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1.
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews ; : 114317, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821096

ABSTRACT

In the past decades, phytoconstituents have appeared as critical mediators for immune regulations among various diseases, both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These bioactive molecules, showing a broad range of biological functions, would hold tremendous promise for developing new therapeutics. The discovery of phytoconstituents’ capability of functionally regulating immune cells and associating cytokines, suppressing systemic inflammation, and remodeling immunity have rapidly promoted the idea of their employment as anti-inflammatory agents. In this review, we discuss various roles of phyto-derived medicines in the field of inflammatory diseases, including chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and acute inflammatory disease such as COVID-19. Nevertheless, traditional phyto-derived medicines often concurred with their clinical administration limitations, such as their lack of cell specificity, inefficient cytoplasmic delivery, and rapid clearance by the immune system. As alternatives, phyto-derived nano-approaches may provide significant benefits. Both unmodified and engineered nanocarriers present the potential to serve as phytoconstituent delivery systems to improve therapeutic physio-chemical properties and pharmacokinetic profiles. Thus, the development of phytoconstituents’ nano-delivery designs, their new and perspective approaches for therapeutical applications are elaborated herein.

2.
Carbohydrate Polymers ; : 119500, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1797107

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic, COVID-19 has a global impact on the lives and livelihoods of people. It is characterized by a widespread infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), where infected patients may develop serious medical complications or even face death. Development of therapeutic is essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of infected patients. Chitosan is a versatile biomaterial in nanomedicine and exhibits anti-microbial, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory properties. This review highlights the progress in chitosan design and application pertaining to the anti-viral effects of chitosan and chitosan derivatives (hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium, sulfate, carboxymethyl, bromine, sialylglycopolymer, peptide and phosphonium conjugates) as a function of molecular weight, degree of deacetylation, type of substituents and their degree and site of substitution. The physicochemical attributes of these polymeric therapeutics are identified against the possibility of processing them into nanomedicine which can confer a higher level of anti-viral efficacy. The designs of chitosan for the purpose of targeting SARS-CoV-2, as well as the ever-evolving strains of viruses with a broad spectrum anti-viral activity to meet pandemic preparedness at the early stages of outbreak are discussed.

3.
J Nanopart Res ; 24(3): 62, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787850

ABSTRACT

The pandemic COVID-19 has worried everyone due to the high mortality rate and the high number of people hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2. Given the seriousness of this disease, several companies and research institutions have sought alternative treatment and/or prevention methods for COVID-19. Due to its versatility, nanotechnology has allowed the development of protective equipment and vaccines to prevent the disease and reduce the number of severe COVID-19 cases. Thus, this article combined the main works and products developed in a nanotechnological field for COVID-19. We performed a literature search using the keywords "COVID-19," "SARS-CoV-2," "nanoparticles," "nanotechnology," and "liposomes" in the SciELO, Scifinder, PubMed, Sciencedirect, ClinicalTrials, and Nanotechnology Products databases Database. The data survey indicated 48 articles, 62 products, and 32 patents. The use of nanotechnology against COVID-19 has brought benefits in several parameters of this disease, helping develop rapid diagnostic tests that release the result in 10 min, as well as developing vaccines containing genetic material from SARS-CoV-2 (DNA, mRNA, and protein subunits). Nanotechnology is an exceptional ally against COVID-19, contributing to the most diverse areas, helping both prevent, diagnose, and treat COVID-19.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(6)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760403

ABSTRACT

Traditional targeted therapeutic agents have relied on small synthetic molecules or large proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies. These agents leave a lot of therapeutic targets undruggable because of the lack or inaccessibility of active sites and/or pockets in their three-dimensional structure that can be chemically engaged. RNA presents an attractive, transformative opportunity to reach any genetic target with therapeutic intent. RNA therapeutic design is amenable to modularity and tunability and is based on a computational blueprint presented by the genetic code. Here, we will focus on short non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) as a promising therapeutic modality because of their potency and versatility. We review recent progress towards clinical application of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for single-target therapy and microRNA (miRNA) activity modulators for multi-target therapy. siRNAs derive their potency from the fact that the underlying RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism is catalytic and reliant on post-transcriptional mRNA degradation. Therapeutic siRNAs can be designed against virtually any mRNA sequence in the transcriptome and specifically target a disease-causing mRNA variant. Two main classes of microRNA activity modulators exist to increase (miRNA mimics) or decrease (anti-miRNA inhibitors) the function of a specific microRNA. Since a single microRNA regulates the expression of multiple target genes, a miRNA activity modulator can have a more profound effect on global gene expression and protein output than siRNAs do. Both types of sncRNA-based drugs have been investigated in clinical trials and some siRNAs have already been granted FDA approval for the treatment of genetic, cardiometabolic, and infectious diseases. Here, we detail clinical results using siRNA and miRNA therapeutics and present an outlook for the potential of these sncRNAs in medicine.

