Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 350
Filter
1.
European Journal of Human Genetics ; 31(Supplement 1):706, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244996

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives: The broad spectrum of clinical manifestations from SARS-COV-2 infection and observed risk factors for severe disease highlight the importance of understanding molecular mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 associated disease pathogenesis. Research studies have identified a large number of host proteins that play roles in viral entry, innate immune response, or immune signalling during infection. The ability to interrogate subsets of these genes simultaneously within SARSCOV-2 infected samples is critical to understanding how their expression contribute to phenotypic variability of the disease caused by the pathogen. Method(s): 30 Nasopharyngeal swab were obtained and included SARS-CoV-2 infected and control samples. RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed and loaded onto flexible TaqMan array panels designed specifically for targeting the most cited genes related to SARS-COV-2 entry and restriction factors as well as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors involved in the pathogenesis. Result(s): Our data indicated that not only were the levels of several of these host factors differentially modulated between the two study groups, but also that SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects presented with greater frequency of several important inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as CCL2, CCL3, IFNG, entry receptors such as ACE2, TMRPS11A, and host restriction factors including LY6E and ZBP1. Conclusion(s): TaqMan array plates provide a fast, midthroughput solution to determine the levels of several virus and host-associated factors in various cell types and add to our understanding of how the pathogenesis may vary depending on gender, age, infection site etc.

2.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243635

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a fatal pandemic viral disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus type-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The aim of this study is to observe the associations of IL-6, SARS-COV-2 viral load (RNAemia), IL- 6 gene polymorphism and lymphocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood with disease severity in COVID-19 patients. This study was carried out from March 2021 to January 2022. RT-PCR positive 84 COVID-19 patients and 28 healthy subjects were enrolled. Blood was collected to detect SARS-COV-2 viral RNA (RNAemia) by rRT-PCR, serum IL-6 level by chemiluminescence method, SNPs of IL-6 by SSP-PCR, immunophenotyping of lymphocytes and monocyte by flow cytometry. Serum IL-6 level (pg/ml) was considerably high among critical patients (102.02 +/- 149.7) compared to severe (67.20 +/- 129.5) and moderate patients (47.04 +/- 106.5) and healthy controls (3.5 +/- 1.8). Serum SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive cases detected mostly in critical patients (39.28%) and was correlated with extremely high IL-6 level and high mortality (R =.912, P < 0.001). Correlation between IL-6 and monocyte was statistically significant with disease severity (severe group, p < 0.001, and 0.867*** and critical group p < 0.001 and 0.887***). In healthy controls, moderate, severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients, IL-6 174G/C (rs 1800795) GG genotype was 82.14%, 89.20%, 67.85% and 53.57% respectively. CC and GC genotype had strong association with severity of COVID-19 when compared with GG genotype. Significant statistical difference found in genotypes between critical and moderate groups (p < 0.001, OR-10.316, CI-3.22-23.86), where CC genotype was associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. The absolute count of T cell, B cell, NK cell, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells were significantly decreased in critical group compared to healthy, moderate and severe group (P < 0.001). Exhaustion marker CD94/NKG2A was increased on NK cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cell among critical and severe group. Absolute count of monocyte was significantly increased in critical group (P < 0.001). Serum IL-6, IL-6 174 G/C gene and SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia can be used in clinical practice for risk assessment;T cell subsets and monocyte as biomarkers for monitoring COVID-19 severity. Monoclonal antibody targeting IL-6 receptor and NKG2A for therapeutics may prevent disease progression and decrease morbidity and mortality.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

3.
Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training ; - (1):17-25, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243049

