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1.
Embase; 27.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-346615

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic affected common disease infections, while the impact on hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is unclear. Google Trends data is beneficial in approximately real-time statistics and easily accessed, expecting to be used for infection explanation from information-seeking behavior perspectives. We aimed to explain HFMD cases before and during COVID-19 using Google Trends data. Method(s): HFMD cases were obtained from the National Institute of Infectious Disease, and Google search data from 2009 to 2021 was downloaded using Google Trends in Japan. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between HFMD cases and the search topic "HFMD" from 2009 to 2021. Japanese tweets containing "HFMD" were retrieved to select search terms for further analysis. Search terms were retained with counts larger than 1000 and belonging to ranges of infection sources, susceptible sites, susceptible populations, symptoms, treatment, preventive measures, and identified diseases. Cross-correlation analyses were conducted to detect lag changes between HFMD cases and HFMD search terms before and during COVID-19. Multiple linear regressions with backward elimination processing were used to identify the most significant terms for HFMD explanation. Result(s): HFMD cases and Google search volume peaked around July in most years without 2020 and 2021. The search topic "HFMD" presented strong correlations with HFMD cases except in 2020 when COVID-19 outbroke. In addition, differences in lags for 73 (72.3%) search terms were negative, might indicating increasing public awareness of HFMD infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results of multiple linear regression demonstrated that significant search terms contained the same meanings but expanded informative search content during COVID-19. Conclusion(s): Significant terms for HFMD cases explanation before and during COVID-19 were different. The awareness of HFMD infection in Japan may improve during the COVID-19 pandemic. Continuous monitoring is important to promote public health and prevent resurgence. Public interest reflected in information-seeking behavior can be helpful for public health surveillance. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

2.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):632-642, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067286

ABSTRACT

This study has systematically investigated the types of drug delivery in the treatment and prevention of oral and dental and cardiorespiratory diseases in patients and animals involved in the disease. Early recognition of risk factors and primary prevention significantly reduces complications and mortality in chronic heart diseases. Lifestyle modification with diet, exercise and smoking cessation is very important to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. In the first days of the disease, when the patient has mild symptoms and has not yet developed respiratory symptoms, you can start treatment with painkillers for headache, sore throat and body pain, along with taking antitussive medicine and vitamin D and C although scientifically the effect of vitamin C. It is not proven, but considering that we still do not have extensive studies on this disease, it seems that taking vitamins may help the patient. Sometimes, some patients themselves start treatment with azithromycin, while this antibiotic has an effect on antibacterial infections and has no effect on the disease of Covid-19. Favipiravir treatment should be started in high-risk outpatients with corona. Of course, along with treatment with favipiravir and similar antiviral effects, it can be effective in the treatment of corona. Famotidine and melatonin, which help improve sleep and are said to have antiviral effects. Of course, melatonin medicine should be taken at around 11 to 12 at night. Because it affects the sleep and wake cycle. Montelukast along with fexofenadine, can have antiviral effects for covid-19 patients. Since the beginning of the Corona pandemic, the world has emphasized on the monthly consumption of vitamin D, but if you do not have a monthly intake, use 1000 milligrams daily or up to 50 thousand units every week and after some time continue to consume vitamin D on a monthly basis. It is also recommended to take vitamin C and magnesium, and it is better for patients to eat foods rich in protein, potassium, and dairy products.

3.
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ ; 39(10):e9, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064194

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease Scarlet fever Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) Hand, foot and mouth disease (coxsackievirus) For answer see page 02 For question see page 01 Answer: C Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) was highly suspected because of the biological inflammatory syndrome and the Kawasaki-like dermatological presentation. Majority of published cases have positive serologic testing for SARS-CoV-2 (67%) and less commonly positive RT-PCR testing from nasopharyngeal testing (33%),2 suggesting that the pathogenesis of this syndrome involves post infection immune dysregulation rather than related to acute early infection.2 3 This affliction is life-threatening as it is usually associated with severe physiological impairment (hypotension, tachycardia) requiring admission in an intensive care unit in more than 50% of cases. Multi-System inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) following SARS-CoV-2 infection: review of clinical presentation, hypothetical pathogenesis, and proposed management.