5.
Advanced Functional Materials ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1729090

ABSTRACT

The respiratory system holds crucial importance in the biology of vertebrate animals. Injuries of the respiratory system caused by viral infections (e.g., by COVID-19, MERS, and SARS) can lead to severe or lethal conditions. So far there are no effective treatments for respiratory injuries. This represents a highly unmet clinical need, e.g., during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Nanomedicines have high potential in the treatment of respiratory injuries. In this review, the pathology and clinical treatments of major respiratory injuries, acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome are briefly summarized. The review primarily focuses on nanomedicines based on liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles, which are tested in preclinical models for the treatment of respiratory injuries. These nanomedicines are utilized to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including corticosteroids, statins, and nucleic acids. Furthermore, nanomedicines are also investigated for other respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. The promising preclinical results of various nanoformulations from these studies suggest the potential of nanomedicines for future clinical management of respiratory viral infections and diseases. © 2022 The Authors.

6.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 184: 114180, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729476

ABSTRACT

Acute inflammation is a common dangerous component of pathogenesis of many prevalent conditions with high morbidity and mortality including sepsis, thrombosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), COVID-19, myocardial and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, infection, and trauma. Inflammatory changes of the vasculature and blood mediate the course and outcome of the pathology in the tissue site of insult, remote organs and systemically. Endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the vasculature play the key regulatory functions in the body, distinct under normal vs. pathological conditions. In theory, pharmacological interventions in the endothelial cells might enable therapeutic correction of the overzealous damaging pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic changes in the vasculature. However, current agents and drug delivery systems (DDS) have inadequate pharmacokinetics and lack the spatiotemporal precision of vascular delivery in the context of acute inflammation. To attain this level of precision, many groups design DDS targeted to specific endothelial surface determinants. These DDS are able to provide specificity for desired tissues, organs, cells, and sub-cellular compartments needed for a particular intervention. We provide a brief overview of endothelial determinants, design of DDS targeted to these molecules, their performance in experimental models with focus on animal studies and appraisal of emerging new approaches. Particular attention is paid to challenges and perspectives of targeted therapeutics and nanomedicine for advanced management of acute inflammation.

7.
J Drug Deliv Sci Technol ; 70: 103219, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720287

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases are leading causes of death and disability in developing and developed countries. The burden of acute and chronic respiratory diseases has been rising throughout the world and represents a major problem in the public health system. Acute respiratory diseases include pneumonia, influenza, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS viral infections; while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and, occupational lung diseases (asbestosis, pneumoconiosis) and other parenchymal lung diseases namely lung cancer and tuberculosis are examples of chronic respiratory diseases. Importantly, chronic respiratory diseases are not curable and treatments for acute pathologies are particularly challenging. For that reason, the integration of nanotechnology to existing drugs or for the development of new treatments potentially benefits the therapeutic goals by making drugs more effective and exhibit fewer undesirable side effects to treat these conditions. Moreover, the integration of different nanostructures enables improvement of drug bioavailability, transport and delivery compared to stand-alone drugs in traditional respiratory therapy. Notably, there has been great progress in translating nanotechnology-based cancer therapies and diagnostics into the clinic; however, researchers in recent years have focused on the application of nanostructures in other relevant pulmonary diseases as revealed in our database search. Furthermore, polymeric nanoparticles and micelles are the most studied nanostructures in a wide range of diseases; however, liposomal nanostructures are recognized to be some of the most successful commercial drug delivery systems. In conclusion, this review presents an overview of the recent and relevant research in drug delivery systems for the treatment of different pulmonary diseases and outlines the trends, limitations, importance and application of nanomedicine technology in treatment and diagnosis and future work in this field.