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered people's lifestyles around the world. Prevention of recurrent episodes of the disease and mitigation of its consequences are especially associated with effective post-COVID-19 rehabilitation in patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the drug Likopid (glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide, GMDP) for post-COVID-19 rehabilitation in patients. Material and methods. Patients who recovered from mild to moderate COVID-19 (n=60, mean age 54+/- 11.7 years) were randomized into the observation group (n=30, 15 men and 15 women) who received 2 courses of Licopid (1 mg twice a day) and the comparison group (n=30, 15 men and 15 women). Analysis of the phenotypic and functional characteristics of the innate immune cellular factors was carried out before the start of immunomodulatory therapy, immediately after the end of the course, and also after 6 months observations. In order to assess the quality of life of all patients, we used the SF-36 Health Status Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. Results. During assessing the effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the parameters of innate immunity of patients at the stage of rehabilitation after COVID-19, an increase in the protective cytolytic activity of CD16+ and CD8+Gr+ cells, as well as a persistent increase in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 expression was found, which indicates the antigen recognition recovery and presentation at the level of the monocytic link of the immune system. The use of GMDP as an immunomodulatory agent resulted in an 8-fold reduction in the frequency and severity of respiratory infections due to an increase in the total monocyte count. As a result of assessing patients' quality of life against the background of the therapy, a positive dynamic in role functioning was revealed in patients. In the general assessment of their health status, an increase in physical and mental well-being was noted during 6 months of observation. The comparison group showed no improvement in the psychoemotional state. Discussion. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of GMDP immunomodulatory therapy in correcting immunological parameters for post-COVID-19 rehabilitation in patients. The data obtained are consistent with the previously discovered ability of GMDP to restore impaired functions of phagocytic cells and induce the expression of their surface activation markers, which in turn contributes to an adequate response to pathogens. Conclusion. The study revealed that the correction of immunological parameters with the use of GMDP in COVID-19 convalescents contributed not only to a decrease in the frequency and severity of respiratory infections, but also to an improvement in the psycho-emotional state of patients, and a decrease in anxiety and depression.Copyright © Eco-Vector, 2023. All rights reserved.

4.
Revista Medica del Hospital General de Mexico ; 85(2):72-80, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242016

ABSTRACT

Objective: Intensive care units (ICUs) collapsed under the global wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, we designed a clinical decision-making model that can help predict at hospital admission what patients with COVID-19 are at higher risk of requiring critical care. Method(s): This was a cross-sectional study in 119 patients that met hospitalization criteria for COVID-19 including less than 30 breaths per minute, peripheral oxygen saturation < 93%, and/or >= 50% lung involvement on imaging. Depending on the need for critical care, patients were retrospectively assigned to ICU and non-ICU groups. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were collected at admission and analyzed by classification and regression tree (CRT). Result(s): Forty-five patients were admitted to ICU and 80% of them were men older than 57.13 +/- 12.80 years on average. The leading comorbidity in ICU patients was hypertension. The CRT revealed that direct bilirubin (DB) > 0.315 mg/dl together with the neutrophil-to-monocyte ratio (NMR) > 15.90 predicted up to correctly in 92% of the patients the requirement of intensive care management, with sensitivity of 93.2%. Preexisting comorbidities did not influence on the tree growing. Conclusion(s): At hospital admission, DB and NMR can help identify nine in 10 patients with COVID-19 at higher risk of ICU admission.Copyright © 2022 Sociedad Medica del Hospital General de Mexico.

5.
Current Nutrition and Food Science ; 19(6):602-614, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241090

ABSTRACT

In addition to the classical functions of the musculoskeletal system and calcium homeostasis, the function of vitamin D as an immune modulator is well established. The vitamin D receptors and enzymes that metabolize vitamin D are ubiquitously expressed in most cells in the body, including T and B lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells, monocytes, macrophages and natural killer cells that trigger immune and antimicrobial responses. Many in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that vitamin D promotes tolerogenic immunological action and immune modulation. Vitamin D adequacy positively influences the expression and release of antimicrobial peptides, such as cathelicidin, defensin, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and reduces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Evidence suggestss that vitamin D's protective immunogenic actions reduce the risk, complications, and death from COVID-19. On the contrary, vitamin D deficiency worsened the clinical outcomes of viral respiratory diseases and the COVID-19-related cytokine storm, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and death. The study revealed the need for more preclinical studies and focused on well-designed clinical trials with adequate sizes to understand the role of vitamin D on the pathophysiology of immune disorders and mechanisms of subduing microbial infections, including COVID-19.Copyright © 2023 Bentham Science Publishers.