4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2230-e2239, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053012

ABSTRACT

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) affects the livestock industry and socioeconomic sustainability of many African countries. The success of FMD control programs in Africa depends largely on understanding the dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV) spread. In light of the recent outbreaks of FMD that affected the North-Western African countries in 2018 and 2019, we investigated the evolutionary phylodynamics of the causative serotype O viral strains all belonging to the East-Africa 3 topotype (O/EA-3). We analyzed a total of 489 sequences encoding the FMDV VP1 genome region generated from samples collected from 25 African and Western Asian countries between 1974 and 2019. Using Bayesian evolutionary models on genomic and epidemiological data, we inferred the routes of introduction and migration of the FMDV O/EA-3 topotype at the inter-regional scale. We inferred a mean substitution rate of 6.64 × 10-3  nt/site/year and we predicted that the most recent common ancestor for our panel of samples circulated between February 1967 and November 1973 in Yemen, likely reflecting the epidemiological situation in under sampled cattle-exporting East African countries. Our study also reinforces the role previously described of Sudan and South Sudan as a frequent source of FMDVs spread. In particular, we identified two transboundary routes of O/EA-3 diffusion: the first from Sudan to North-East Africa, and from the latter into Israel and Palestine AT; a second from Sudan to Nigeria, Cameroon, and from there to further into West and North-West Africa. This study highlights the necessity to reinforce surveillance at an inter-regional scale in Africa and Western Asia, in particular along the identified migration routes for the implementation of efficient control measures in the fight against FMD.


Subject(s)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Cattle , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Nigeria/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Serogroup
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(11): 9403-9410, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048295

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study identifies the impact of the absence of dental support for patients with cancer whose clinical dental care was interrupted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Individuals with oncologic diseases were selected from a telephone list of a Clinical Research Center (CRC) that specialized in the care of patients with cancer at the Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo (FOB/USP). The convenience sample comprised 280 patients (aged > 18 years) with a history of cancer that underwent dental treatment at the FOB/USP CRC in 2019 and did not receive care in 2020 owing to the pandemic. The participants completed a questionnaire sent via email or a text messaging application. Individuals receiving treatment or who were already treated for cancer were divided into two groups for data tabulation. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's and chi-square tests. RESULTS: Of the 280 patients, 104 answered the questionnaire, and 75 (72.1%) were women. Among the women, 45 (60.0%) were receiving antineoplastic treatment, and 30 (40.0%) had already been treated. Among the men, 15 (51.7%) were receiving antineoplastic treatment, and 14 (48.3%) had already been treated. Regarding oral problems that arose during the pandemic, dental pain when eating hot or cold food or drinks (57.0%), muscle pain (53.8%), and difficulties when chewing (51.0%) were the most common reported among patients. Furthermore, most individuals reported not having received any type of remote dental follow-up, before being contacted by our team, which could contribute to reducing these oral problems. CONCLUSION: It is impossible to say whether the absence of dental support in cancer patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a negative impact on oral issue rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Female , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy
6.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024294

ABSTRACT

Viruses can evolve to respond to immune pressures conferred by specific antibodies generated after vaccination and/or infection. In this study, an in vitro system was developed to investigate the impact of serum-neutralising antibodies upon the evolution of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) isolate. The presence of sub-neutralising dilutions of specific antisera delayed the onset of virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) by up to 44 h compared to the untreated control cultures. Continued virus passage with sub-neutralising dilutions of these sera resulted in a decrease in time to complete CPE, suggesting that FMDV in these cultures adapted to escape immune pressure. These phenotypic changes were associated with three separate consensus-level non-synonymous mutations that accrued in the viral RNA-encoding amino acids at positions VP266, VP280 and VP1155, corresponding to known epitope sites. High-throughput sequencing also identified further nucleotide substitutions within the regions encoding the leader (Lpro), VP4, VP2 and VP3 proteins. While association of the later mutations with the adaptation to immune pressure must be further verified, these results highlight the multiple routes by which FMDV populations can escape neutralising antibodies and support the application of a simple in vitro approach to assess the impact of the humoral immune system on the evolution of FMDV and potentially other viruses.


