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1.
Am Surg ; : 31348211038572, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233274

ABSTRACT

A 20-year-old woman with previous COVID-19 diagnosis presented with abdominal pain and colitis on CT scan. She was admitted in septic shock, with etiology of colitis unclear. After resuscitation, antibiotics, and steroids, she clinically deteriorated. Worsening Clostridioides difficile infection was most likely and she was taken to the operating room. Intraoperatively, only a segment of transverse colon appeared abnormal on gross and endoscopic evaluation. Total colectomy was deferred in favor of segmental resection. Given her unusual disease pattern and recent COVID-19 infection, diagnosis of MIS-C was considered. Steroids were continued and treatment broadened to include heparin and IVIG. The patient returned to the operating room for planned reexploration, endoscopy, and end colostomy. On hospital day three, the patient had an acute mental status change. Computed tomography demonstrated acute cerebral edema with brainstem herniation. The family chose comfort-care measures. Final pathology from the transverse colon demonstrated COVID-19-associated vasculitis.

2.
Indian J Med Res ; 156(4&5): 669-673, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256283

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: There are limited data from India on the post-COVID multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical profile of patients with MIS-A admitted to a tertiary care centre in southern India. Methods: This single-centre retrospective study was conducted from November 2020 to July 2021, and included patients aged >18 yr admitted to the hospital as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Nine patients (5 male, mean age 40±13 yr) met the criteria for MIS-A. Five patients had proven COVID-19 infection or contact history 36.8±11.8 days back. All patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody, negative for COVID-19 PCR, and had negative blood, urine and sputum cultures. All patients had fever and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and five patients had left ventricular dysfunction. All patients had neutrophilic leucocytosis at presentation and elevated biomarkers such as C-reactive protein serum procalcitonin, D-dimer and ferritin. The majority of the patients (7/9 i.e. 77.78%) were treated with intravenous hydrocortisone (50-100 mg q6h-q8h). Six patients recovered completely whereas three patients expired. Interpretation & conclusions: Fever and GI symptoms were the most common presentation of MIS-A. Elevated serum procalcitonin may not be useful in differentiating bacterial sepsis from MIS-A. Most patients responded to corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Retrospective Studies , Procalcitonin , Fever , India/epidemiology
3.
New Microbiol ; 46(1): 81-85, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264039

ABSTRACT

Severe inflammation and one or more extrapulmonary organ dysfunctions have been observed in those who had recently developed COVID-19, except for a macrophage activation syndrome-like picture. A 50-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with fever and a history of COVID-19 infection. More than one area of hemophagocytosis was found in the bone marrow aspiration. The HLH-2004 protocol was started with neurological involvement and she underwent splenectomy due to massive intra-abdominal bleeding secondary to splenic laceration on the 3rd day. Multiple microthrombosis and infarcts were observed in the splenectomy specimen. At the 4th week of the treatment, she was discharged with oral agents. Splenic microthrombosis and splenic rupture due to "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults" are the most important findings of this report.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Splenic Rupture , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , Splenic Rupture/etiology , Splenic Rupture/surgery , Hospitalization , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
4.
Archives of the Balkan Medical Union ; 57(3):301-306, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2272082

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a rare but potentially life-threatening sequel of SARS-CoV-2 infection, requiring early recognition and treatment. Nevertheless, it is often hard to distinguish MIS-A from other COVID-19-related hyperinflammatory complications. Case presentation. A 74-year-old male presented to the emergency department with persistent fever, diarrhea, altered consciousness, polymorphous rash with oral lesions and erythema of the palms and soles, with progressive exfoliation. The patient had been hospitalized for COVID-19 four weeks before and was suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diabetes and hypertension. During his recent hospital stay he received multiple courses of antibiotics and was discharged home with instructions to add sitagliptin and re-initiate therapy with ibrutinib. Upon re-admission, polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2 was still positive and inflammatory markers were markedly elevated. Although MIS-A could not be excluded, a presumptive diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) was made, and the patient was treated empirically with intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose methylprednisolone. SJS is usually considered an adverse drug reaction that affects the skin and mucous membranes. In this patient, MIS-A was also initially included in the differential diagnosis due to previous COVID-19, despite the patient's advanced age and lack of cardiac involvement or conjunctivitis. The patient only partially fulfilled current diagnostic criteria for MIS-A. Conclusions. SJS results from a dysregulated immune response and can have a similar presentation to MIS-A. A better characterization of both conditions is required particularly in older adults with comorbidities, to facilitate timely diagnosis and management and to reduce mortality.Copyright © ENS Editions. Tous droits reserves pour tous pays.