6.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240620

ABSTRACT

RAG mutations cause various phenotypes: SCID, Omenn syndrome (OS), leaky SCID (LS) and combined immunodeficiency (CID). We had previously reported autoantibodies targeting IFN-alpha, IFN-omega in patients with RAG deficiency. However, how the presence of such antibodies correlated with the severity of the clinical phenotype and with the recombination activity of the mutant proteins was unknown. To address this, we have studied anti-cytokine antibodies in 118 patients with RAG defects (SCID, n = 28;OS, n = 29;LS, n = 29;CID, n = 32), and in 42 controls (protocols NCT03394053 and NCT03610802). RAG mutant proteins associated with CID and LS retained 35.6 +/- 4.3 (mean +/- SE) and 29.8 +/- 5.1% recombination activity respectively, compared to wildtype protein, which was significantly higher than the recombination activity of the mutant RAG proteins associated with OS (4.1 +/- 1.5%) and SCID (5.7 +/- 2.1%) (p < 0.0001). Among 32 CID patients, 24 tested positive for anti-IFN-alpha and 21 for anti-IFN-omega antibodies. Among 29 LS patients, 15 had high levels of anti-IFN-alpha and 13 of anti-IFN-omega antibodies. A minority of the CID and LS patients had also high levels of anti-IFN-beta and anti-IL-22 antibodies. By contrast, none of the OS patients tested positive for anti-cytokine antibodies. High levels of anti-IFN-alpha and anti-IFN-omega antibodies correlated with their neutralizing activity as demonstrated in vitro by analysis of STAT1 phosphorylation upon stimulation of healthy donor monocytes in the presence of the appropriate cytokine and patient's or control plasma. Severe viral infections were recorded in 26/41 patients with CID and LS who tested positive and in 7/20 who tested negative for anti-IFN-alpha and/or anti-IFN-omega antibodies (p <0.05). Among those with anti-IFN antibodies, EBV (n = 8), CMV (n = 6), HSV (n = 5), VZV (n = 4) and adenovirus (n = 4) infections were more common. Two patients had COVID-19, which was fatal in one. Presence of the rubella virus was documented in 5 patients with anti-type I IFN antibodies. These results demonstrate that high levels of neutralizing anti-IFN-alpha and anti-IFN-omega antibodies are common in patients with RAG mutations manifesting as CID and LS, but not in those with OS, and that their presence is associated with a high risk of serious viral infections.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

7.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 45(1):37-47, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238671

ABSTRACT

Objective Based on text mining technology and biomedical database, data mining and analysis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were carried out, and COVID-19 and its main symptoms related to fever, cough and respiratory disorders were explored. Methods The common targets of COVID-19 and its main symptoms cough, fever and respiratory disorder were obtained by GenCLiP 3 website, Gene ontology in metascape database (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis, then STRING database and Cytoscape software were used to construct the protein interaction network of common targets, the core genes were screened and obtained. DGIdb database and Symmap database were used to predict the therapeutic drugs of traditional Chinese and Western medicine for the core genes. Results A total of 28 gene targets of COVID-19 and its main symptoms were obtained, including 16 core genes such as IL2, IL1B and CCL2. Through the screening of DGIdb database, 28 chemicals interacting with 16 key targets were obtained, including thalidomide, leflunomide and cyclosporine et al. And 70 kinds of Chinese meteria medica including Polygonum cuspidatum, Astragalus membranaceus and aloe. Conclusion The pathological mechanism of COVID-19 and its main symptoms may be related to 28 common genes such as CD4, KNG1 and VEGFA, which may participate in the pathological process of COVID-19 by mediating TNF, IL-17 and other signal pathways. Potentially effective drugs may play a role in the treatment of COVID-19 through action related target pathway.Copyright © 2022 Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines. All Rights Reserved.

