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1.
Journal of Clinical Virology ; : 105382, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2210736

ABSTRACT

Background : Tixagevimab-cilgavimab is used for pre-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients, though in vitro data has shown reduced neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants. Methods : We performed genomic sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from patients diagnosed with COVID-19 following tixagevimab-cilgavimab. Resistance-associated substitutions were used to generate a predicted phenotypic susceptibility analysis to tixagevimab-cilgavimab and bebtelovimab. Clinical data collected from these patients included SARS-CoV-2 immunization status, COVID-19–directed therapies, and outcomes. Results : SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing was performed in 25 patients. SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 was the most common identified subvariant. All patients had viral isolates with spike codon substitutions associated with reduced susceptibility to tixagevimab-cilgavimab;their predicted phenotypic analysis showed a >2-fold reduced susceptibility to tixagevimab-cilgavimab. Two patients had viral isolates with spike codon substitutions (K444N and G446D) associated with highly reduced susceptibility to bebtelovimab, although all the viral isolates had <2-fold reduced susceptibility based on predicted phenotypic analysis. Sixteen patients received rescue therapy with bebtelovimab, but one patient with BA.2 subvariant harboring K444N mutation died of COVID-19-related complications. Five patients received other COVID-19 therapies and survived. Four had mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 with an uncomplicated course despite not receiving any additional therapy. Discussion : Multiple SARS-CoV-2 Omicron spike codon substitutions that correlated with reduced susceptibility to tixagevimab-cilgavimab were identified in patients with COVID-19 after receiving this monoclonal antibody. Most patients had an uncomplicated course. The identification of spike codon substitutions conferring resistance to bebtelovimab highlights the importance of performing genomic surveillance to identify new resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants.

2.
Infektsionnye Bolezni ; 20(3):129-132, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2217852

ABSTRACT

The lack of effective etiotropic therapy is a serious challenge in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The recent emergence of a new class of medications neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein allows to partially solve this problem. This article presents a clinical case of a patient with an increased risk of COVID-19 complications (paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, atherogenic dyslipidemia, impaired carbohydrate tolerance) who was treated with 600 mg casirivimab and 600 mg imdevimab by intravenous infusion. A significant improvement in the patient's well-being was noted within the first 24 hours: normalization of body temperature, stool, reduction of weakness, disappearance of arthralgia and myalgia. After 48 hours, a negative test result for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was obtained, which altogether made it possible to state the recovery. There were no adverse events during and after therapy. The casirivimab and imdevimab monoclonal antibody combination may be considered as a promising etiotropic treatment for COVID-19. Copyright © 2022, Dynasty Publishing House.

3.
Viruses-Basel ; 14(12), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2216889

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the onset of the pandemic, rapid antigen tests have quickly proved themselves to be an accurate and accessible diagnostic platform. The initial (and still most commonly used antigen tests) for COVID-19 diagnosis were constructed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid protein (NP). These mAbs are able to bind SARS-CoV-2 NP due to high homology between the two viruses. However, since first being identified in 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has continuously mutated, and a multitude of variants have appeared. These mutations have an elevated risk of leading to possible diagnostic escape when using tests produced with SARS-CoV-derived mAbs. Here, we established a library of 18 mAbs specific to SARS-CoV-2 NP and used two of these mAbs (1CV7 and 1CV14) to generate a prototype antigen-detection lateral flow immunoassay (LFI). A side-by-side analysis of the 1CV7/1CV14 LFI and the commercially available BinaxNOW (TM) COVID-19 Antigen CARD was performed. Results indicated the 1CV7/1CV14 LFI outperformed the BinaxNOW (TM) test in the detection of BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.5 Omicron sub-variants when testing remnant RT-PCR positive patient nasopharyngeal swabs diluted in viral transport media.