5.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 8850666221121589, 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229687

ABSTRACT

The clinical spectrum of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) includes acute COVID-19, long covid and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adults (MISC/A). The rapid roll-out of COVID-19 vaccination has the potential to affect the clinical presentation of COVID-19 and case reports document rare occurrences of MIS-A after COVID-19 infection and recent vaccination with m-RNA vaccines. We describe 2 cases of MIS-A after COVID-19 infection and recent vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19.

7.
Journal of Young Pharmacists ; 14(4):449-450, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2217397

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has reverberated into calamitous illness globally, even though children have been comparatively reprieved. Coronavirus-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) has been outlined in children (MIS-C) and hardly ever in adults (MIS-A) in as much as April and June 2020, sequentially. Whilst the rudimentary immunopathology is not well demarcated, adaptive immunity is contemplated to be blameworthy. We report a case of Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children lie illness - MIS-A who presented with fever, pain abdomen, weakness and low oxygen saturation in an emergency. Truenat for SARS-CoV-2 came out negative but covid serology IGG came positive. The clinical presentation of the patient was in maintained with the clinically accepted definition of MIS-A. Copyright © 2022 Authors. All rights reserved.

8.
J Pers Med ; 13(2)2023 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has persisted for over 2 years worldwide and has long-term effects on the health and quality of life of convalescents. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome, primary observed in children is currently increasingly recognized in adults. Immunopathology might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A); therefore, the occurrence of MIS-A in non-immunocompetent patients is a significant challenge in diagnosis and treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: We described a 65-year-old patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) who suffered from MIS-A after COVID-19 and was successfully treated with high doses of immunoglobulins and steroids. CONCLUSION: Our study presents for the first time a case of MIS-A in a hematological patient with a broad spectrum of symptoms reflecting multiorgan damage and suggests the long-term consequences of MIS-A as persistent immune dysregulation involving T-cell response.

9.
Intern Med ; 61(16): 2527-2532, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885353

ABSTRACT

We herein report a case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) complicated with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD). A previously healthy 41-year-old man presented with painful swelling of the cervical lymph nodes, fever, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, edema, and hypotension one month after the onset of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019. Laboratory investigations revealed an elevation of CRP, and echocardiography indicated diastolic dysfunction. We diagnosed the patient to have MIS-A. Histopathology of the lymph nodes showed necrotizing lymphadenitis. After the initiation of hydrocortisone and diuretics, his symptoms resolved immediately. This case suggested that post-viral immune dysregulation in MIS-A could play a role in the etiology of KFD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Connective Tissue Diseases/complications , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/complications , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Humans , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
10.
Autoimmun Rev ; 22(2): 103240, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149363

ABSTRACT

The overlap between multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and Kawasaki disease (KD) including coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) and broadly shared gastrointestinal and mucocutaneous disease is poorly defined. In this perspective, we highlight common age-related extravascular epicardial microanatomical and immunological factors that might culminate in CAA expression in both MIS-C and KD. Specifically, the coronary vasa vasorum originates outside the major coronary arteries. Widespread inflammation in the epicardial interstitial compartment in shared between KD and MIS-C. Age-related changes in the neonatal and immature coronary vasculature including the impact of coronary artery biomechanical factors including coronary vessel calibre, age-related vessel distensibility, flow, and vessel neurovascular innervation may explain the decreasing CAA frequency from neonates to older children and the virtual absence of CAA in young adults with the MIS-C phenotype. Other KD and MIS-C features including mucocutaneous disease with keratinocyte-related immunopathology corroborate that disease phenotypes are centrally influenced by inflammation originating outside vessel walls but a potential role for primary coronary artery vascular wall inflammation cannot be excluded. Hence, common extravascular originating tissue-specific responses to aetiologically diverse triggers including superantigens may lead to widespread interstitial tissue inflammation characteristically manifesting as CAA development, especially in younger subjects. Given that CAA is virtually absent in adults, further studies are needed to ascertain whether epicardial interstitial inflammation may impact on both coronary artery physiology and cardiac conduction tissue and contribute to cardiovascular disease- a hitherto unappreciated consideration.