8.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238474

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare and severe condition that follows benign COVID-19. We report autosomal recessive deficiencies of OAS1, OAS2, or RNASEL in five unrelated children with MIS-C. The cytosolic dsRNA-sensing OAS1 and OAS2 generate 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates (2-5A) that activate the ssRNA-degrading RNase L. Consistent with the absence of pneumonia in these patients, epithelial cells and fibroblasts defective for this pathway restricted SARS-CoV-2 normally. This contrasted with IFNAR1-deficient cells from patients prone to hypoxemic pneumonia without MIS-C. Monocytic cell lines and primary myeloid cells with OAS1, OAS2, or RNASEL deficiencies produce excessive amounts of inflammatory cytokines upon dsRNA or SARS-CoV- 2 stimulation. Exogenous 2-5A suppresses cytokine production in OAS1-but not RNase L- deficient cells. Cytokine production in RNase L-deficient cells is impaired by MDA5 or RIG-I deficiency and abolished by MAVS deficiency. Recessive OAS-RNase L deficiencies in these patients unleash the production of SARS-CoV-2-triggered, MAVS-mediated inflammatory cytokines by mononuclear phagocytes, thereby underlying MIS-C.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

9.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(7 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238091

ABSTRACT

Introduction Patients with hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM), experience suboptimal responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) are precursors to MM and exhibit altered immune cell composition and function. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the subsequent population-wide vaccination represent an opportunity to study the real-life immune response to a common antigen. Here, we present updated results from the IMPACT study, a study we launched in November 2020 to characterize the effect of plasma cell premalignancy on response to SARS-CoV2 vaccination (vx). Methods We performed: (i) ELISA for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies on 1,887 peripheral blood (PB) samples (237 healthy donors (HD), and 550 MGUS, 947 SMM, and 153 MM patients) drawn preand post-vx;(ii) single-cell RNA, T cell receptor (TCR), and B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing (10x Genomics) on 224 PB samples (26 HD, and 20 MGUS, 48 SMM, and 24 MM patients) drawn preand post-vx;(iii) plasma cytokine profiling (Olink) on 106 PB samples (32 HD, and 38 MGUS and 36 SMM patients) drawn pre- and post-vx;and (iv) bulk TCR sequencing (Adaptive Biotechnologies) on 8 PB samples from 4 patients (2 MGUS, 2 SMM) drawn pre- and post-vx. Results Patients with MGUS and SMM achieved comparable antibody titers to HD two months post-vx. However, patient titers waned significantly faster, and 4 months post-vx we observed significantly lower titers in both MGUS (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p=0.030) and SMM (p=0.010). These results indicate impaired humoral immune response in patients with MGUS and SMM.At baseline, the TCR repertoire was significantly less diverse in patients with SMM compared to HD (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p=0.039), while no significant difference was observed in the BCR repertoire (p=0.095). Interestingly, a significant increase in TCR repertoire diversity was observed post-vx in patients with SMM (paired t-test, p=0.014), indicating rare T cell clone recruitment in response to vaccination. In both HD and patients, recruited clones showed upregulation of genes associated with CD4+ naive and memory T cells, suggesting preservation of the T cell response in SMM, which was confirmed by bulk TCR-sequencing in 4 patients.Lastly, by cytokine profiling, we observed a defect in IL-1beta and IL-18 induction post-vx in patients with SMM compared to HD (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p=0.047 and p=0.015, respectively), two key monocyte-derived mediators of acute inflammation, suggesting an altered innate immune response as well. Conclusion Taken together, our findings highlight that despite the absence of clinical manifestations, plasma cell premalignancy is associated with defects in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, patients with plasma cell premalignancy may require adjusted vaccination strategies for optimal immunization.

10.
Journal of SAFOG ; 15(2):199-205, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237185

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2/COVID-19 infection is still a global concern, with pregnant women are considered as vulnerable population. Until now, the characteristics of pregnant women in Indonesia who are infected with COVID-19, as well as pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, are still unknown. This study aims to obtain national data, which are expected to be useful for the prevention and management of COVID-19 in pregnant women in Indonesia. Method(s): There were 1,427 patients recruited in this retrospective multicenter study. This study involved 11 hospitals in 10 provinces in Indonesia and was carried out using secondary patient data from April 2020 to July 2021. COVID-19 severity was differentiated into asymptomatic-to-mild symptoms and moderate-to-severe symptoms. The collected data include maternal characteristics, laboratory examinations, imaging, pregnancy outcomes, and neonatal outcomes. Result(s): Leukocyte, platelets, basophil, neutrophils segment, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), C-reactive protein (CRP), urea, and creatinine were found to be significantly associated with severity differences (p < 0.05). Moderate-severe symptoms of COVID-19 also shown to have suggestive pneumonia findings on chest X-ray findings. Patients with asymptomatic-to-mild symptoms had significantly (p < 0.001) higher recovery rate, shorter hospital stay, less intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and had more vaginal delivery. Neonates from mother with mild symptoms also had significantly (p < 0.001) higher survival rate, higher birth weight, and higher APGAR score. Conclusion(s): Several laboratory and radiology components, as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes are related to the severity of COVID-19 in pregnant women in Indonesia.Copyright © The Author(s). 2023.