8.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol ; : e1785, 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718500

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-COV-2, the causative agent of new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic threat. Early and precise detection of the virus is vital for effective diagnosis and treatment. Various testing kits and assays, including nucleic acid detection methods, antigen tests, serological tests, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), have been implemented or are being explored to detect the virus and/or characterize cellular and antibody responses to the infection. However, these approaches have inherent drawbacks such as nonspecificity, high cost, are characterized by long turnaround times for test results, and can be labor-intensive. Also, the circulating SARS-COV-2 variant of concerns, reduced antibody sensitivity and/or neutralization, and possible antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) have warranted the search for alternative potent therapeutics. Aptamers, which are single-stranded oligonucleotides, generated artificially by SELEX (Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) may offer the capacity to generate high-affinity neutralizers and/or bioprobes for monitoring relevant SARS-COV-2 and COVID-19 biomarkers. This article reviews and discusses the prospects of implementing aptamers for rapid point-of-care detection and treatment of SARS-COV-2. We highlight other SARS-COV-2 targets (N protein, spike protein stem-helix), SELEX augmented with competition assays and in silico technologies for rapid discovery and isolation of theranostic aptamers against COVID-19 and future pandemics. It further provides an overview on site-specific bioconjugation approaches, customizable molecular scaffolding strategies, and nanotechnology platforms to engineer these aptamers into ultrapotent blockers, multivalent therapeutics, and vaccines to boost both humoral and cellular immunity against the virus. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Respiratory Disease.

9.
Frontiers in Nanotechnology ; 3, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1715018

ABSTRACT

The study of the use of nanotechnology for drug delivery has been extensive. Nanomedical approaches for therapeutics;drug delivery in particular is superior to conventional methods in that it allows for controlled targeted delivery and release, higher stability, extended circulation time, minimal side-effects, and improved pharmacokinetic clearance (of the drug) form the body, to name a few. The magnitude of COVID-19, the current ongoing pandemic has been severe;it has caused widespread the loss of human life. In individuals with severe COVID-19, immune dysregulation and a rampant state of hyperinflammation is observed. This kind of an immunopathological response is detrimental and results in rapid disease progression, development of secondary infections, sepsis and can be fatal. Several studies have pin-pointed the reason for this immune dysregulation;deviations in the signaling pathways involved in the mediation and control of immune responses. In severe COVID-19 patients, many signaling cascades including JAK/STAT, NF-κB, MAPK/ERK, TGF beta, VEGF, and Notch signaling were found to be either upregulated or inactivated. Targeting these aberrant signaling pathways in conjunction with antiviral therapy will effectuate mitigation of the hyperinflammation, hypercytokinemia, and promote faster recovery. The science of the use of nanocarriers as delivery agents to modulate these signaling pathways is not new;it has already been explored for other inflammatory diseases and in particular, cancer therapy. Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy and potential of nanomedical approaches to modulate these signaling pathways and have been met with positive results. A treatment regime, that includes nanotherapeutics and antiviral therapies will prove effective and holds great promise for the successful treatment of COVID-19. In this article, we review different nanomedical approaches already studied for targeting aberrant signaling pathways, the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2, immunopathology and the dysregulated signaling pathways observed in severe COVID-19 and the current treatment methods in use for targeting signaling cascades in COVID-19. We then conclude by suggesting that the use of nanomedical drug delivery systems for targeting signaling pathways can be extended to effectively target the aberrant signaling pathways in COVID-19 for best treatment results. Copyright © 2021 Peter, Sandeep, Rao and Kalpana.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715400

ABSTRACT

Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), discovered in 2004, are thin, long protrusions between cells utilized for intercellular transfer and communication. These newly discovered structures have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in homeostasis, but also in the spreading of diseases, infections, and metastases. Gaining much interest in the medical research field, TNTs have been shown to transport nanomedicines (NMeds) between cells. NMeds have been studied thanks to their advantageous features in terms of reduced toxicity of drugs, enhanced solubility, protection of the payload, prolonged release, and more interestingly, cell-targeted delivery. Nevertheless, their transfer between cells via TNTs makes their true fate unknown. If better understood, TNTs could help control NMed delivery. In fact, TNTs can represent the possibility both to improve the biodistribution of NMeds throughout a diseased tissue by increasing their formation, or to minimize their formation to block the transfer of dangerous material. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction between NMeds and TNTs. In this work, we will explain what TNTs are and how they form and then review what has been published regarding their potential use in nanomedicine research. We will highlight possible future approaches to better exploit TNT intercellular communication in the field of nanomedicine.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane Structures/metabolism , Animals , Biological Transport/physiology , Humans , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanotubes , Tissue Distribution/physiology
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699203