Subject(s)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Epitopes/genetics
7.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024293

ABSTRACT

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and devastating virus that infects cloven-hoofed livestock and various wildlife species. Vaccination is the best measure to prevent FMD. ADDomer, as a kind of non-infectious adenovirus-inspired nanoparticle, has the advantage of high thermal stability. In this study, two dominant B-cell antigen epitopes (residues 129~160 and 200~213) and a dominant T-cell antigen epitope (residues 16~44) of type O FMDV were inserted into the ADDomer variable loop (VL) and arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) loop. The 3D structure of the recombinant protein (ADDomer-RBT) was simulated by homology modeling. First, the recombinant proteins were expressed by the baculovirus expression system and detected by western blot and Q Exactive mass spectrometry. Then the formation of VLPs was observed under a transmission electron micrograph (TEM). Finally, we evaluated the immunogenicity of chimeric VLPs with a murine model. Bioinformatic software analysis preliminarily corroborated that the chosen epitopes were successfully exposed on the surface of ADDomer VLPs. The TEM assay demonstrated the structural integrity of the VLPs. After immunizing, it was found that FMDV-specific antibodies can be produced in mice to induce humoral and cellular immune responses. To sum up, the ADDomer platform can be used as an effective antigen carrier to deliver antigen epitopes. This study presents one of the candidate vaccines to prevent and control FMDV.


Subject(s)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Mice , Viral Vaccines/genetics
8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010331

ABSTRACT

Vaccines constitute a pillar in the prevention of infectious diseases. The unprecedented emergence of novel immunization strategies due to the COVID-19 pandemic has again positioned vaccination as a pivotal measure to protect humankind and reduce the clinical impact and socioeconomic burden worldwide. Vaccination pursues the ultimate goal of eliciting a protective response in immunized individuals. To achieve this, immunogens must be efficiently delivered to prime the immune system and produce robust protection. Given their safety, immunogenicity, and flexibility to display varied and native epitopes, self-assembling protein nanoparticles represent one of the most promising immunogen delivery platforms. Currently marketed vaccines against the human papillomavirus, for instance, illustrate the potential of these nanoassemblies. This review is intended to provide novelties, since 2015, on the ground of vaccine design and self-assembling protein nanoparticles, as well as a comparison with the current emergence of mRNA-based vaccines.

9.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research ; 75(2):196-199, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010619

ABSTRACT

Tomato flu is an infectious disease caused by an unexplained virus. The main symptoms of the infection are tomato-shaped blisters all over the body which enlarges to resemble the shape of a tomato, therefore being named as ‘Tomato flu’. Most commonly affects children below the age of 5 years. Tomato flu is considered a “Hand, Foot and Mouth disease”. The clinical manifestation of most cases is mild. It is a self-limiting infection;which gets resolved on its own in 7-10 days. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history and physical examination, especially in regions where there are outbreaks. This infectious disease etiological agent, its treatment regimen, and vaccination stills remain unknown and is a crucial area of research at present. COVID-19 has taught us lessons for outbreak preparedness and management of cases in emergency conditions by repurposing drugs and vaccines which is also synonymously being tried to curb the condition at present situation.

10.
J Comp Pathol ; 198: 62-79, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007823

ABSTRACT

The mammalian nasopharynx is an anatomically complex region of the upper respiratory tract that directly communicates with the nasal cavity, laryngopharynx, oesophagus and trachea. The nasopharyngeal mucosa contains moderate quantities of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) that is appropriately located for immunological sampling but also creates vulnerability to pathogens. In recent years, the nasopharynx has been inculpated in the pathogenesis of important diseases of cattle (foot-and-mouth disease) and humans (COVID-19), yet the tissue has never been described in detail in any species. In order to characterize the morphology and cellular composition of the bovine nasopharynx, samples of mucosa were collected from the nasopharynx of five 8-13-month-old steers and examined using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and multichannel immunofluorescence. Morphologically, the nasopharyngeal epithelium was highly heterogeneous, with a continuum ranging from stratified squamous epithelium to highly attenuated, follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). Distribution of MALT was similarly regionally variable ranging from absent to clusters of multiple lymphoid follicles. Phenotypic characterization demonstrated dense distributions of dendritic cells and T lymphocytes surrounding lymphoid follicles, which comprised mostly B lymphocytes. The FAE overlaying the lymphoid follicles also contained higher numbers of dendritic cells and lymphocytes compared with the adjacent non-lymphoid epithelium, although cytotoxic T cells were notably scarce in the FAE. The bovine nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue had comparable elements to other MALTs with specific differences that may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of infectious agents that have specific tropism for this tissue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Humans , Lymphoid Tissue , Mammals , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Nasopharynx/pathology
11.
Medicine Today ; 23(1-2):31-41, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006856

