunction, inducing excessive maternal immune response, and inducing apoptosis in the placental tissue. Viruses may cause pregnancy loss through different mechanisms and our knowledge about these mechanisms can be helpful for controlling or preventing viral infections and achieving a successful pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Virus Diseases , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/complications
18.
J Xenobiot ; 11(4): 197-214, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572541

ABSTRACT

With the advancements of science, antibiotics have emerged as an amazing gift to the human and animal healthcare sectors for the treatment of bacterial infections and other diseases. However, the evolution of new bacterial strains, along with excessive use and reckless consumption of antibiotics have led to the unfolding of antibiotic resistances to an excessive level. Multidrug resistance is a potential threat worldwide, and is escalating at an extremely high rate. Information related to drug resistance, and its regulation and control are still very little. To interpret the onset of antibiotic resistances, investigation on molecular analysis of resistance genes, their distribution and mechanisms are urgently required. Fine-tuned research and resistance profile regarding ESKAPE pathogen is also necessary along with other multidrug resistant bacteria. In the present scenario, the interaction of bacterial infections with SARS-CoV-2 is also crucial. Tracking and in-silico analysis of various resistance mechanisms or gene/s are crucial for overcoming the problem, and thus, the maintenance of relevant databases and wise use of antibiotics should be promoted. Creating awareness of this critical situation among individuals at every level is important to strengthen the fight against this fast-growing calamity. The review aimed to provide detailed information on antibiotic resistance, its regulatory molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistance, and other relevant information. In this article, we tried to focus on the correlation between antimicrobial resistance and the COVID-19 pandemic. This study will help in developing new interventions, potential approaches, and strategies to handle the complexity of antibiotic resistance and prevent the incidences of life-threatening infections.

19.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(6)2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512771

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to review major depression, including its types, epidemiology, association with different diseases status and treatments, as well as its correlation with the current COVID-19 pandemic. Mental depression is a common disorder that affects most individuals at one time or another. During depression, there are changes in mood and behavior, accompanied by feelings of defeat, hopelessness, or even suicidal thoughts. Depression has a direct or indirect relation with a number of other diseases including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, epilepsy, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. In addition, antidepressant drugs have several side effects including sedation, increased weight, indigestion, sexual dysfunction, or a decrease in blood pressure. Stopping medication may cause a relapse of the symptoms of depression and pose a risk of attempted suicide. The pandemic of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of individuals, including patients, individuals contacting patients and medical staff with a number of mental disorders that may adversely affect the immune ability of their bodies. Some of the drugs currently included in the protocols for treating COVID-19 may negatively affect the mental health of patients. Evidence accumulated over the years indicates that serotonin (5HT) deficiencies and norepinephrine (NE) in the brain can lead to mental depression. Drugs that increase levels of NE and 5HT are commonly used in the treatment of depression. The common reason for mood disorders, including mania and bipolar disease are not clearly understood. It is assumed that hyperactivity in specific parts of the brain and excessive activity of neurotransmitters may be involved. Early diagnosis and developing new treatment strategies are essential for the prevention of the severe consequences of depression. In addition, extensive research should be directed towards the investigation of the mental health disturbances occurring during and/or after COVID-19 infection. This may lead to the incorporation of a suitable antidepressant into the current treatment protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Humans , Oxidative Stress
20.
Metabol Open ; 12: 100137, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466790

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is currently the leading threat to public health and a huge challenge to the healthcare systems across the globe and caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Obesity, a state of chronic inflammation, and diabetes mellitus are risk factors for severe SARS-CoV-2. Metformin is one of the most commonly used antidiabetic medications that displayed immunomodulatory activity through AMP-activated protein kinase. Metformin has sex-specific immunomodulatory and cytokine-reducing activities. Therefore, this review aimed to summarize the protective roles of Metformin and its possible molecular mechanisms for use in COVID-19 patients. To include studies, publications related to Metformin and its possible molecular mechanisms for COVID-19 were searched from the databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, Elsevier, Google Scholar, and SCOPUS, via English key terms. Maintaining proper blood glucose levels using oral antidiabetic drugs like Metformin reduced the detrimental effects of COVID-19 by different possible mechanisms such as Metformin-mediated anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities; effect on viral entry and ACE2 stability; inhibition of virus infection; alters virus survival and endosomal pH; mTOR inhibition; and influence on gut microbiota. Fascinatingly, in diabetic patients with COVID-19, treatment with Metformin was associated with a noticeable reduction in mortality rates and disease severity among infected patients. Metformin was comprehensively investigated for its anti-inflammatory, antiviral capabilities, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant, which would elucidate its capability to confer vascular and cardiopulmonary protection in COVID-19.

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