11.
Maternal-Fetal Medicine ; 5(2):88-96, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235041

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to investigate the immune response of a pregnant woman who recovered from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID_RS) by using single-cell transcriptomic profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and to analyze the properties of different immune cell subsets. Methods PBMCs were collected from the COVID_RS patient at 28 weeks of gestation, before a cesarean section. The PBMCs were then analyzed using single-cell RNA sequencing. The transcriptional profiles of myeloid, T, and natural killer (NK) cell subsets were systematically analyzed and compared with those of healthy pregnant controls from a published single-cell RNA sequencing data set. Results We identified major cell types such as T cells, B cells, NK cells, and myeloid cells in the PBMCs of our COVID_RS patient. The increase of myeloid and B cells and decrease of T cells and NK cells in the PBMCs in this patient were quite distinct compared with that in the control subjects. After reclustering and Augur analysis, we found that CD16 monocytes and mucosal-Associated invariant T (MAIT) cells were mostly affected within different myeloid, T, and NK cell subtypes in our COVID_RS patient. The proportion of CD16 monocytes in the total myeloid population was increased, and the frequency of MAIT cells in the total T and NK cells was significantly decreased in the COVID-RS patient. We also observed significant enrichment of gene sets related to antigen processing and presentation, T-cell activation, T-cell differentiation, and tumor necrosis factor superfamily cytokine production in CD16 monocytes, and enrichment of gene sets related to antigen processing and presentation, response to type II interferon, and response to virus in MAIT cells. Conclusion Our study provides a single-cell resolution atlas of the immune gene expression patterns in PBMCs from a COVID_RS patient. Our findings suggest that CD16-positive monocytes and MAIT cells likely play crucial roles in the maternal immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. These results contribute to a better understanding of the maternal immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and may have implications for the development of effective treatments and preventive strategies for the coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnant women.Copyright © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

12.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(7 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20233273

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 causes significant morbidity and mortality, albeit with considerable heterogeneity among affected individuals. It remains unclear which host factors determine disease severity and survival. Given the propensity of clonal hematopoiesis (CH) to promote inflammation in healthy individuals, we investigated its effect on COVID-19 outcomes. Method(s): We performed a multi-omics interrogation of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from COVID-19 patients (n=227). We obtained clinical data, laboratory studies, and survival outcomes. We determined CH status and TET2-related DNA methylation. We performed single-cell proteogenomics to understand clonal composition in relation to cell phenotype. We interrogated single-cell gene expression in isolation and in conjunction with DNA accessibility. We integrated these multi-omics data to understand the effect of CH on clonal composition, gene expression, methylation of cis-regulatory elements, and lineage commitment in COVID-19 patients. We performed shRNA knockdowns to validate the effect of one candidate transcription factor in myeloid cell lines. Result(s): The presence of CH was strongly associated with COVID-19 severity and all-cause mortality, independent of age (HR 3.48, 95% CI 1.45-8.36, p=0.005). Differential methylation of promoters and enhancers was prevalent in TET2-mutant, but not DNMT3A-mutant CH. TET2- mutant CH was associated with enhanced classical/intermediate monocytosis and single-cell proteogenomics confirmed an enrichment of TET2 mutations in these cell types. We identified celltype specific gene expression changes associated with TET2 mutations in 102,072 single cells (n=34). Single-cell RNA-seq confirmed the skewing of hematopoiesis towards classical and intermediate monocytes and demonstrated the downregulation of EGR1 (a transcription factor important for monocyte differentiation) along with up-regulation of the lncRNA MALAT1 in monocytes. Combined scRNA-/scATAC-seq in 43,160 single cells (n=18) confirmed the skewing of hematopoiesis and up-regulation of MALAT1 in monocytes along with decreased accessibility of EGR1 motifs in known cis-regulatory elements. Using myeloid cell lines for functional validation, shRNA knockdowns of EGR1 confirmed the up-regulation of MALAT1 (in comparison to wildtype controls). Conclusion(s): CH is an independent prognostic factor in COVID-19 and skews hematopoiesis towards monocytosis. TET2-mutant CH is characterized by differential methylation and accessibility of enhancers binding myeloid transcriptions factors including EGR1. The ensuing loss of EGR1 expression in monocytes causes MALAT1 overexpression, a factor known to promote monocyte differentiation and inflammation. These data provide a mechanistic insight to the adverse prognostic impact of CH in COVID-19.

