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1.
Regen Ther ; 20: 61-71, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815134

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and quickly became the global pandemic. The high spread rate, relatively high mortality rate, and the lack of specific medicine have led researchers and clinicians worldwide to find new treatment strategies. Unfortunately, evidence shows that the virus-specific receptor Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2) is present on the surface of most cells in the body, leading to immune system dysfunction and multi-organ failure in critically ill patients. In this context, the use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) and their secret has opened new therapeutic horizons for patients due to the lack of ACE2 receptor expression. MSCs exert their beneficial therapeutic actions, particularly anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, mainly through paracrine effects which are mediated by exosomes. Exosomes are bilayer nanovesicles that carry a unique cargo of proteins, lipids and functional nucleic acids based on their cell origin. This review article aims to investigate the possible role of exosomes and the underlying mechanism involved in treating COVID-19 disease based on recent findings.

2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580954

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Respiratory insufficiency with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ dysfunction leads to high mortality in COVID-19 patients. In times of limited intensive care unit (ICU) resources, chest CTs became an important tool for the assessment of lung involvement and for patient triage despite uncertainties about the predictive diagnostic value. This study evaluated chest CT-based imaging parameters for their potential to predict in-hospital mortality compared to clinical scores. (2) Methods: 89 COVID-19 ICU ARDS patients requiring mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure mask ventilation were included in this single center retrospective study. AI-based lung injury assessment and measurements indicating pulmonary hypertension (PA-to-AA ratio) on admission CT, oxygenation indices, lung compliance and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores on ICU admission were assessed for their diagnostic performance to predict in-hospital mortality. (3) Results: CT severity scores and PA-to-AA ratios were not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality, whereas the SOFA score showed a significant association (p < 0.001). In ROC analysis, the SOFA score resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) for in-hospital mortality of 0.74 (95%-CI 0.63-0.85), whereas CT severity scores (0.53, 95%-CI 0.40-0.67) and PA-to-AA ratios (0.46, 95%-CI 0.34-0.58) did not yield sufficient AUCs. These results were consistent for the subgroup of more critically ill patients with moderate and severe ARDS on admission (oxygenation index <200, n = 53) with an AUC for SOFA score of 0.77 (95%-CI 0.64-0.89), compared to 0.55 (95%-CI 0.39-0.72) for CT severity scores and 0.51 (95%-CI 0.35-0.67) for PA-to-AA ratios. (4) Conclusions: Severe COVID-19 disease is not limited to lung (vessel) injury but leads to a multi-organ involvement. The findings of this study suggest that risk stratification should not solely be based on chest CT parameters but needs to include multi-organ failure assessment for COVID-19 ICU ARDS patients for optimized future patient management and resource allocation.

3.
Respiration ; 101(2): 155-165, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Findings from autopsies have provided evidence on systemic microvascular damage as one of the underlying mechanisms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19). The aim of this study was to correlate autopsy-based cause of death in SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive patients with chest imaging and severity grade of pulmonary and systemic morphological vascular pathology. METHODS: Fifteen SARS-CoV-2 positive autopsies with clinically distinct presentations (age 22-89 years) were retrospectively analyzed with focus on vascular, thromboembolic, and ischemic changes in pulmonary and in extrapulmonary sites. Eight patients died due to COVID-19 associated respiratory failure with diffuse alveolar damage in various stages and/or multi-organ failure, whereas other reasons such as cardiac decompensation, complication of malignant tumors, or septic shock were the cause of death in 7 further patients. The severity of gross and histopathological changes was semi-quantitatively scored as 0 (absent), 1 (mild), and 3 (severe). Severity scores between the 2 groups were correlated with selected clinical parameters, initial chest imaging, autopsy-based cause of death, and compared using Pearson χ2 and Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: Severe pulmonary endotheliitis (p = 0.031, p = 0.029) and multi-organ involvement (p = 0.026, p = 0.006) correlated significantly with COVID-19 associated death. Pulmonary microthrombi showed limited statistical correlation, while tissue necrosis, gross pulmonary embolism, and bacterial superinfection did not differentiate the 2 study groups. Chest imaging at hospital admission did not differ either. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive pulmonary endotheliitis and multi-organ involvement are characteristic autopsy features in fatal CO-VID-19 associated deaths. Thromboembolic and ischemic events and bacterial superinfections occur frequently in SARS-CoV-2 infection independently of outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Vasculitis/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Vasculitis/mortality , Vasculitis/pathology , Young Adult
4.
Med Hypotheses ; 154: 110661, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340767