ABSTRACT

Common causes of viral exanthems in Australia include herpesviruses, enteroviruses, parvovirus B19, varicella, measles and rubella viruses and mosquito-borne alphaviruses. The cause can often be diagnosed clinically from the rash distribution and morphology, confirmed only when necessary with serological or PCR tests. Most viral exanthems are self-limiting, requiring supportive care alone.

12.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003008

ABSTRACT

Background: The Partnership for Integrating Oral Health Care into Primary Care (PIOHCPC) project was launched to improve access to oral health care by integrating the interprofessional oral health core clinical competencies into primary care. The competencies, described in the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA's) report Integration of Oral Health and Primary Care Practice, facilitate change in the clinical practice of primary care health professionals (PCPs) working in safety net settings.1 Health professionals providing primary care include family physicians, pediatricians, obstetricians, nurse midwives, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. The PIOHCPC project was funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau and supported by the National Maternal and Child Center for Oral Health Systems Integration and Improvement (COHSII). COSHII, led by the National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center, worked with the National Network for Oral Health Access to provide technical assistance to the PIOHCPC project teams. Methods: The PIOHCPC project teams were selected from five states-Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, and Rhode Island. Each team consisted of a state Title V maternal and child health (MCH) program or oral health program that was addressing the Title V national performance measure (NPM) on oral health, NPM 13, as well as a local primary care setting. The PIOHCPC project targeted pregnant women, children, and adolescents at high risk for oral disease. It was implemented from January 2019 through June 2021. Results: The PIOHCPC projects had several accomplishments related to integrating oral health care into primary care, even amid the COVID-19 pandemic that ushered in changes in direct patient care and primary care setting foci. Accomplishments at the primary care setting level included educating PCPs about oral health using Smiles for Life: A National Oral Health Curriculum and in-person trainings;incorporating oral health risk assessment into clinical workflows;implementing current dental terminology (CDT) codes and dot phrases in electronic health records to document oral health care;establishing effective systems for oral health referrals;and integrating oral health education and self-management goal setting into primary care visits. Additionally, state Title V MCH programs or oral health programs and primary care settings established strong partnerships to support and expand upon the success of their work in other settings across the states. Conclusion: The PIOHCPC projects had notable accomplishments. Findings from the project will contribute to the field's understanding of integrating oral health care into primary care. More work is needed at federal, state, and local levels to ensure that oral health is an integral component of primary care visits to ultimately improve oral health and reduce oral health disparities and inequities for pregnant women, children, and adolescents. 1. Health Resources and Services Administration. 2014. Integration of Oral Health and Primary Care Practice. Rockville, MD: Health Resources and Services Administration.

