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Journal of Biological Chemistry ; 299(3 Supplement):S396-S397, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243840


Objective: Immunohistochemistry of post-mortem lung tissue from Covid-19 patients with diffuse alveolar damage demonstrated marked increases in chondroitin sulfate and CHST15 and decline in N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase. Studies were undertaken to identify the mechanisms involved in these effects. Method(s): Human primary small airway epithelial cells (PCS 301-010;ATCC) were cultured and exposed to the SARSCoV- 2 spike protein receptor binding domain (SPRBD;AA: Lys310-Leu560;Amsbio). Expression of the spike protein receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), was enhanced by treatment with Interferon-beta. Promoter activation, DNA-binding, RNA silencing, QPCR, Western blots, ELISAs, and specific enzyme inhibitors were used to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Result(s): Treatment of the cultured cells by the SPRBD led to increased CHST15 and CHST11 expression and decline in ARSB expression. Sulfotransferase activity, total chondroitin sulfate, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content were increased. Phospho-T180/T182-p38-MAPK and phospho- S423/S425-Smad3 were required for the activation of the CHST15 and CHST11 promoters. Inhibition by SB203580, a phospho-p38 MAPK inhibitor, and by SIS3, a Smad3 inhibitor, blocked the CHST15 and CHST11 promoter activation. SB203580 reversed the SPRBD-induced decline in ARSB expression, but SIS3 had no effect on ARSB expression or promoter activation. Phospho-p38 MAPK was shown to reduce retinoblastoma protein (RB) S807/S811 phosphorylation and increase RB S249/T252 phosphorylation. E2F-DNA binding declined following exposure to SPRBD, and SB203580 reversed this effect. This indicates a mechanism by which SPRBD, phospho-p38 MAPK, E2F, and RB can regulate ARSB expression and thereby impact on chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate and molecules that bind to these sulfated GAGs, including Interleukin-8, bone morphogenetic protein-4, galectin-3 and SHP-2 (Src homology region 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2). Conclusion(s): The enzyme ARSB is required for the degradation of chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate, and accumulation of these sulfated GAGs can contribute to lung pathophysiology, as evident in Covid-19. Some effects of the SPRBD may be attributable to unopposed Angiotensin II, when Ang1-7 counter effects are diminished due to binding of ACE2 with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and reduced production of Ang1-7. Aberrant cell signaling and activation of the phospho-p38 MAPK and Smad3 pathways increase CHST15 and CHST11 production, which can contribute to increased chondroitin sulfate in infected cells. Decline in ARSB may occur as a consequence of effects of phospho-p38 MAPK on RB phosphorylation and E2F1 availability. Decline in ARSB and the resulting impaired degradation of sulfated GAGs have profound consequences on cellular metabolic, signaling, and transcriptional events. Funding is VA Merit Award.Copyright © 2023 The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284201


The enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (Arylsulfatase B; ARSB) was originally identified as a lysosomal enzyme which was deficient in Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI; Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome). The newly directed attention to the impact of ARSB in human pathobiology indicates a broader, more pervasive effect, encompassing roles as a tumor suppressor, transcriptional mediator, redox switch, and regulator of intracellular and extracellular-cell signaling. By controlling the degradation of chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate by removal or failure to remove the 4-sulfate residue at the non-reducing end of the sulfated glycosaminoglycan chain, ARSB modifies the binding or release of critical molecules into the cell milieu. These molecules, such as galectin-3 and SHP-2, in turn, influence crucial cellular processes and events which determine cell fate. Identification of ARSB at the cell membrane and in the nucleus expands perception of the potential impact of decline in ARSB activity. The regulation of availability of sulfate from chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate may also affect sulfate assimilation and production of vital molecules, including glutathione and cysteine. Increased attention to ARSB in mammalian cells may help to integrate and deepen our understanding of diverse biological phenomenon and to approach human diseases with new insights.

Mucopolysaccharidosis VI , N-Acetylgalactosamine-4-Sulfatase , Humans , Chondroitin Sulfates/metabolism , Dermatan Sulfate , Mucopolysaccharidosis VI/genetics , Mucopolysaccharidosis VI/metabolism , N-Acetylgalactosamine-4-Sulfatase/genetics , N-Acetylgalactosamine-4-Sulfatase/metabolism , Sulfates
Drug Development and Delivery ; 22(4):18-23, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012508
Mar Drugs ; 18(11)2020 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902592


Seaweed lectins, especially high-mannose-specific lectins from red algae, have been identified as potential antiviral agents that are capable of blocking the replication of various enveloped viruses like influenza virus, herpes virus, and HIV-1 in vitro. Their antiviral activity depends on the recognition of glycoprotein receptors on the surface of sensitive host cells-in particular, hemagglutinin for influenza virus or gp120 for HIV-1, which in turn triggers fusion events, allowing the entry of the viral genome into the cells and its subsequent replication. The diversity of glycans present on the S-glycoproteins forming the spikes covering the SARS-CoV-2 envelope, essentially complex type N-glycans and high-mannose type N-glycans, suggests that high-mannose-specific seaweed lectins are particularly well adapted as glycan probes for coronaviruses. This review presents a detailed study of the carbohydrate-binding specificity of high-mannose-specific seaweed lectins, demonstrating their potential to be used as specific glycan probes for coronaviruses, as well as the biomedical interest for both the detection and immobilization of SARS-CoV-2 to avoid shedding of the virus into the environment. The use of these seaweed lectins as replication blockers for SARS-CoV-2 is also discussed.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Lectins/chemistry , Mannose/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Seaweed/chemistry , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2