4.
Journal of Fungi ; 9(1):103, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2216489

ABSTRACT

Candida auris is a multi-drug-resistant fungal pathogen that can survive outside the host and can easily spread and colonize the healthcare environment, medical devices, and human skin. C. auris causes serious life-threatening infections (up to 60% mortality) in immunosuppressed patients staying in such contaminated healthcare facilities. Some isolates of C. auris are resistant to virtually all clinically available antifungal drugs. Therefore, alternative therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Using in silico protein modeling and analysis, we identified a highly immunogenic and surface-exposed epitope that is conserved between C. albicans hyphal-regulated protein (Cal-Hyr1p) and Hyr1p/Iff-like proteins in C. auris (Cau-HILp). We generated monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against this Cal-Hyr1p epitope, which recognized several clinical isolates of C. auris representing all four clades. An anti-Hyr1p MAb prevented biofilm formation and enhanced opsonophagocytic killing of C. auris by macrophages. When tested for in vivo efficacy, anti-Hyr1p MAb protected 55% of mice against lethal systemic C. auris infection and showed significantly less fungal burden. Our study is highly clinically relevant and provides an effective alternative therapeutic option to treat infections due to MDR C. auris.

5.
Canadian Medical Association. Journal ; 195(3):E127-E128, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2214846

ABSTRACT

The Omicron subvariant XBB.1.5 rapidly spreading in the US and Europe is the most transmissible SARS-CoV-2 strain to date, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Meanwhile, a concerning surge in COVID-19 in China appears to be driven by subvariants BA.5.2 and BF.7. XBB.1.5 was first detected in the US in October, where it has quickly overtaken other circulating strains. The subvariant evolved from XBB, a recombinant or fusion of two Omicron variants, which spread widely in Singapore and India this past fall. XBB.1.5 now accounts for more than 40% of new COVID-19 cases in the US, including 75% of those in the northeast of the country, up from just 1.3% only a month ago. Hospitalizations are also trending upward, although it's still unclear how much that's related to the new subvariant versus recent holidays.

6.
AAPS Open ; 9(1):3, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2214641

ABSTRACT

Delivering customer-centric product presentations for biotherapeutics, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), represents a long-standing and paramount area of engagement for pharmaceutical scientists. Activities include improving experience with the dosing procedure, reducing drug administration-related expenditures, and ultimately shifting parenteral treatments outside of a controlled healthcare institutional setting. In times of increasingly cost-constrained markets and reinforced with the coronavirus pandemic, this discipline of "Product Optimization” in healthcare has gained momentum and changed from a nice-to-have into a must.This review summarizes latest trends in the healthcare ecosystem that inform key strategies for developing customer-centric products, including the availability of a wider array of sustainable drug delivery options and treatment management plans that support dosing in a flexible care setting. Three disease area archetypes with varying degree of implementation of customer-centric concepts are introduced to highlight relevant market differences and similarities. Namely, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, and oncology have been chosen due to differences in the availability of subcutaneously dosed and ready-to-use self-administration products for mAb medicines and their follow-on biologics.Different launch scenarios are described from a manufacturer's perspective highlighting the necessity of platform approaches. To unfold the full potential of customer-centric care, value-based healthcare provider reimbursement schemes that incentivize the efficiency of care need to be broadly implemented.

7.
New England Journal of Medicine ; 388(4), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2212145

ABSTRACT

Covid Vaccines — Playing the Long GameIn this first episode of "Intention to Treat,” Journal editor-in-chief Eric Rubin and his colleague at the FDA Vaccine Advisory Committee, Paul Offit, consider the achievements, limitations, and expectations of Covid vaccines.

8.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 5962-5965, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2210124

ABSTRACT

Fever is a typical symptom of most infectious diseases. While prolonged fever may be clinically undesirable, mild reversible fever (<39℃, 312 K) can potentiate the immune responses against pathogens. Here, using molecular dynamics and free energy calculations, we investigated the effect of febrile temperatures (38℃ to 40℃, 311 K to 313 K) on the immune complexes formed by the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. In analyzing the conformational dynamics of the interactions between the antibodies and the spike protein under different thermal conditions, we found that, at mild fever temperatures (311-312 K), the binding affinities of the two antibodies improve when compared to the physiological body temperature (37℃, 310 K). Furthermore, only at 312 K, antibodies exert distinct mechanical effects on the receptor binding domains of the spike protein that may hinder SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Enhanced antibody binding affinity may thus be obtained using appropriate temperature conditions.