13.
Iranian Journal of Microbiology ; 14(4):574-586, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1998257

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Rapid diagnosis is a cornerstone for controlling and preventing viral disease outbreaks. The present study is aimed to develop a rapid field diagnostic test based on gold nanoparticles for the detection of lumpy skin diseases (LSD), and foot and mouth diseases (FMD) in animals with high sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods: FMD and LSD vaccines were used as a source of viruses' antigens for preparing monoclonal antibodies and conjugated with gold nanoparticles that characterized using various techniques such as UV-visible spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for each serotype produced in experimental rats and used to capture antibodies for FMDV and /or LSDV. ELISA was used to screen 469 milk samples and 1165 serum samples from naturally infected cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats for validation of the lateral flow test (LFT). LSDV DNA was extracted from 117 blood and skin biopsy samples collected from naturally infected cattle during the 2019 outbreak. Results: The specificity and sensitivity of GNP-LFT were evaluated and compared to Ag-ELISA, Western blot tests (WB), and PCR. A total of 95 FMDV positives out of 469 (20.25%) milk samples and 268 FMDV positives out of 1165 (23.3%) serum samples from natural infected cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats examined by ELISA to valid GNPS-LFT Viral LSDV DNA was detected in 60/117 (51.5%) and 31/60 (52.9%). While the GNPS-LFT assay results were 49/117 (41.9%) and 29/60 (48.3%) blood and skin biopsy samples, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the GNP-LFT test were 72% and 82%, respectively. All vesicular fluid and epithelium samples collected from infected animals were identified as positive by the GNP-LFT and Ag-ELISA. Ag-ELISA, on the other hand, was 90% and 100%. While the developed GNPLFT used LSDV polyclonal antibodies were similar to ELISA and IgG-WB with a sensitivity of 72.8% and a specificity of 88.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The GNPS-LFT is a novel immunoassay based on mono or polyclonal antibodies conjugated with gold nanoparticles that provides an accurate, rapid, specific, and sensitive tool for field rapid diagnosis of FMDV and LSDV. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Iranian Journal of Microbiology is the property of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(16): 4505-4516, 2022 Aug.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1998106

ABSTRACT

This study aims to obtain higher-level evidence by overviewing the Meta-analysis of Lianhua Qingwen preparations in the treatment of viral diseases including influenza, coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), and hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD). CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, China Clinical Trial Registry(ChiCTR), PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched for the Meta-analysis about the treatment of viral diseases with Lianhua Qingwen preparations from the database establishment to April 1, 2022. After literature screening and data extraction, AMSTAR2 and the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluations(GRADE) system were used to assess the methodological quality and evidence quality, respectively, and then the efficacy and safety outcomes of Lianhua Qingwen preparations in the treatment of viral diseases were summarized. Thirteen Meta-analysis were finally included, three of which were rated as low grade by AMSTAR2 and ten as very low grade. A total of 75 outcome indicators were obtained, involving influenza, COVID-19, and HFMD. According to the GRADE scoring results, the 75 outcome indicators included 5(6.7%) high-level indicators, 18(24.0%) mediate-level indicators, 25(33.3%) low-level evidence indicators, and 27(36.0%) very low-level indicators.(1)In the treatment of influenza, Lianhua Qingwen preparations exhibited better clinical efficacy than other Chinese patent medicines and Ribavirin and had similar clinical efficacy compared with Oseltamivir. Lianhua Qingwen preparations were superior to other Chinese patent medicines, Oseltamivir, and Ribavirin in alleviating clinical symptoms. They showed no significant differences from Oseltamivir or conventional anti-influenza treatment in terms of the time to and rate of negative result of viral nucleic acid test.(2)In the treatment of COVID-19, Lianhua Qingwen preparation alone or combined with conventional treatment was superior to conventional treatment in terms of total effective rate, main symptom subsidence rate and time, fever clearance rate, duration of fever, time to fever clearance, cough subsidence rate, time to cough subsidence, fatigue subsidence rate, time to fatigue subsidence, myalgia subsidence rate, expectoration subsidence rate, chest tightness subsidence rate, etc. Lianhua Qingwen preparations no difference from conventional treatment in terms of subsiding sore throat, nausea, diarrhea, loss of appetite, headache, and dyspnea. In terms of chest CT improvement rate, rate of progression to severe case, cure time, and hospitalization time, Lianhua Qingwen alone or in combination with conventional treatment was superior to conventional treatment.(3)In the treatment of HFMD, Lianhua Qingwen Granules was superior to conventional treatment in terms of total effective rate, average fever clearance time, time to herpes subsidence, and time to negative result of viral nucleic acid test.(4)In terms of safety, Lianhua Qingwen preparations led to low incidence of adverse reactions, all of which were mild and disappeared after drug withdrawal. The available evidence suggests that in the treatment of influenza, COVID-19, and HFMD, Lianhua Qingwen preparations can relieve the clinical symptoms, shorten the hospitalization time, and improve the chest CT. They have therapeutic effect and good safety in the treatment of viral diseases. However, due to the low quality of available studies, more high-quality clinical trials are needed to support the above conclusions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Influenza, Human , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cough , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Fatigue , Fever/drug therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use
15.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(15)2022 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993917