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, a pandemic of COVID-19 disease, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread across the globe. At present, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued emergency approval for the use of some antiviral drugs. However, these drugs still have limitations in the specific treatment of COVID-19, and as such, new treatment strategies urgently need to be developed. RNA-interference-based gene therapy provides a tractable target for antiviral treatment. Ensuring cell-specific targeted delivery is important to the success of gene therapy. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) as carriers for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNAs) to specific tissues or organs of the human body could play a crucial role in the specific therapy of severe respiratory infections, such as COVID-19. In this review, we describe a variety of novel nanocarriers, such as lipid NPs, star polymer NPs, and glycogen NPs, and summarize the pre-clinical/clinical progress of these nanoparticle platforms in siRNA delivery. We also discuss the application of various NP-capsulated siRNA as therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the challenges with targeting these therapeutics to local delivery in the lung, and various inhalation devices used for therapeutic administration. We also discuss currently available animal models that are used for preclinical assessment of RNA-interference-based gene therapy. Advances in this field have the potential for antiviral treatments of COVID-19 disease and could be adapted to treat a range of respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage , RNAi Therapeutics/methods , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Models, Genetic , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
12.
MedComm (2020) ; 3(1): e119, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680505

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) infection pandemic/endemic is constantly surprising health experts because of continuous variations in the structures of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the form of newly emerged variants. Such mutations have exhibited high mortality and severity due to the newly emerged more infectious sites of SARS-CoV-2, making viral infection more transmissible, infectious, and severe. Recently, SARS-CoV-2 mutated to another variant, namely, Omicron (B.1.1.529), which is many times more transmissible and infectious than existed deadly Delta variants of the virus. This severity is closely correlated to a larger number of mutations observed in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of the Omicron-SARS-CoV-2. Considering severity, Omicron has been declared as variant of concerns by the World Health Organization and within days from its emergence, Omicron infection has spread globally, increased hospitalization, exhibited more severity for the young generation, invaded defense mechanism of natural immunity, not responsive to the available vaccines. Such circumstances resonated with the efficiency of available strategies established to manage COVID-19 intelligently and successfully. To explore these aspects, this perspective article carefully and critically summarizes the Omicron's origin, structure, pathogenesis, impact health along with health systems, and experts' recommendations to manage it successfully.

13.
Int J Pharm ; 614: 121458, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615600

ABSTRACT

For successful translation of targeting nanomedicines from bench to bedside, it is vital to address their most common drawbacks namely rapid clearance and off-target accumulation. These complications evidently originate from a phenomenon called "protein corona (PC) formation" around the surface of targeting nanoparticles (NPs) which happens once they encounter the bloodstream and interact with plasma proteins with high collision frequency. This phenomenon endows the targeting nanomedicines with a different biological behavior followed by an unexpected fate, which is usually very different from what we commonly observe in vitro. In addition to the inherent physiochemical properties of NPs, the targeting ligands could also remarkably dictate the amount and type of adsorbed PC. As very limited studies have focused their attention on this particular factor, the present review is tasked to discuss the best simulated environment and latest characterization techniques applied to PC analysis. The effect of PC on the biological behavior of targeting NPs engineered with different targeting moieties is further discussed. Ultimately, the recent progresses in manipulation of nano-bio interfaces to achieve the most favorite therapeutic outcome are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Protein Corona , Nanomedicine
14.
Advanced Therapeutics ; 5(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1676323
15.
J Gene Med ; : e3415, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669502

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy has emerged as a promising tool for treating different intractable diseases, particularly cancer or even viral diseases such as COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). In this context, various non-viral gene carriers are being explored to transfer DNA or RNA sequences into target cells. Here, we review the applications of the naturally occurring amino acid histidine in the delivery of nucleic acids into cells. The biocompatibility of histidine-enhanced gene delivery systems has encouraged their wider use in gene therapy. Histidine-based gene carriers can involve the modification of peptides, dendrimers, lipids or nanocomposites. Several linear polymers, such as polyethylenimine, poly-l-lysine (synthetic) or dextran and chitosan (natural), have been conjugated with histidine residues to form complexes with nucleic acids for intracellular delivery. The challenges, opportunities and future research trends of histidine-based gene deliveries are investigated.