9.
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives ; 11(1), 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2173415

ABSTRACT

ABBV-47D11 is a neutralizing monoclonal antibody that targets a mutationally conserved hydrophobic pocket distal to the ACE2 binding site of SARS-CoV-2. This first-in-human safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral pharmacodynamic assessment in patients with COVID-19 provide an initial evaluation of this antibody that may allow further development. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled single ascending dose study of ABBV-47D11 (180, 600, or 2400 mg) as an intravenous infusion, was in hospitalized and non-hospitalized (confined) adults with mild to moderate COVID-19. Primary outcomes were grade 3 or higher study drug-related adverse events and infusion-related reactions. Secondary outcomes were pharmacokinetic parameters and concentration-time profiles to Day 29, immunogenicity (anti-drug antibodies), and antiviral activity (change in RT-PCR viral load) from baseline to Days 15 and 29. ABBV-47D11 single doses up to 2400 mg were safe and tolerated and no safety signals were identified. The pharmacokinetics of ABBV-47D11 were linear and showed dose-proportional increases in serum concentrations with ascending doses. The exploratory anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity revealed a reduction of viral load at and above the 600 mg dose of ABBV-47D11 regardless of patient demographics and baseline characteristics, however;because of the high inter-individual variability and small sample size a statistical significance was not reached. There is potential for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity with ABBV-47D11 doses of 600 mg or higher, which could be evaluated in future clinical trials designed and powered to assess viral load reductions and clinical benefit.

10.
Pediatric pulmonology ; 02, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2173398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asthma guidelines have recommended to continue treatment with biologics during COVID-19 pandemic. However, continuation of treatment with biologics in patients with SARS-CoV-2 has been little investigated. OBJECTIVE(S): To assess the safety of biologics in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHOD(S): A pilot, monocentre, prospective study. Patients aged 12 years old and older with severe asthma on treatment with biologics and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. Patients were followed-up with periodic calls at different time points up to 3 months to detect any adverse effect and its relationship with biologic treatment according to the Naranjo Adverse Probability Scale (NAPS). Severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinical outcome were also assessed. RESULT(S): Overall, we included 21 patients (10 on therapy with omalizumab, 9 with dupilumab and 2 with mepolizumab). Only a patient reported 2 local adverse events. No other adverse event was reported. Twenty out of 21 patients had a mild COVID-19 course and no adverse outcome was observed. CONCLUSION(S): we showed that the scheduled dose of the biologic therapy can be administered safely on time in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as the treatment did not result in adverse events or outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Hematol Oncol ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2172924

ABSTRACT

COVID19 in patients affected by lymphoma represents an important challenge because of the higher mortality rate. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (anti-S MoAbs) appear promising in this setting. We report a monocentric retrospective study including 176 patients affected by lymphoma which developed SARS-CoV-2 infection since the start of COVID19 pandemic. Overall, mortality was 13.1%, with a decreasing trend between first waves to the last wave of pandemic (18.5% vs. 9.4%, p 0.076). Patients receiving anti-S MoAbs (41.3%) showed inferior mortality rate (overall survival, OS 93.2% vs. 82.7%, p 0.025) with no serious toxicity, reduced documented pneumonia (26% vs. 33%, p 0.005), and reduced need of oxygen support (14.5% vs. 35.7%, p 0.003). Among patients who received 3 doses of vaccine, the employment of anti-COVID MoAbs showed a trend of superior survival versus those who did not receive Anti-S MoAbs (OS rates 97.3% vs. 84.2%, p 0.064). On multivariate analysis, active haematological disease (OS 72% (HR 2.49 CI 1.00-6.41), bendamustine exposure (OS 60% HR 4.2 CI 1.69-10.45) and at least one comorbidity (HR 6.53 CI 1.88-22.60) were independent prognostic factors for death. Our study confirms the adverse prognostic role of COVID-19 in lymphoma patients in presence of active disease, comorbidities and previous exposure to bendamustine. In our experience, anti-S MoAbs represented a therapeutic option in vaccinated patients.