ABSTRACT

Foot-and mouth-disease (FMD) caused by the FMD virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and negatively affects livestock worldwide. The control of the disease requires a combination of measures, including vaccination; however, there is no specific treatment available. Several studies have shown that plant-derived products with antiviral properties were effective on viral diseases. Herein, antiviral activities of andrographolide (AGL), deoxyandrographolide (DAG), and neoandrographolide (NEO) against FMDV serotype A were investigated using an in vitro cell-based assay. The results showed that AGL and DAG inhibited FMDV in BHK-21 cells. The inhibitory effects of AGL and DAG were evaluated by RT-qPCR and exhibited EC50 values of 52.18 ± 0.01 µM (SI = 2.23) and 36.47 ± 0.07 µM (SI = 9.22), respectively. The intracellular protease assay revealed that AGL and DAG inhibited FMDV 3Cpro with IC50 of 67.43 ± 0.81 and 25.58 ± 1.41 µM, respectively. Additionally, AGL and DAG significantly interfered with interferon (IFN) antagonist activity of the 3Cpro by derepressing interferon-stimulating gene (ISGs) expression. The molecular docking confirmed that the andrographolides preferentially interacted with the 3Cpro active site. However, NEO had no antiviral effect in any of the assays. Conclusively, AGL and DAG inhibited FMDV serotype A by interacting with the 3Cpro and hindered its protease and IFN antagonist activities.

16.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):1519-1527, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969848

ABSTRACT

This study investigated dental problems and radiological and cardiac evaluations in patients affected by Covid-19. Heart disease is related to the health of the teeth, and people who have damaged and decayed teeth are more prone to cardiovascular disease. Researchers have concluded that poor dental hygiene is a sign of acute heart disease risks. In the report presented by Tarje Imna service, a group of researchers examined almost 65 thousand people infected with the corona virus in order to evaluate the effects of the covid 19 virus on the oral and dental health of the affected people. According to the results of this research, one of the effects of the corona virus on the body is the reduction of oral moisture. Almost 43% of patients accepted this effect. In general, dry mouth is one of the causes of oral and dental diseases, especially bad breath. Corona virus also increases the risk of tooth decay by reducing the moisture in the mouth. Another effect of the corona virus on the mouth and teeth is to cause ulcers in the gums and tongue. Of course, in this case, researchers do not comment with certainty, because they believe that other factors are also effective in causing these wounds. Some experts say that considering that more than 47 percent of adults who are 30 years old or older have periodontal diseases, such as gum infection, inflammation of the gums and bone around the teeth. We should expect that the existing dental and oral problems will become more acute in case of infection with Covid-19.

17.
Virol J ; 19(1): 120, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965846

ABSTRACT

Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10), the causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), caused a series of outbreaks in recent years and often leads to neurological impairment, but a clear understanding of the disease pathogenesis and host response remains elusive. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs), a large family of non-coding RNA molecules, have been reported to be key regulators in viral pathogenesis and virus-host interactions. However, the role of host cellular miRNAs defensing against CV-A10 infection is still obscure. To address this issue, we systematically analyzed miRNA expression profiles in CV-A10-infected 16HBE cells by high-throughput sequencing methods in this study. It allowed us to successfully identify 312 and 278 miRNAs with differential expression at 12 h and 24 h post-CV-A10 infection, respectively. Among these, 4 miRNAs and their target genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR, which confirmed the sequencing data. Gene target prediction and enrichment analysis revealed that the predicted targets of these miRNAs were significantly enriched in numerous cellular processes, especially in regulation of basic physical process, host immune response and neurological impairment. And the integrated network was built to further indicate the regulatory roles of miRNAs in host-CV-A10 interactions. Consequently, our findings could provide a beneficial basis for further studies on the regulatory roles of miRNAs relevant to the host immune responses and neuropathogenesis caused by CV-A10 infection.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus A, Human , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , MicroRNAs , Benzeneacetamides , Enterovirus A, Human/genetics , Epithelial Cells , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Piperidones
18.
J Clin Virol ; 154: 105245, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956198