Subject(s)
Coronary Aneurysm , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Coronary Aneurysm/complications , Coronary Aneurysm/pathology , Inflammation/pathology
11.
Heart Views ; 23(3): 169-172, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110434

ABSTRACT

During the current pandemic, acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) provokes overwhelming inflammatory response leading to a wide range of clinical presentations including, a rare multisystem inflammatory syndrome and cardiac injury. Not only during the acute phase of the disease but a delayed immunologic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection among people with hyperinflammatory illness several weeks postacute phase of the infection is recently recognized. We report a young adult male who presented with acute myocarditis and heart failure associated with laboratory evidence of hyperinflammatory syndrome 5 weeks after a full recovery from COVID-19 infection. We believe that health-care providers need to be aware and recognize this syndrome as a rare sequela of COVID-19 infection.

12.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect ; 12(4): 7-13, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081653

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a life-threatening condition associated with elevated inflammatory markers and multiple organ injury. A diagnosis of exclusion, it has been reported after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (SARS-CoV-2) in children and adults; recently it has been described in some post-COVID-19 vaccinated individuals. The prognosis with supportive care and immunomodulatory therapy is good, although some individuals may require treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU). Here we report a case of a 58-year-old man who developed multi-organ failure after receiving the second dose of the Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. He required critical organ support in the ICU. An extensive workup was done to rule out alternative infectious and inflammatory processes. Following a period of gradual in-hospital convalescence, our patient made a full recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensively described case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine in an adult over 50 years of age.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e741-e748, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) was reported in association with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. MIS-A was included in the list of adverse events to be monitored as part of the emergency use authorizations issued for COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: Reports of MIS-A patients received by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after COVID-19 vaccines became available were assessed. Data collected on the patients included clinical and demographic characteristics and their vaccine status. The Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) was also reviewed for possible cases of MIS-A. RESULTS: From 14 December 2020 to 30 April 2021, 20 patients who met the case definition for MIS-A were reported to CDC. Their median age was 35 years (range, 21-66 years), and 13 (65%) were male. Overall, 16 (80%) patients had a preceding COVID-19-like illness a median of 26 days (range 11-78 days) before MIS-A onset. All 20 patients had laboratory evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Seven MIS-A patients (35%) received COVID-19 vaccine a median of 10 days (range, 6-45 days) before MIS-A onset; 3 patients received a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine 4, 17, and 22 days before MIS-A onset. Patients with MIS-A predominantly had gastrointestinal and cardiac manifestations and hypotension or shock. CONCLUSIONS: Although 7 patients were reported to have received COVID-19 vaccine, all had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the widespread use of COVID-19 vaccines, the lack of reporting of MIS-A associated with vaccination alone, without evidence of underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection, is reassuring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24438, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954918

ABSTRACT

Introduction Classification criteria and practice guidelines for inpatient management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) exist, but reports on outpatient management and clinical outcomes are lacking. Here we describe the management and clinical outcomes of four children and four adults with MIS seen at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC) from diagnosis to six months follow-up. Methods This retrospective, case-series describes the initial presentation and management of MIS in four children and four adults seen at WRNMMC from March 2020 to September 2021. Data on each patient was collected from the time of exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus to six months post-diagnosis with MIS. Extracted data includes: demographics, comorbidities, initial MIS presentation, inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, and clinical outcomes. Results A total of 62.5% of patients presented in shock. All pediatric patients received IVIG, methylprednisolone, and anakinra; no adult received this combination. Steroids and immunomodulatory medications were discontinued in 1-2 months outpatient. Three children and two adults had full symptomatic resolution. One child and two adults had persistent deconditioning at six months follow-up. One adult had persistent dyspnea. Conclusions MIS appears to be monophasic with no recurrences at six months follow-up in our patients who only required 1-2 months of glucocorticoid or immunomodulatory medications. The better outcomes in children raise the question of how much of this difference can be attributed to early combination therapy versus physiologic differences in children and adults.