16.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(1)2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625708

ABSTRACT

Drug targeting and nanomedicine are different strategies for improving the delivery of drugs to their target. Several antibodies, immuno-drug conjugates and nanomedicines are already approved and used in clinics, demonstrating the potential of such approaches, including the recent examples of the DNA- and RNA-based vaccines against COVID-19 infections. Nevertheless, targeting remains a major challenge in drug delivery and different aspects of how these objects are processed at organism and cell level still remain unclear, hampering the further development of efficient targeted drugs. In this review, we compare properties and advantages of smaller targeted drug constructs on the one hand, and larger nanomedicines carrying higher drug payload on the other hand. With examples from ongoing research in our Department and experiences from drug delivery to liver fibrosis, we illustrate opportunities in drug targeting and nanomedicine and current challenges that the field needs to address in order to further improve their success.

17.
J Nanopart Res ; 24(1): 12, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623268

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology has the potential to improve the combat against life-threatening conditions. Considering the COVID-19 scenario, and future outbreaks, nanotechnology can play a pivotal role in several steps, ranging from disinfection protocols, manufacture of hospital clothes, to implementation of healthcare settings. Polymeric nanoparticles are colloidal particles with size ranging from 10 to 999 nm, composed of natural or synthetic polymers. The versatility of polymeric-based nanoparticle engineering can provide (i) specificity, (ii) tunable release kinetics, and (iii) multimodal drug composition, making it possible to overcome common limitations encountered during traditional drug development. Consequently, these particles have been widely used as drug delivery systems against several diseases, such as cancer. Due to inherent competitive advantages, polymeric-based nanoparticles hold astonishing potential to counteract the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). For this reason, in the present study, the latest advancements in polymer-based nanotechnology approaches used to fight against SARS-CoV-2 are compiled and discussed. Moreover, the importance of forefront in vitro technologies - such as 3D bioprinting and organ-on-chip - to evaluate the efficacy of nanotherapeutic agents is also highlighted. Polymeric nanoparticles can be functionalized to enhance its potential as a nanotherapeutic agent. Due to its many advantages, polymeric-based nanoparticles systems are a promising approach against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

18.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 180: 114079, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620432

ABSTRACT

Polyethylene glycol or PEG has a long history of use in medicine. Many conventional formulations utilize PEG as either an active ingredient or an excipient. PEG found its use in biotechnology therapeutics as a tool to slow down drug clearance and shield protein therapeutics from undesirable immunogenicity. Nanotechnology field applies PEG to create stealth drug carriers with prolonged circulation time and decreased recognition and clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Most nanomedicines approved for clinical use and experimental nanotherapeutics contain PEG. Among the most recent successful examples are two mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines that are delivered by PEGylated lipid nanoparticles. The breadth of PEG use in a wide variety of over the counter (OTC) medications as well as in drug products and vaccines stimulated research which uncovered that PEG is not as immunologically inert as it was initially expected. Herein, we review the current understanding of PEG's immunological properties and discuss them in the context of synthesis, biodistribution, safety, efficacy, and characterization of PEGylated nanomedicines. We also review the current knowledge about immunological compatibility of other polymers that are being actively investigated as PEG alternatives.


Subject(s)
Drug Carriers , Nanomedicine , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans
19.
Nano LIFE ; 11(3), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1613081

ABSTRACT

Layered double hydroxide nanomaterials (LDH NMs) have been dragging the researchers' attention toward biomedical applications owing to their physiochemical properties, biocompatibility, environmental sensitivity and good cellular uptake mechanisms. Various synthetic methods have been presented in brief. This paper draws attention toward the modification and functionalization of LDH nanostructures for biomedical applications in targeted and controlled drug release, anticancer, bioimaging, bone therapy and regeneration, gene delivery, ophthalmic and antitumor activities. Further, it explains the properties of conjugated LDH NMs which put forward their possibilities to be used in synthesizing the most demanding vaccine for COVID-19 pandemic. Current scenario, challenges and future perspective of LDH NMs have also been discussed.

20.
Journal of Biological Researches ; 27(1):6-14, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1597560

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, which started in the beginning of 2020 was triggered by a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, severely affected various sectors, especially health. The effect of COVID-19 on patients is exacerbated by bacterial co-infections and secondary bacterial infections. There are few studies on how bacterial co-infections and secondary bacterial infections worsen COVID-19 patients, including in Indonesia. Therefore, it is necessary to update and summarize the understanding of bacterial infections characteristics to help optimize the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment decisions. Antibiotics have been used in COVID-19 patients to treat bacterial infections to date, which could contribute to antimicrobial resistance in the future. The review's objective is to summarize bacterial infections in COVID-19 patients and several possible treatments, including antibiotics, phage therapy, probiotics/prebiotics, and nanomedicine for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) delivery. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Biological Researches is the property of Indonesian Biological Society and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

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