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute febrile illness characterized by fever; sore throat; and vesicular eruptions on the hands, feet, and oral mucosa. Outbreaks of HFMD in children aged <5 years have been reported worldwide and the major causative agents are Coxsackievirus (CV)A16, enterovirus (EV)-A71 and recently CVA6. AIM AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to investigated a large outbreak of Hand, foot, and mouth disease during COVID-19 pandemic in 2021 from clinical samples of 315 suspected cases, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Diagnostic evaluation was performed by RT-qPCR, culture cell isolation and serological neutralization assay. EV-positive were genotyped by partial VP1 genome sequencing. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-nine cases analyzed were positive for enterovirus (47.3%; n = 149/315) by neutralizing test (n = 10 patients) and RT-qPCR (n = 139 patients), and identified as CVA6 sub-lineage D3 by analysis of VP1 partial sequences. CONCLUSIONS: This finding indicated the reemergence of CVA6 in HFMD, soon after the gradual easing of non-pharmaceutical interventions during-pandemic COVID-19 and the relevance of continued surveillance of circulating enterovirus types in the post-COVID pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics
19.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956753

ABSTRACT

The aim is to determine oral manifestations in patients with COVID-19 disease and in the postcovid period. Methods: A special survey (questionnaire) was made in 424 people who had COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR, ELISA for specific IgM and IgG antibodies and Chest CT scan (168 people). 123 people had complaints and clinical symptoms in the oral cavity 2-6 months after the illness and they came to the University dental clinic. Laboratory tests have been performed (clinical blood test, blood immunogram, virus and fungal identification). Results: Survey results showed that 16,0% participants had asymptomatic COVID-19, 23,6% - mild and 48,1% moderate disease. 12,3% with severe COVID-19 were treated in a hospital with oxygen support. In the first 2 weeks 44,3% indicated xerostomia, dysgeusia (21,7%), muscle pain during chewing (11,3%), pain during swallowing (30,2%), burning and painful tongue (1,9%), tongue swelling (30,2%), catharal stomatitis (16,0%), gingival bleeding (22,6%), painful ulcers (aphthae) (8,5%) and signs of candidiasis - white plaque in the tongue (12,3%). After illness (3-6 months), patients indicated dry mouth (12,3%), progressing of gingivitis (20,7%) and periodontitis (11,3%). In patients who applied to the clinic we identified such diagnoses: desquamative glossitis - 16 cases, glossodynia (11), herpes labialis and recurrent herpetic gingivostomatitis (27), hairy leukoplakia (1), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (22), aphthosis Sutton (4), necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (13), oral candidiasis (14), erythema multiforme (8), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (2), oral squamous cell papillomas on the gingiva (4) and the lower lip (1). According to laboratory studies, virus reactivation (HSV, VZV, EBV, CMV, Papilloma viruces) was noted in 52 patients (42,3%), immunodeficiency in 96 people (78,0%), immunoregulation disorders (allergic and autoimmune reactions) in 24 people (19,5%). Conclusions: Lack of oral hygiene, hyposalivation, vascular compromise, stress, immunodeficiency and reactivation of persistent viral and fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 disease are risk factors for progression of periodontal and oral mucosal diseases.

20.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents ; 36(2):139-150, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955702

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause long-standing damage to the immune system characterized by increased inflammatory cytokine activation. Maintaining periodontal health may reduce host susceptibility to COVID-19 and prevent COVID-19 aggravation in infected patients. There is sufficient evidence in the literature to warrant an association between the presence of PDs and the development and course of respiratory illnesses. Optimum oral health, maintaining good systemic health, and elimination of smoking habits may be beneficial for the prevention and management of COVID-19 infections. Future studies on the periodontal status of patients with COVID-19, including from mild to severe forms, could allow the opportune identification of people at risk of severe illness and generate relevant recommendations. The connection, if any, between the oral microbiome and COVID-19 complications is urgently required to establish the importance of oral hygiene and pre-existing oral disease in the severity and mortality risk of COVID-19.

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