ABSTRACT

The world is currently facing the COVID-19 pandemic that is taking a heavy toll on several countries. While many infected patients have a good prognosis, in some cases the progression can be serious and even lead to death. The commonly seen complications are a cytokine storm and multi-organ failure that require intensive care. The mortality of critically ill patients depends on age, sex, immune state or co-morbidities. There is an urgent need to discover a biomarker to identify early on patients at risk of developing serious complications and to find an effective treatment that could prevent disease progression and critical states. Recent investigations have pointed to the possible contribution of intestinal dysbiosis to the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Herein, we hypothesize that butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid initially produced by the gut microbiota, could be administered as supportive therapy to prevent immune system activation and disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Hepatol Int ; 15(4): 1018-1026, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired liver injury is associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19. This study investigated the temporal progression of clinical variables of in-hospital liver injury in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: COVID-19 patients (n = 1361) were divided into no, mild and severe liver injury (nLI, mLI and sLI) groups. Time courses of laboratory variables were time-locked to liver-injury onset defined by alanine aminotransferase level. Predictors of liver injury were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of mLI was 39.4% and sLI was 9.2%. Patients with escalated care had higher prevalence of sLI (23.2% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.05). sLI developed 9.4 days after hospitalization. sLI group used more invasive ventilation, anticoagulants, steroids, and dialysis (p < 0.05). sLI, but not mLI, had higher adjusted mortality odds ratio (= 1.37 [95% CI 1.10, 1.70], p = 0.005). Time courses of the clinical variables of the sLI group differed from those of the nLI and mLI group. In the sLI group, alanine aminotransferase, procalcitonin, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase showed similar temporal profiles, whereas white-blood-cell count, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, respiration and heart rate were elevated early on, and lymphocyte and SpO2 were lower early on. The top predictors of sLI were alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, respiration rate, ferritin, and lymphocyte, yielding an AUC of 0.98, 0.92, 0.88 and 0.84 at 0, - 1, - 2 and - 3 days prior to onset, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified key clinical variables predictive of liver injury in COVID-19, which may prove useful for management of liver injury. Late onset of sLI and more aggressive care are suggestive of treatment-related hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Liver , Alanine Transaminase , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Liver/injuries , Liver Diseases/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 675310, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289865

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2, a novel betacoronavirus, has caused the global outbreak of a contagious infection named coronavirus disease-2019. Severely ill subjects have shown higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine storm is the term that can be used for a systemic inflammation leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines and activation of immune cells. In coronavirus disease-2019 infection, a cytokine storm contributes to the mortality rate of the disease and can lead to multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome through auto-destructive responses of systemic inflammation. Direct effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with infection as well as hyperinflammatory reactions are in association with disease complications. Besides acute respiratory distress syndrome, functional impairments of the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, kidneys, liver, and several others can be mentioned as the possible consequences. In addition to the current therapeutic approaches for coronavirus disease-2019, which are mostly supportive, stem cell-based therapies have shown the capacity for controlling the inflammation and attenuating the cytokine storm. Therefore, after a brief review of novel coronavirus characteristics, this review aims to explain the effects of coronavirus disease-2019 cytokine storm on different organs of the human body. The roles of stem cell-based therapies on attenuating cytokine release syndrome are also stated.