13.
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology ; 89(Supplement 1):55-56, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20233187

ABSTRACT

Problem: Environmental stress during pregnancy has known impacts on both maternal and fetal health. In terms of theCOVID-19 pandemic, the majority of published work has focused on the impact of the infection itself, without considering the potential immune impact of pandemic related-stress.We, therefore, assessed the impact of pandemic stress, independently of SARS-CoV-2 infection, on the circulating and placental immune profiles of pregnant individuals. Method(s): Placentas from 239 patients were collected at the Sainte- Justine Hospital, Montreal, Canada. Of these, 199 patients delivered during the pandemic and were exposed to pandemic stress with (+: 79) or without (-: 120) SARS-CoV-2 infection, the latter exposed to pandemic stress only. Pre-pandemic historic controls (uncomplicated pregnancies, Ctrl: 40), were also included. Placental biopsies were collected to assess cytokine levels by ELISAs and histopathological lesions. A sub-study with 35 pre-pandemic pregnancies (unexposed) and 20 who delivered during the pandemic (exposed) was also conducted. The latter (exposed/unexposed) were all uncomplicated pregnancies. We collected maternal blood prior to delivery for immunophenotyping, and plasma/peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated. Inflammatory mediators in the plasma were quantified by ELISAs. Co-culture assays with PBMCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to assess endothelial activation. Demographical/obstetrical data were obtained through chart review. Result(s): SARS-CoV-2+ patients were multiethnic (63.4%), had higher pre-pregnancyBMI (28.9 vs. 24.8 inCtrl, P<.05), and elevated preterm birth rate (16.5% vs. 5.8% in SARS-CoV-2-, P < .05 and 0.0% in Ctrl, P < .01). In the placentas, we observed an increase in the levels of IL- 1Ra (P < .05) and CRP (P < .05) in both SARS-CoV-2 groups, while IL-6 (P = .0790) and MCP-1 (P < .001) were elevated solely in SARS-CoV- 2-. These changes were predominant in placentas with inflammatory lesions on histopathological analysis. Moreover, we observed elevated CD45+ cells (P < .001) in the placentas from both SARS-CoV-2 groups versus Ctrl. Considering that the differences we observed were important in the SARS-CoV-2- group, we performed a study solely on uncomplicated pregnancies, either exposed or unexposed to pandemic stress. At the systemic level, we observed a decrease in the percentage of Th2 cells (P < .001), leading to a pro-inflammatory Th1/Th2 imbalance in exposed individuals. Decreased Treg (P < .05) and Th17 (P < .05) versus unexposed was also observed. Surprisingly, decreased levels of circulating IL-6 (P < .05), MCP-1 (P < .01), and CRP (P<.05) were seen in exposed versus unexposed individuals. Finally,we observed increased secretion of ICAM, a marker of endothelial activation, solely in endothelial cells co-cultured with PBMCs from exposed individuals. Conclusion(s): Overall, placental inflammatory profiles differed between pregnant individuals exposed to pandemic stress with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, we observed that the pandemic stress exposed group presented a systemic pro-inflammatory bias. This highlights the need to understand the differences between the effects of pandemic-related stress and the added burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection itself on maternal and fetal health. Our work also supports an association between an increased risk of hypertension/ preeclampsia and SARS-CoV-2 infection that might be driven in part by pandemic-related stress.

