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1.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(9): 916-931, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038256

ABSTRACT

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional membrane-enclosed organelle. One of the major ER functions is cotranslational transport and processing of secretory, lysosomal, and transmembrane proteins. Impaired protein processing caused by disturbances in the ER homeostasis results in the ER stress. Restoration of normal ER functioning requires activation of an adaptive mechanism involving cell response to misfolded proteins, the so-called unfolded protein response (UPR). Besides controlling protein folding, UPR plays a key role in other physiological processes, in particular, differentiation of cells of connective, muscle, epithelial, and neural tissues. Cell differentiation is induced by the physiological levels of ER stress, while excessive ER stress suppresses differentiation and can result in cell death. So far, it remains unknown whether UPR activation induces cell differentiation or if UPR is initiated by the upregulated synthesis of secretory proteins during cell differentiation. Cell differentiation is an important stage in the development of multicellular organisms and is tightly controlled. Suppression or excessive activation of this process can lead to the development of various pathologies in an organism. In particular, impairments in the differentiation of connective tissue cells can result in the development of fibrosis, obesity, and osteoporosis. Recently, special attention has been paid to fibrosis as one of the major complications of COVID-19. Therefore, studying the role of UPR in the activation of cell differentiation is of both theoretical and practical interest, as it might result in the identification of molecular targets for selective regulation of cell differentiation stages and as well as the potential to modulate the mechanisms involved in the development of various pathological states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Cell Differentiation , Fibrosis , Humans , Unfolded Protein Response
2.
J Muscle Res Cell Motil ; 43(2): 45-47, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919885

ABSTRACT

A report on the first virtual European Muscle Conference.


Subject(s)
Muscle, Skeletal , Pandemics
3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809663

ABSTRACT

The contractile activity, high oxygen consumption and metabolic rate of skeletal muscle cause it to continuously produce moderate levels of oxidant species, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Under normal physiological conditions, there is a dynamic balance between the production and elimination of ROS/RNS. However, when the oxidation products exceed the antioxidant defense capacity, the body enters a state of oxidative stress. Myogenesis is an important process to maintain muscle homeostasis and the physiological function of skeletal muscle. Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a key role in myogenesis and skeletal muscle physiology and pathology. In this review, we summarize the sources of reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle and the causes of oxidative stress and analyze the key role of oxidative stress in myogenesis. Then, we discuss the relationship between oxidative stress and muscle homeostasis and physiopathology. This work systematically summarizes the role of oxidative stress in myogenesis and muscle diseases and provides targets for subsequent antioxidant therapy and repair of inflammatory damage in noninflammatory muscle diseases.

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