7.
Liver Res ; 5(1): 21-27, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the current pandemic, can have multi-organ impact. Recent studies show that liver injury could be a manifestation of the disease, and that liver disease could also be related to a worse prognosis. Our aim was to compare the characteristics of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 who required intubation versus stable hospitalized patients to identify the early biochemical predictive factors of a severe course of COVID-19 and subsequent requirement for intubation, specifically in Mexican. METHODS: This was an observational case-control study nested in a cohort study. Complete medical records of patients admitted for confirmed COVID-19 at a tertiary level center in Mexico City were reviewed. Clinical and biochemical data were collected, and the characteristics of patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) (cases) were compared with stable hospitalized patients without ventilation (controls). RESULTS: We evaluated 166 patients with COVID-19 due to SARS-CoV-2 infection; 114 (68.7%) were men, the mean age was 50.6 ± 13.3 years, and 27 (16.3%) required IMV. The comparative analysis between cases and controls showed (respectively) significantly lower blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) (73.5 ± 12.0% vs. 83.0 ± 6.8%, P < 0.0001) and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (128 (14-1123) IU/L vs. 33 (8-453) IU/L, P = 0.003), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (214 (17-1247) vs. 44 (12-498) IU/L, P = 0.001), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (764.6 ± 401.9 IU/L vs. 461.0 ± 185.6 IU/L, P = 0.001), and D-dimer (3463 (524-34,227) ng/mL vs. 829 (152-41,923) ng/mL, P = 0.003) concentrations. Patients in the cases group were older (58.6 ± 12.7 years vs. 49.1 ± 12.8 years, P=0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that important factors at admission predicting the requirement for IMV during hospitalization for COVID-19 were AST ≥250 IU/L (odds ratio (OR) = 64.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5-560.3, P < 0.0001) and D-dimer ≥ 3500 ng/mL (OR = 4.1, 95% CI 1.2-13.7, P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the importance of monitoring liver enzymes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19; seriously ill patients have significantly elevated AST and D-dimer concentrations, which have prognostic implications in the SARS-CoV-2 disease course.

8.
Heliyon ; 7(1): e06008, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047601

ABSTRACT

Recently, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has attracted the attention of scientists where it has a high mortality rate among older adults and individuals suffering from chronic diseases, such as chronic kidney diseases (CKD). It is important to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which COVID-19 affects the kidneys and accordingly develop proper nutritional and pharmacological strategies. Although numerous studies have recently recommended several approaches for the management of COVID-19 in CKD, its impact on patients with renal diseases remains the biggest challenge worldwide. In this paper, we review the most recent evidence regarding causality, potential nutritional supplements, therapeutic options, and management of COVID-19 infection in vulnerable individuals and patients with CKD. To date, there is no effective treatment for COVID-19-induced kidney dysfunction, and current treatments are yet limited to anti-inflammatory (e.g. ibuprofen) and anti-viral medications (e.g. Remdesivir, and Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine) that may increase the chance of treatment. In conclusion, the knowledge about kidney damage in COVID-19 is very limited, and this review improves our ability to introduce novel approaches for future clinical trials for this contiguous disease.

9.
Arch Pharm Res ; 44(1): 99-116, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008079

ABSTRACT

The novel beta coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, designated as COVID-19) that is responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome has devastated the global economy and health care system. Since COVID-19 changed the definition of "normal" in ordinary life around the world, the development of effective therapeutics and preventive measures is desperately needed to fight SARS-CoV-2 infection and restore normalcy. A clear understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis is crucial in providing the scientific rationale necessary to develop anti-COVID19 drugs and vaccines. According to the most recently published literature, COVID-19 pathogenesis was postulated to occur in three sequential phases: pulmonary, proinflammatory, and prothrombic. Herein, virus-host interactions, potential pathogenic mechanisms, and clinical manifestations are described for each phase. Additionally, based on this pathogenesis model, various therapeutic strategies involving current clinical trials are presented with an explanation of their modes of action and example drugs. This review is a thorough, updated summary of COVID-19 pathogenesis and the therapeutic options available for this disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors
10.
J Crit Care ; 62: 38-45, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for mechanical ventilation. The role of multi-organ failure during ICU admission as driver for outcome remains to be investigated yet. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort of mechanically ventilated critically ill with SARS-CoV-2 infection. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: 94 participants of the MaastrICCht cohort (21% women) had a median length of stay of 16 days (maximum of 77). After division into survivors (n = 59) and non-survivors (n = 35), we analysed 1555 serial SOFA scores using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Survivors improved one SOFA score point more per 5 days (95% CI: 4-8) than non-survivors. Adjustment for age, sex, and chronic lung, renal and liver disease, body-mass index, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk factors, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score did not change this result. This association was stronger for women than men (P-interaction = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in SOFA score associated with survival suggests multi-organ failure involvement during mechanical ventilation in patients with SARS-CoV-2. Surviving women appeared to improve faster than surviving men. Serial SOFA scores may unravel an unfavourable trajectory and guide decisions in mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Care , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Respiration, Artificial , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 364-368, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816672