12.
Romanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology ; 81:65-67, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2169459

ABSTRACT

Anticorpii joacă un rol esenţial în imunitatea antiinfecţioasă, fiind principalele biomolecule instrumentale pentru prevenirea sau modularea specifică a infecţiilor virale. Obiective. Studiul de faţă a urmărit actualizarea informaţiilor ştiinţifice privind anticorpii cu potenţial imunoprofilactic şi terapeutic în viroze de importanţă majoră pentru sănătatea publică (rabie, arboviroze, COVID-19, gripa cu tulpini înalt patogene), precum şi tehnologiile contemporane de obţinere a anticorpilor în laborator, pentru a fitestaţi şi utilizaţi în clinică. Materiale şi metode. Au fost studiate datele din literatura ştiinţifică de specialitate publicate în ultimii 10 ani, cu deosebire cele cu impact ştiinţific şi profesional de excelenţă (grupurile editoriale Nature, Science, Lancet, Elsevier, MDPI etc). Informaţiile au fost filtrate prin experienţa practică de lucru în domeniu a autorului, la nivel naţional şi internaţional. Rezultate şi discuţii. În prezent, pentru a genera anticorpi monoclonali, există o paletă largă de tehnologii care se utilizează în laborator: a) fuzionarea limfocitelor B cu linii de celule de mielom uman sau uman/murin;b) imortalizarea limfocitelor B prin transformare cu virusul Epstein-Barr;c) tehnologia denumită phage display care implică exprimarea regiunilor variabile (VH şi VL) ale imunoglobulinei G pe suprafaţa unor bacteriofagi, care sunt apoi selectaţi iterativ prin legarea la un antigen specific;d) tehnicile de clonare celulară prin sortarea celulelor B de memorie specifice pentru un antigen, cultivarea acestor in vitro cu activare antigen specifică, urmată de amplificarea genică şi clonarea regiunilor variabile ale lanţurilor grele şi uşoare, pornind de la o singură celulă B;ulterior regiunile clonate se exprimă în vectori specifici de expresie proteică. e) tehnologii bazate pe ADN şi ARN mesager. Pe de altă parte, se pot obţine in vitro anticorpi monoclonali, himerici, bispecifici, fragmente de anticorpi, cu proprietăţi funcţionale şi farmacologice particulare. Până la sfarşitul anului 2021 existau aproximativ 100 de tipuri de anticorpi aprobaţi pentru utilizări în clinica infecţiilor virale, la nivel mondial. Concluzii. Îmbunătăţirea şi apariţia noi abordări ale tehnologiilor de clonare celulară şi moleculară, precum şi industrializarea proceselor în condiţii automatizate, conduc la posibilitatea de a dezvolta anticorpi monoclonali cu înaltă eficienţă şi scurtarea considerabilă a timpului necesar de control şi evaluare a acestora pentru înregistrarea punerii pe piaţă. Utilizarea anticorpilor neutralizanţi rămâne una dintre cele mai promiţătoare opţiuni în lupta împotriva infecţiilor virale, fiind o decizie strategică în contextul apariţiei de noi epidemii sau al ameninţărilor bioteroriste. Sursa de finanţare: lucrări desfăşurate în cadrul proiectului PSCD/2022 - VIROMAB H, finanţat de Ministerul Apărării Naţionale.Alternate :Antibodies play an essential role in anti-infective immunity, being the main instrumental biomolecules for the specific prevention or modulation of viral infections. Objectives. The present study aimed to update scientific information regarding antibodies with immunoprophylactic and therapeutic potential in viroses of major importance for public health (rabies, arboviruses, COVID-19, influenza with highly pathogenic strains), as well as contemporary technologies for getting antibodies in the laboratory, in order to be tested and used in the clinic. Materials and methods. Data from specialized scientific literature published in the last 10 years were studied, especially those publications with excellent scientific and professional impact (publishing groups Nature, Science, Lancet, Elsevier, MDPI etc.). The information has been filtered through the author's practical work experience in the field, at national and international level. Results and discussion. Currently, to generate monoclonal antibodies, there is a wide range of te hnologies that are used in the laboratory: a) fusion of B lymphocytes with human or human/murine myeloma cell lines;b) immortalization of B lymphocytes by transformation with the Epstein-Barr virus;c) the phage display technology that involves the expression of the variable regions (VH and VL) of immunoglobulin G on the surface of some bacteriophages, which are then iteratively selected by binding to a specific antigen;d) cell cloning techniques by sorting memory B cells specific for an antigen, in vitro cell cultivation with specific antigen activation, followed by gene amplification and cloning of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (VH, VL) starting from a single B cell;subsequently the cloned regions are expressed in specific vectors. e) technologies based on DNA and messenger RNA. On the other hand, monoclonal, chimeric, bispecific antibodies, antibody fragments can be obtained in vitro, with particular functional and pharmacological properties. By the end of 2021 there were approximately 100 types of antibodies approved for use in the clinic of viral infections, worldwide. Conclusions. The improvement and the emergence of new approaches to cellular and molecular cloning technologies, as well as the industrialization of processes under automated conditions, lead to the possibility of developing monoclonal antibodies with high efficiency and the considerable shortening of the time required for their control and evaluation for market registration. The use of neutralizing antibodies remains one of the most promising options in the fight against viral infections, being a strategic decision in the context of the emergence of new epidemics or bioterrorist threats. Funding source: works carried out within the project PSCD/2022 - VIROMAB H, funded by the Ministry of National Defense.