16.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(3): 266-270, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856279

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 may trigger a delayed hyper-inflammatory illness in children called paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS). A similar syndrome is increasingly recognised in adults termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) and may present acutely to medical or surgical specialties with severe symptoms, such as acute abdominal pain or cardiogenic shock. No national guidelines exist in the UK for the management of MIS-A and there is limited evidence to guide treatment plans. We undertook a national Delphi process to elicit opinions from experts in hyperinflammation about the diagnosis and management of MIS-A with the dual aim of improving recognition and producing a management guideline. Colleagues in paediatrics successfully initiated a national consensus management document that facilitated regional multidisciplinary referral and follow-up pathways for children with PIMS-TS, and we propose a similar system be developed for adult patients across the UK. This would facilitate better recognition and treatment of MIS-A across the multiple specialties to which it may present as well as enable follow-up with specialty services post-discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aftercare , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , United Kingdom
17.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24042, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847663

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) after a primary infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first recognized in 2020 and presents with similar symptoms as Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome, and macrophage activation syndrome/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. In children, it is called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); in adults, it is termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). This case offers a unique presentation of MIS in a 20-year-old young adult, who turned 21 years old one week after his presentation. He fits the criteria for MIS-C and MIS-A according to the Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization, respectively. Initial symptoms in the emergency department included headache, neck stiffness, and fever with diffuse rash. Other symptoms consistent with MIS-C/A developed rapidly later during the course of the disease.

18.
Cureus ; 14(3): e23440, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835781

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory illness with multiple extra-pulmonary complications. The multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is one of its complications that usually affects children and is known as MIS-C, but several cases have been reported in adults, symbolized by MIS-A. Thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed a working case definition of MIS-A, which includes several criteria. Here we report two cases of adult male patients with clinical and laboratory symptoms consistent with MIS-A. Case one patient presented at a late stage after two weeks post the onset of symptoms. His health deteriorated rapidly, and eventually, he passed away. However, the second patient presented a few days after the symptoms' onset and took a course of steroids. He was discharged home.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(11): 1903-1911, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a severe condition temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we applied the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition to identify diagnosed and undiagnosed MIS-A cases among adults discharged during April 2020-January 2021 from 4 Atlanta, Georgia hospitals affiliated with a single medical center. Non-MIS-A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification encounter code U07.1. We calculated the ratio of MIS-A to COVID-19 hospitalizations, compared demographic characteristics of the 2 cohorts, and described clinical characteristics of MIS-A patients. RESULTS: We identified 11 MIS-A cases, none of which were diagnosed by the treatment team, and 5755 COVID-19 hospitalizations (ratio 1:523). Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-A were more likely to be younger than 50 years (72.7% vs 26.1%, P < .01) and to be non-Hispanic Black (81.8% vs 50.0%, P = .04). Ten patients with MIS-A (90.9%) had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Two MIS-A patients (18.2%) had a previous episode of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, occurring 37 and 55 days prior to admission. All MIS-A patients developed left ventricular systolic dysfunction. None had documented mucocutaneous involvement. All required intensive care, all received systemic corticosteroids, 8 (72.7%) required mechanical ventilation, 2 (18.2%) required mechanical cardiovascular circulatory support, and none received intravenous immunoglobulin. Two (18.2%) died or were discharged to hospice. CONCLUSIONS: MIS-A is a severe but likely underrecognized complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Improved recognition of MIS-A is needed to quantify its burden and identify populations at highest risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Adult , Humans , Connective Tissue Diseases/drug therapy , Electronic Health Records , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 300, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe inflammation and one or more extrapulmonary organ dysfunctions have been reported and this clinical picture is defined as "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults" (MIS-A) in severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to determine the effect of LDH/lymphocyte ratio (LLR) on the development of MIS-A. METHODS: The data of 2333 patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: MIS-A rate was found to be 9.9% and MIS-A related mortality was 35.3%. LRR level above 0.24 was found to predict MIS-A development with 70% sensitivity and 65.2% specificity. The risk of MIS-A development was found to be 3.64 times higher in those with LRR levels above 0.24 compared to those with 0.24 and below. In patients with MIS-A, LRR level above 0.32 predicts mortality with 78% sensitivity and 70% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection of MIS-A with high sensitivity and specificity in a practical ratio is very important in terms new studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
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