14.
Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology ; 30(9):e366-e375, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20231993

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus illness (COVID-19) is caused by serious acute respiratory disorder coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), moreover known as the COVID-19 virus. After the first-ever reports of COVID-19 in December 2019, the malady spread quickly. In January 2020, the WHO announced the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of Worldwide Concern, and by March 2020, the WHO characterized the episode as a global widespread . The current study aimed to detect the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection in heart patients and study their immune response by detecting the levels of some cytokines, which may end in a cytokine storm and may lead to death. In this study, one hundred-eight subjects were enrolled on two comparison case-control groups, the case group included 54 patients suffering from SARS-COV2, all were selected from those who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and were diagnosed by a specialist physician with severe acute respiratory syndrome due to SARS-COV2 documented by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction( RT-PCR ) besides other clinical and laboratory criteria in Marjan Medical City in Babylon province, AL-Amal Hospital for Communicable Diseases and AL-Hakeem Hospital, Najaf/Iraq, for a period from March 2022 to October 2022 to evaluate the role of some selected serological among patients with SARA-COV2 . The control group in this study included 54 subjects, divided into three groups (Apparent Healthy, patients suffered from SARS-COV2, patients suffered from CVD). Blood samples were examined through immunological methods, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adopted for the detection of the concentration of TNF-alpha, IL6, IL-10,1L-12 and CCL2 .The immunological evaluation to clarify the theory of cytokines storm carried in the present study revealed that (TNF-alpha, IL6, IL-10,1L-12, and CCL2) for patients with COVID-19 and CVD was significantly higher than all the comparison group. The study reported that interleukin (6, 10, 12) and TNF-a are significantly increased in patients with covid19, CVD, and COVID-19 patients only, compared to healthy people. furthermore, IL-6 and IL-12 levels increased in patients with CVD only when compared to healthy people. There is a significant increase in CCL2 in all study groups compared to healthy people who have lower levels and this study indicated that the infection with Covid disease was severe and critical in most patients with CVD. This increased the number of deaths among them.Copyright © 2021 Muslim OT et al.

15.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 20(7): 835-849, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235826

ABSTRACT

Early and strong interferon type I (IFN-I) responses are usually associated with mild COVID-19 disease, whereas persistent or unregulated proinflammatory cytokine responses are associated with severe disease outcomes. Previous work suggested that monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are resistant and unresponsive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we demonstrate that upon phagocytosis of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, MDMs are activated and secrete IL-6 and TNF. Importantly, activated MDMs in turn mediate strong activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), leading to the secretion of high levels of IFN-α and TNF. Furthermore, pDC activation promoted IL-6 production by MDMs. This kind of pDC activation was dependent on direct integrin-mediated cell‒cell contacts and involved stimulation of the TLR7 and STING signaling pathways. Overall, the present study describes a novel and potent pathway of pDC activation that is linked to the macrophage-mediated clearance of infected cells. These findings suggest that a high infection rate by SARS-CoV-2 may lead to exaggerated cytokine responses, which may contribute to tissue damage and severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Phagocytosis , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/metabolism
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244692

ABSTRACT

The three subsets of human monocytes, classical, intermediate, and nonclassical, show phenotypic heterogeneity, particularly in their expression of CD14 and CD16. This has enabled researchers to delve into the functions of each subset in the steady state as well as in disease. Studies have revealed that monocyte heterogeneity is multi-dimensional. In addition, that their phenotype and function differ between subsets is well established. However, it is becoming evident that heterogeneity also exists within each subset, between health and disease (current or past) states, and even between individuals. This realisation casts long shadows, impacting how we identify and classify the subsets, the functions we assign to them, and how they are examined for alterations in disease. Perhaps the most fascinating is evidence that, even in relative health, interindividual differences in monocyte subsets exist. It is proposed that the individual's microenvironment could cause long-lasting or irreversible changes to monocyte precursors that echo to monocytes and through to their derived macrophages. Here, we will discuss the types of heterogeneity recognised in monocytes, the implications of these for monocyte research, and most importantly, the relevance of this heterogeneity for health and disease.