13.
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics ; 44(8):49-50, 2022.
Article in French | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2167542

ABSTRACT

Emergency Use Authorization) pour le traitement intraveineux du Covid-19 léger a modéré chez les patients de > 12 ans et pesant > 40 kg qui présentent un risque élevé d'évolution vers une maladie sévere, y compris l'hospitalisation et le déces, pour lesquels les autres options thérapeutiques sont indisponibles ou inappropriées.1 Le bebtélovimab est actif contre le variant omicron du SARSCoV-2 ;le sotrovimab (VIR-7831) est le seul autre anticorps monoclonal actif contre omicron actuellement disponible pour traiter le Covid-19.2 DIRECTIVES DU NIH - Les directives du NIH recommandent que les patients ambulatoires a haut risque de > 12 ans et pesant > 40 kg qui présentent un Covid-19 léger a modéré reçoivent un traitement antiviral comprenant (par ordre de préférence) 5 jours de nirmatrelvir oral associé au ritonavir (Paxlovid), une perfusion unique de sotrovimab ou 3 jours de remdésivir intraveineux (Veklury). L'anticorps conserve une activité neutralisante complete in vitro contre les variants BA.1 et BA.2 (omicron) du virus.4 Ľadministration d'anticorps anti-SARS-CoV-2 a des patients ambulatoires a haut risque infectés par un variant sensible réduit les taux d'hospitalisation ou de déces dus au Covid-19.2-5-6 ÉTUDES CLINIQUES - L'autorisation du bebtélovimab était fondée sur des données de neutralisation in vitro et les résultats de trois cohortes d'une étude clinique de phase II a dose unique non publiée (BLAZE-4 ;résumée sur la fiche d'information de la FDA), qui portait sur un total de 706 patients ambulatoires présentant des symptômes de Covid-19 et chez qui un test de confirmation de l'infection par le 1. Quelques situations a haut risque de progression du Covid-191 * Âge > 65 ans * IMC > 25 kg/m2 (ou, chez les patients de 12 a 17 ans, IMC > 85e percentile pour l'âge et le sexe2) * Grossesse en cours ou récente * Maladie rénale chronique * Maladie hépatique chronique * Tabagisme actif ou ancien, ou abus de substances * Cancer * Tuberculose * Syndrome de Down * Diabete * Maladie cardiovasculaire * Hypertension arterielle * BPCO, asthme modéré ou sévere, ou autre maladie pulmonaire chronique * Maladie immunosuppressive ou traitement immunosuppresseur en cours * Anémie falciforme ou thalassémie * Maladie cardiaque congénitale ou acquise * Démence, troubles neurodéveloppementaux (par exemple, paralysie cérébrale) ou autre atteinte qui complique la situation médicale * Dépendance a une technologie médicale (p. ex. trachéotomie, gastrostomie ou ventilation en pression positive [non liée au Covid-19]) BPCO : bronchopneumopathie chronique obstructive ;IMC : indice de masse corporelle.

14.
Transfuze a Hematologie Dnes ; 28(4):195-201, 2022.
Article in Czech | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206917

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a life-threatening global pandemic disease that has led to high mortality for over two years. Elderly individuals with comorbidities and immunocompromised patients are particularly at risk. Scientific research efforts are therefore intensively focused on the development and optimization of COVID-19 treatment. Early treatment with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies has been shown to be effective both in vitro and in clinical practice in patients at high risk of disease progression to severe COVID-19. This paper summarizes the potential clinical benefits of the recently approved monoclonal antibody combination tixagevimab and cilgavimab for COVID-19 prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2022, Czech Medical Association J.E. Purkyne. All rights reserved.

15.
Health Science Journal ; 16(12):1-4, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2206344

ABSTRACT

According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), typical flu symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, headache, runny or stuffy nose, fatigue, and sometimes even vomiting and diarrhea [1]. Healthcare providers should follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations for infection control and the appropriate use of personal protective equipment [5]. Because some of the symptoms of influenza and COVID-19 are similar, it may be difficult to distinguish between the two respiratory diseases based on symptoms alone. [...]it is necessary to test for both viruses in anyone with symptoms of COVID-19 or influenza. [...]after the test is completed, place all the components into the plastic bag and tightly seal and dispose of according

16.
Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics ; 49(10):1827-1847, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2204240

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a serious threat to international public health. The SARS-COV-2 gene continues to mutate in COVID-19 outbreaks. Mutation mainly manifests in 3 forms: point mutation, gene recombination and epigenetic modification. Viral mutations are driven by multiple factors, with mutation rates modulated at 3 levels, the nature of virus, host-virus interactions and natural selection. Therefore, it is particularly important to strengthen the monitoring of the global novel coronavirus genome and the protection of immunosuppressed populations. In the early stage of virus evolution, the mutant strains exhibit greater transmissibility and less virulence than the wild-type strain, although 5 variants of concern (VOCs) showed different stability, transmission capacity, adaptability and pathogenicity. So physical interventions need to be further strengthened. As herd immunity is established, novel mutant strains tend to mutate against vaccines and antibodies. In that case, VOCs, especially the prevailing Omicron variant, bring challenges to the prevention and control of COVID-19 worldwide. The existing and potential prevention, diagnosis and treatment approaches for COVID-19 were summarized. In the vaccination part, the protective efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine against VOCs and the factors influencing the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine were analyzed. In the detection part, the detection methods based on nucleic acid, antigen and antibody were summarized in order to satisfy the requirements for point-of-care testing and timely recognition of novel variants. And in the treatment part, the potential therapeutic drugs and targets of SARS-CoV-2 were summarized. Drug targets are generally divided into extracellular targets and intracellular targets. In general, this review proposes possible countermeasures by analyzing the impact of mutations on global epidemic prevention and control, hoping to provide theoretical basis for possible large-scale epidemic prevention and control in the future.

17.
Canadian Medical Association. Journal ; 195(1):E19-E20, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2197242

ABSTRACT

Reduced immunity in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to large surges in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections this year, overwhelming pediatric hospitals. While RSV mostly causes mild, cold-like symptoms in older children and adults, it causes serious illness requiring hospitalization in roughly one in 56 otherwise healthy infants, according to European data published in Lancet Respiratory Medicine. The risk of severe disease is highest among premature infants and those with heart and lung disease. Severe illness can also occur in older adults and those with weakened immune systems or underlying heart and lung conditions.

18.
Science Advances ; 9(2):1-13, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2193381

ABSTRACT

The article presents a study which explores the identification of AXL as a co-receptor for human parvovirus B19 infection of human erythroid progenitors . It mentions that Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infects human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) and causes several hematological disorders and fetal hydrops.

19.
Immunology & Cell Biology ; 101(1):6-8, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2192652

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing type-I interferon autoantibodies are associated with delayed viral clearance and intensive care unit admission in patients with COVID-19. [1] Neutralizing type-I interferon autoantibodies are associated with delayed viral clearance and intensive care unit admission in patients with COVID-19. Given the recently appreciated role of B cells in MS, Marsh-Wakefield I et al i .[8] used mass cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing to create a clear picture of B-cell dysregulation concordant with MS relapse. [Extracted from the article]

20.
The New England Journal of Medicine ; 388(1):8, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2186523
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