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can lead to severe disease or death and is characterized by a wide range of mild to severe symptoms. In addition to the lungs, studies have reported the involvement of the stomach, intestine, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors in the heart. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a patient with COVID-19 who died soon after developing multi-organ failure and myocardial injury due to COVID-19-associated pneumonia. A 71-year-old man who contracted COVID-19 was admitted to the hospital after presenting with fever for 7 days and developed dyspnea. Following treatment, his respiratory status worsened. Thus, he was transferred to our hospital for intensive care on day 11. Physical examination revealed fever, dyspnea, respiratory distress, and no chest pain. Invasive positive pressure ventilation was initiated for acute respiratory distress syndrome on day 14. On day 15, we observed renal, liver, and coagulation dysfunction, indicating multi-organ failure. Chest radiography did not show clear signs of an increased cardiothoracic ratio or pulmonary congestion. An electrocardiogram (ECG) showed signs of myocardial infarction, which was confirmed by elevated troponin I and creatine kinase levels. The patient's circulatory dynamics did not improve on medication, and he died on day 16. CONCLUSIONS: We report the case of a patient with severe COVID-19 who died from an exacerbation of myocardial injury. Clinicians should not only evaluate respiration but also assess the heart by performing a 12-lead ECG, echocardiogram, and myocardial injury marker examination. Together, these tools can help predict which patients will develop severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Creatine Kinase/blood , Electrocardiography/methods , Fatal Outcome , Heart Injuries/diagnosis , Heart Injuries/etiology , Humans , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardium/pathology , Radiography/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Troponin I/blood
12.
J Mol Histol ; 51(6): 613-628, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813346

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) in December 2019 form Wuhan, China leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While the common cold symptoms are observed in mild cases, COVID-19 is accompanied by multiorgan failure in severe patients. The involvement of different organs in severe patients results in lengthening the hospitalization duration and increasing the mortality rate. In this review, we aimed to investigate the involvement of different organs in COVID-19 patients, particularly in severe cases. Also, we tried to define the potential underlying mechanisms of SARS-CoV2 induced multiorgan failure. The multi-organ dysfunction is characterized by acute lung failure, acute liver failure, acute kidney injury, cardiovascular disease, and as well as a wide spectrum of hematological abnormalities and neurological disorders. The most important mechanisms are related to the direct and indirect pathogenic features of SARS-CoV2. Although the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a receptor of SARS-CoV2 in the lung, heart, kidney, testis, liver, lymphocytes, and nervous system was confirmed, there are controversial findings to about the observation of SARS-CoV2 RNA in these organs. Moreover, the organ failure may be induced by the cytokine storm, a result of increased levels of inflammatory mediators, endothelial dysfunction, coagulation abnormalities, and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the organs. Therefore, further investigations are needed to detect the exact mechanisms of pathogenesis. Since the involvement of several organs in COVID-19 patients is important for clinicians, increasing their knowledge may help to improve the outcomes and decrease the rate of mortality and morbidity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Heart Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/virology , Lung/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Myocardium/pathology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Life Sci ; 255: 117839, 2020 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-363162

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses, especially COVID-19, is an emerging pandemic infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality. Coronaviruses are associated with comorbidities, along with the symptoms of it. SARS-CoV-2 is one of the highly pathogenic coronaviruses that causes a high death rate compared to the SARS-CoV and MERS. In this review, we focused on the mechanism of coronavirus with comorbidities and impairment in multi-organ function. The main dysfunction upon coronavirus infection is damage to alveolar and acute respiratory failure. It is associated with the other organ damage such as cardiovascular risk via an increased level of hypertension through ACE2, gastrointestinal dysfunction, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, lung injury, CNS risk, ocular risks such as chemosis, conjunctivitis, and conjunctival hyperemia, cancer risk, venous thromboembolism, tuberculosis, aging, and cardiovascular dysfunction and reproductive risk. Along with this, we have discussed the immunopathology and coronaviruses at a molecular level and therapeutic approaches for the coronavirus infection. The comorbidities and multi-organ failure of COVID-19 have been explained at a molecular level along with the base of the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. This review would help us to understand the comorbidities associated with the coronaviruses with multi-organ damage.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
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