Subject(s)
Macrophages , Monocytes , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Phenotype , Hematopoiesis , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244259

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the biological effects on circulating monocytes after challenge with SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein. Whole blood collected from seven ostensibly healthy healthcare workers was incubated for 15 min with 2 and 20 ng/mL final concentration of recombinant spike protein of Ancestral, Alpha, Delta, and Omicron variants. Samples were analyzed with Sysmex XN and DI-60 analyzers. Cellular complexity (i.e., the presence of granules, vacuoles and other cytoplasmic inclusions) increased in all samples challenged with the recombinant spike protein of the Ancestral, Alpha, and Delta variants, but not in those containing Omicron. The cellular content of nucleic acids was constantly decreased in most samples, achieving statistical significance in those containing 20 ng/mL of Alpha and Delta recombinant spike proteins. The heterogeneity of monocyte volumes significantly increased in all samples, achieving statistical significance in those containing 20 ng/mL of recombinant spike protein of the Ancestral, Alpha and Delta variants. The monocyte morphological abnormalities after spike protein challenge included dysmorphia, granulation, intense vacuolization, platelet phagocytosis, development of aberrant nuclei, and cytoplasmic extrusions. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein triggers important monocyte morphological abnormalities, more evident in cells challenged with recombinant spike protein of the more clinically severe Alpha and Delta variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monocytes , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus ; : 1-5, 2023 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242784

ABSTRACT

Identifying patients with Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who may have a severe illness is essential for timely intervention and decreasing the fatality rate. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of Monocyte Distribution Width (MDW) as a prognostic marker for identifying disease severity in COVID-19 patients. We included 145 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection in the study. The performance of MDW was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value. Further analysis was conducted for the disease outcome, comparing COVID-19 patients discharged (n = 135) to deceased COVID-19 patients (n = 10). As a marker of disease severity, MDW demonstrated an AUC of 0.702 (95% CI 0.620-0.775) in ROC analysis. If MDW is considered a marker of patient outcome, AUC was 0.916 (95% CI 0.862-0.953), comparing deceased COVID-19 patients vs. those who survived. At a cut-off of > 25.4 on admission, MDW correlates well with poor disease outcomes in COVID-19 patients. MDW can be considered a helpful parameter in predicting the severity of COVID-19 disease and patient outcomes. Its role and incorporation in the standard diagnostic algorithm and management of COVID-19 patients need further validation. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12288-023-01665-y.

19.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 10: 960398, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242104

ABSTRACT

Platelets, key facilitators of primary hemostasis and thrombosis, have emerged as crucial cellular mediators of innate immunity and inflammation. Exemplified by their ability to alter the phenotype and function of monocytes, activated platelets bind to circulating monocytes to form monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPA). The platelet-monocyte axis has emerged as a key mechanism connecting thrombosis and inflammation. MPA are elevated across the spectrum of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, including cardiovascular disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and COVID-19, and are positively associated with disease severity. These clinical disorders are all characterized by an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. Intriguingly, monocytes in contact with platelets become proinflammatory and procoagulant, highlighting that this interaction is a central element of thromboinflammation.

20.
Heliyon ; 9(6): e16964, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231206

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system and can cause changes in other systems. Early identification of patients with a higher potential for complications is critical to provide the best possible treatment to reduce the disease's lethality. This study aimed to analyze the behavior of hematologic biomarkers in predicting mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. This retrospective cohort study used data from the medical records of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between March and August 2020 in two referral hospitals for treatment of the disease in the city of Cuiabá (in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil). Clinical and laboratory characteristics related to cardiovascular involvement and death during hospitalization were evaluated. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, as well as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MRL), were used as potential biomarkers of death. A total of 199 patients were included (male: 113; mean age: 51.4 years). Leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts showed a statistically significant association with death, as did NLR and MRL. Satisfactory accuracy in predicting death was observed for leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, NLR, and MLR counts. The hematologic biomarkers studied may be useful for prognosticating hospitalized patients for the possibility of death from COVID-19.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL