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1.
ACG Case Reports Journal ; 9(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822626

ABSTRACT

Liver injury is a common manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with most injuries manifesting as transient mild hepatocellular injury. Cholestatic injury occurs less commonly and is typically mild. Severe cholestatic injury is rare, with only 4 cases reported in the literature. We present a 70-year-old woman with no known liver disease who presented with severe COVID-19 and developed severe cholestatic hepatitis. A liver biopsy was performed demonstrating bile duct injury, uncommonly reported in patients with COVID-19. This complication needs greater awareness because it has been known to cause progressive liver disease requiring transplantation.

2.
Journal of the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences ; 21(1):23-26, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of sunlight exposure and PCR positivity of SARS-COV-2 samples. METHODOLOGY: This Quasi-Experimental Study was carried out at PAQSJIMS – Gambat, District Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan. This experiment was conducted during the summer season from April-September 2020 with consecutive sampling techniques. The average temperature of the study during the given period was 41°C. Sample Size was 8 PCR positive Covid-19 Patients (Each sample divided into 12 portions) (6 controls and 6 test samples) and re-tested by PCR. Six control samples were kept in a laboratory environment. In contrast, six were kept in sunlight (each for a differing duration, i.e., 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes), and the temperature and humidity levels were recorded. The experiment samples underwent a PCR test (along with its time-matched control), and SARS-COV-2 positivity was recorded. Following the experiment, the samples were discarded as per safety regulations. Both male and female covid-19 patients (PCR positive) aged 18 years and above were included, Patients enrolled in treatment trials were excluded. RESULTS: Among the eight samples (each tested in six different batches after exposure to sunlight for varying amounts of time), most, i.e., 45 (93.75%), tested positive for SARS-COV-2. However, there may be a relationship between the length of exposure to sunlight and PCR positivity of the samples since all three samples that tested negative were exposed to sunlight for more at least 30 minutes, all controls (placed in the laboratory and not exposed to sunlight, tested positive). CONCLUSION: There is no significant association between sunlight exposure and PCR positivity of SARS-COV-2 samples.

3.
Frontiers in Pediatrics ; 9, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817994

ABSTRACT

Objective: We sought to compare the clinical characteristics of pediatric respiratory tract infection and respiratory pathogen isolations during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic to those of cases in 2018 and 2019. Methods: Our study included all children from 28 days to 15 years old with respiratory tract infections who were admitted to the Department of Respiration, in the Children's Hospital of Soochow University, between January 2018 and December 2020. Human rhinovirus (HRV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and human bocavirus (HBoV) were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR);In parallel, Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and bacteria were detected by culture in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage specimen, and pleural fluid. Results: Compared to 2018 and 2019, the pathogen detection rate was significantly lower in 2020. With regard to infections caused by single pathogens, in 2020, the detection rates of MP were the lowest and those of HRV were the highest when compared to those in 2018 and 2019. Meanwhile, the positive rates of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and hMPV reported in 2020 were less than those recorded in 2018 but similar to those recorded in 2019. Also, the 2020 rate of adenovirus (ADV) was lower than that recorded in 2019, but similar to that recorded in 2018. There were no statistical differences in the positive rates of HBoV and PIV III over the 3 years surveyed. Infections in infants were significantly less common in 2020, but no significant difference was found among children aged 1 to 3 years. The detection rate of pathogens in children old than 5 years in 2020 was significantly lower than those recorded in the previous 2 years. Notably, the pathogen detection rates in the first and second quarters of 2020 were similar to those recorded in the previous 2 years;however, the rates were reduced in the third and fourth quarters of 2020. As for co-infections, the positive rate was at its lowest in 2020. In the previous 2 years, viral–MP was the most common type of mixed infection. By contrast, in 2020, viral–viral infections were the most common combination. Conclusion: The pathogen detection rate was significantly reduced in Suzhou City during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public interventions may help to prevent respiratory pathogen infections in children.

4.
Clinical Neurosurgery ; 67(SUPPL 1):194-195, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816194

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are increasing reports of a pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that presents with varying clinical features, but includes features of Kawasaki disease or toxic shock syndrome. Symptoms include fever, rash, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Many patients present without any respiratory symptoms and testing for SARS-CoV-2 is often negative. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed. RESULTS: A 7-year-old previously healthy male presented with 3 days of fevers up to 102.4F, headaches, abdominal pain, and intractable vomiting. Both parents had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 four weeks prior. Nasopharyngeal swab tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Echocardiogram was normal. CT venogram of his head was negative for any pathology. He developed severe neck pain and persistent headache during his hospitalization. Soon after receiving hydroxychloroquine, he developed a facial rash and altered mental status with episodes of aphasia, agitation, and pinpoint pupils. He then became unresponsive with left gaze deviation. A non-contrast head CT and CT angiography were negative. He was given levetiracetam and cefazolin and transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. An electroencephalogram (EEG) showed no epileptiform activity. Over the following 7 hours, the EEG demonstrated left frontotemporal slowing, which progressed into a loss of fast activity over the right hemisphere with increased delta activity in the left hemisphere, then abruptly changed to generalized voltage attenuation.He rapidly lost brainstem reflexes, developing fixed and dilated pupils. Repeat CT scan revealed diffuse cerebral edema with loss of gray-white differentiation. Lab results then were consistent with severe inflammation. An intracranial pressure monitor revealed pressures greater than 76 mmHg. His exam soon became consistent with brain death. Pathologic evaluation showed diffuse cerebral edema with perivascular mononuclear infiltrates. CONCLUSION: The cause of this pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome is unclear and the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 affects the nervous system is unknown. Pediatric patients with COVID-19 and neurologic symptoms should be closely monitored as they can rapidly decline due to fulminant cerebral edema.

5.
Journal of Neurological Surgery, Part B Skull Base ; 83(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1815664

ABSTRACT

Since its onset on December 2019, COVID-19 pandemic has been the main study and practical point in medicine. Clinical, biological, diagnostic, and therapeutic features related to SARS-CoV 2 have been studied under different perspectives. Among the most common diagnostic tools is the RT-PCR through Nasal Swab sampling, performed nearly 2 billion times in the world to detect infected persons. The widespread use of this technique is admitted not only for its acceptable sensibility and specificity, but also for its reputed safety. Little was written regarding the complications related to this procedure. However, the nasal swab testing may lead to iatrogenic damages. In this paper, we report the case of a young lady who presented a cerebrospinal fluid leak related to a traumatic skull base injury in the immediate follows of a nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19.

6.
Front Public Health ; 10:840996, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809617

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to assess saliva as a reliable specimen for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), especially in community mass screening programs. The performance analysis considered 1,221 total samples [nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and corresponding saliva], tested by means of a reference diagnostic real-time RT-PCR assay. Conflicting results were further investigated with a second, more sensitive, reference assay. Analysis of agreement showed a good concordance (95.82%), with a k coefficient value of.74 (p < 0.001);moreover, a follow-up analysis revealed the presence of viral gene targets in saliva samples at the time point the corresponding NP swabs turned negative. Data obtained prove the reliability of this alternative biofluid for SARS-CoV-2 detection in real-time RT-PCR. Considering the role of saliva in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission and pathogenesis, and the advantages in the use of salivary diagnostics, the present validation supports the use of saliva as an optimal choice in large-scale population screening and monitoring of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

7.
The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1804589

ABSTRACT

Reopening of schools and workplaces during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic requires affordable and convenient population-wide screening methods. While upper respiratory swab is considered the preferable specimen for testing, saliva offers several advantages such as easier collection and lower cost. In this study, we compared the performance of saliva with upper respiratory swab for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Paired saliva and anterior nares (AN) specimens were collected from a largely asymptomatic cohort of students, faculty, and staff from the University of Pennsylvania. Paired saliva and combined nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) specimens were also collected from hospitalized patients with symptomatic COVID-19 disease following confirmatory testing. All study samples were tested by real-time PCR in the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. In the university cohort, positivity rates were 37/2500 for saliva (sensitivity 86.1%) and 36/2500 for AN (sensitivity 83.7%), with an overall agreement of 99.6%. In the hospital study cohort, positivity rates were 35/49 for saliva (sensitivity 89.3%) and 28/49 for NP/OP (sensitivity 75.8%), with an overall agreement of 75.6%. A larger proportion of saliva than NP/OP samples tested positive after 4 days of symptom onset in hospitalized patients. Our results show that saliva has an acceptable sensitivity and is comparable to upper respiratory swab, supporting the use of saliva for SARS-CoV-2 detection in both symptomatic and asymptomatic populations.

8.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334087

ABSTRACT

Genome sequencing proved to be an excellent tool to monitor the molecular epidemiology of the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, i.e., coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Some reports of infected, vaccinated individuals have aroused great interest because they are primarily being infected with circulating variants of concern (VOCs). To investigate the cases of infected, vaccinated individuals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, we performed genomic monitoring to estimate the magnitude of the different VOCs in these cases. Nasopharyngeal swabs from infected (symptomatic and asymptomatic), fully vaccinated individuals (n=29) who were of varying age and had RT-qPCR Ct values of ≤30 were subjected to viral sequencing using Nanopore technology. Our analysis revealed that the Omicron variant was found in 99% of cases and that only one case was due to the Delta variant. Infected, fully vaccinated patients have a favorable clinical prognosis;however, within the community, they become viral carriers with the aggravating factor of viral dissemination of VOCs not neutralized by the vaccines.

9.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798771

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has clinical manifestations similar to other common respiratory viral infections. There are limited data on the frequency of viral respiratory coinfection among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Iran. Objectives: This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of multiple respiratory viruses among SARS-CoV-2-positive and negative patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Iran. Methods: We included oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab specimens of patients suspected of COVID-19 from December 2020 to March 2021. A reliable multiplex TaqMan one-step real-time PCR method was employed to detect 17 viral respiratory pathogens si-multaneously. Descriptive analyses were performed to characterize the specimens concerning age, gender, clinical manifestations, and underlying disease. Results: Multiple respiratory viruses with a frequency of 18.78% were detected in 197 studied patients. Human metapneumovirus was the most prevalent pathogen detected in both SARS-CoV-2-positive (n = 7, 7.7%) and negative (n = 7, 6.6%) patients. Moreover, the frequency rate of viral infection was almost the same in both SARS-CoV-2-positive (18.68%) and negative (18.86%) patients. Altogether, there were no differences in baseline demographic characteristics such as age, sex, clinical symptoms, and comorbidities between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The data presented here expand our understanding of the epidemiology of multiple types of viral respiratory pathogens in suspected COVID-19 patients. Therefore, simultaneous screening of other viral respiratory pathogens will be helpful for clinicians and researchers interested in the control of viral respiratory tract infections.

10.
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging ; 23(SUPPL 1):i622, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1795301

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We want to evaluate clinical, laboratory profiles and intra-hospital outcome in patients with acute PE treated in intensive care unit in the period of COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is a single center, retrospective cohort study of patients with confirmed acute PE admitted in Intensive Cardiac Care Unit of a tertiary level university hospital between January and December 2020. Detailed history, risk factors, laboratory parameters and treatment strategy based on patient risk were assessed. All patients underwent 2-dimensional echocardiography, lower limb venous Doppler and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). sPESI score and intra-hospital outcomes were evaluated in all patients. Nasopharyngeal smear and realtime reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed in order to confirm COVID-19 infection. Results: We studied 47 patients with acute PE treated in our ICU, with mean age 58.6 ± 19.4 years. Eight patients (17%) had massive PE (central thrombus) and 39 (83%) had sub massive PE (subsegmental thrombus) confirmed by CTPA. Six patients (12,7%) had history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 3 patients (6,3%) had history of prior PE, 4 patients (8,5%) were operated within 3 months, 7 patients (14,8%) had history of malignancy, 24 patient's had increased body weight and obesity (51%). Twelve patients (25,5%) were tested for COVID 19 with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and 3 come positive (12.5%). Eight patients were high risk with shock (17%), intermediate high risk were 29 patients (61.7%) and intermediate low risk were 10 patients (21.3%). sPESI score was >1 in all 47 patients. Abnormal RV function with PAH was found in 32 patients (68%). Five high risk, unstable patients died within 72 hours of admission, resulting in an overall ICU mortality rate of 10,6% and 62.5% mortality rate in patients with cardiogenic shock. Patients with PE and COVID-19 had significantly higher D-dimer and hs-Troponin I levels comparing to the patients with patients negative for COVID-19. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed thrombolytic therapy OR 2.145 (95% CI: 1.105-4,512), D-Dimers >4.500 ng/ml OR 1.893 (95% CI: 0.932-3.241), high risk PE OR 3.98 (95% CI: 1.396-5.641) and acute renal failure OR 2.421 (95% CI: 1.105-4.762) as independent mortality predictors. Eight patients have been treated with fibrinolysis (t-PA), and 39 patients with Heparin therapy. 40 survived patients were discharged with NOAC treatment (95,2%). Conclusions: Pulmonary embolism cardiology clinic ICU admission in the period of COVID-19 pandemic decreased, with increase of PE severity, patients risk and mortality rate. Thrombolytic therapy, D-Dimers >4.500 ng/ml, high risk PE and acute renal failure were independent mortality predictors. Thrombolysis was successful treatment for high risk patients with low bleeding risk.

11.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(2):318-320, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1780507

ABSTRACT

Apart from the physical effects of Covid-19, psychological effects are seen as well in the general population. In pregnant females, psychological impact leads to adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Due to limited data, the mental health of COVID-19 positive pregnant patients is not clear especially in relation to isolation in hospital, treatment, time and mode of delivery. Objective: To determine and compare frequency of anxiety and depression in pregnant women with and without COVID-19. Material and Methods: It was a comparative cross-sectional study that was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SGRH, Lahore. 60 pregnant females were enrolled and underwent nasopharyngeal swab for PCR and had HRCT to determine Covid-19 status. HADS was applied on all pregnant females to assess depression and anxiety and findings were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The mean age, gestational age, anxiety scores and depression scores were 29.93±4.15, 31.1±6.28, 10.56±3.29 and 10.02±2.72 respectively. There were 60% Covid positive pregnant females, depression was present in 31.7% and anxiety was present in 65% females. Comparison of pregnant females with or without Covid infection in terms of depression and anxiety using independent T-test revealed that anxiety was significantly associated with Covid positive status (p=0.032), however, no significant association was seen between depression and covid status (p=0.641) (table 3). Conclusion: Covid-19 was frequently seen in pregnant females and was significantly associated with high frequency of anxiety. Depression was less commonly seen and was not significantly associated with Covid-19 infection.

13.
Talanta ; 243: 123356, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778464

ABSTRACT

The increasing mutation frequency of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the emergence of successive variants have made correct diagnosis hard to perform. Developing efficient and accurate methods to diagnose infected patients is crucial to effectively mitigate the pandemic. Here, we developed an electrochemical immunosensor based on SARS-CoV-2 antibody cocktail-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for the sensitive and accurate detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its variants in nasopharyngeal swabs. The application of the antibody cocktail was compared with commercially available anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 (anti-S1) and anti-S2 monoclonal antibodies. After optimization and calibration, the limit of detection (LOD) determination demonstrated a LOD = 0.53-0.75 ng/mL for the antibody cocktail-based sensor compared with 0.93 ng/mL and 0.99 ng/mL for the platforms using anti-S1 and anti-S2, respectively. The platforms were tested with human nasopharyngeal swab samples pre-diagnosed with RT-PCR (10 negatives and 40 positive samples). The positive samples include the original, alpha, beta, and delta variants (n = 10, for each). The polyclonal antibody cocktail performed better than commercial anti-S1 and anti-S2 antibodies for all samples reaching 100% overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. It also showed a wide range of variants detection compared to monoclonal antibody-based platforms. The present work proposes a versatile electrochemical biosensor for the indiscriminate detection of the different variants of SARS-CoV-2 using a polyclonal antibody cocktail. Such diagnostic tools allowing the detection of variants can be of great efficiency and economic value in the fight against the ever-changing SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Magnetite Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 14(2):257-264, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1777064

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona virus disease 2019 is a highly infectious disease which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted from person to person mainly by respiratory droplets and aerosols as well as by direct or indirect contact. Aims and objective: To compare different RNA extraction methods for detection of SARSCov-2 RNA from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs using three different methods which are based on different techniques. Material and methods: This analytical observational study was conducted in the department of Microbiology, Sawai Man Singh Medical College Jaipur, Rajasthan from December 2020 to January 2021. We selected 200 confirmed positive (extracted by Easy Mag automated system) (remnant) samples showing a wide range of different Ct values and 20 confirmed negative samples stored in Viral Transport Media VTM for this study. In order to compare quality of three extractions methods, all samples were aliquoted separately for each extraction technique. (1) Extraction by manual method (spin column base): was done by as per manufacturer’s instructions. (2) Extraction by QIA cube HT (vaccum column base): was done by as per manufacturer’s instructions. (3) Extraction by Perkins Elmer chemagic 360: (magnetic beads based). Result: A panel consisting of 200 Covid-19 positive and 20 Covid-19 negative samples were extracted by three methods (i.e. Manual column based, automated column-based and automated magnetic beads-based method). The extracted material/elutes were put for realtime RT-PCR assay for the detection of SARS CoV-2 RNA. There was no major difference seen in individual samples’ ct values between three extraction system. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we recommended all three RNA extraction methods (i.e. magnetic beads & silica column-based) are interchangeable in a diagnostic workflow for the SARS CoV-2 by RTPCR and can be taken into account for SARS CoV-2 detection in possible future shortage of one kit or times of crisis in such pandemic time.

15.
European Research Journal ; 8(2):290-295, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1771955

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In the last 2 years with the new type of coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic, it has become inevitable to adapt to this disease in cardiovascular surgery procedures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of the results of respiratory tract samples taken from different places in patients undergoing cardiac surgery on our postoperative patient follow-up procedures and to share our cardiac surgery experiences during the pandemic period. Methods: A total of 177 patients who underwent cardiac surgery were included in this study. Endobronchial lavage samples were obtained from the intubated patients through the endotracheal tube in the early postoperative period. According to the Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) results obtained in the early postoperative period, the patients were divided into 2 groups as Group 1 for those with negative PCR and Group 2 for those with positive PCR. After that a total of 59 patients who were found to have COVID-19 were divided into 2 groups as survivors and non-survivors. Results: There were 118 (66.6%) patients in Group 1 and 59 (33.3%) in Group 2. The mean ages of patients in Group 1 and Group 2 were 64.5 ± 9.8 years and 61.9 ± 10.1 years, respectively (p = 0.174). Mortality was significantly higher in Group 2 (n = 24, 40.6%) compared Group 1 (n = 2, 1.6%) (p < 0.001). After that a total of 59 patients who were found to have COVID-19 were divided into 2 groups as survivors (n = 35, 59.3%) and non-survivors (n = 24, 40.7%). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of gender, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseas rates and surgery types (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected our cardiovascular surgery practice. In addition to being negative for PCR at least 2 times in routine preoperative preparations, obtaining endobronchial lavage samples for PCR testing from the endotracheal tube in the early postoperative period plays an important role in patient management.

16.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-331128

ABSTRACT

Genomic epidemiology has proven successful for real-time and retrospective monitoring of small and large-scale outbreaks. Here, we report two genomic sequencing and analysis strategies for rapidturnaround or high-throughput processing of metagenomic samples. The rapid-turnaround method was designed to provide a quick phylogenetic snapshot of samples at the heart of active outbreaks, and has a total turnaround time of <48 hours from raw sample to analyzed data. The high-throughput method was designed for semiretrospective data analysis, and is both cost effective and highly scalable. Though these methods were developed and utilized for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic response in Arizona, U.S, and we envision their use for infectious disease epidemiology in the 21st Century.

17.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry ; 36(SUPPL 1):S62, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1767695

ABSTRACT

Validation of AG-Q COVID-19 N-Antigen Self- VTest in comparison with Real Time RT-PCR Ajaikumar Sukumaran, Arun Krishnan, Rhema Thomas, Jofy Paul, D M Vasudevan Introduction Currently, RT-PCR and the rapid antigen test (RAT) are the major stakeholders in COVID-19 diagnosis. The RTPCR is the gold standard testing method and RAT is considered for mass screening of COVID-19. In order to improve the accessibility and pace of diagnosis, ICMR had given permission for COVID-19 self-test by the public. AG-Q COVID-19 N-Antigen Self-Test kit is a home based rapid test kit developed by Agappe Diagnostics Limited. The kit has been validated at NIMS Medicity, Trivandrum and compared the performance with the RT-PCR Ct value. Aim Validation and comparison of AG-Q COVID-19 N-Antigen self-test with RT-PCR. Materials & Methods The AG-Q COVID19 N-Antigen self-test is a lateral flow immunochromatography based rapid test. The Covipath COVID-19 RT-PCR kit from ThermoFisher Scientific was used for the comparison study. A total of 72 subjects were recruited (30 positive & 42 negative subjects) for the study with the Institutional Ethical Committee approval and informed consent from the subjects. To perform the comparison study, a nasal swab sample in lysis buffe for RAT and a nasopharyngeal swab sample in VTM for RT-PCR were collected from each participants. Result The AG-Q COVID-19 N-Antigen self-test offers 100% specificity with sensitivity of 83.33%. Conclusion As per the study result, the AG-Q COVID-19 N-Antigen self-test is satisfying the ICMR recommended specificity and sensitivity for rapid antigen self-test as compared with the RT-PCR.

18.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry ; 36(SUPPL 1):S154, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1767688

ABSTRACT

Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS coronavirus 2 has challenged the global healthcare system since 2019. Lipids are integral component of this enveloped virus that play an essential role in in its life cycle starting from fusion of viral membrane to host cell, viral replication and exocytosis. It also disrupts metabolic profile due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to systemic inflammation reaction. Aim and Objective Therefore, it was aimed to find association between human host serum lipid levels and its association with inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods It was a retrospective study conducted from June 2020 to December 2020, included 500 COVID-19 admitted patients tested positive by Oral/Nasopharyngeal swab by Real time PCR. Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C), High Density lipoprotein (HDL), Ferritin, Procalcitonin (PCT), High sensitive C Reactive protein (hsCRP) estimated in Vitros XT 7600 Autoanalyzer and Interleukin-6(IL-6) by ELISA. Results A significant increase in Serum Triglycerides(185mg/dL) and decrease in HDLC(30mg/dL) was observed with no remarkable finding in other lipid parameters. A statistically significant (p<0.05)positive correlation was observed between TG and inflammatory markers such as hsCRP, PCT, Ferritin, IL-6. Likewise, a negative correlation was detected between HDL-C and hsCRP, PCT, Ferritin, IL-6. Conclusion Lipid profile and host cell metabolism is altered in COVID 19 patients either by cellular infection or by systemic inflammation. Hence it is important to study lipid profile alterations in synergism with inflammatory markers. It may act as guiding step in management and prognosis of this disease.

19.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 226(1):S156-S157, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1757067

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore maternal humoral immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the rate of vertical transmission. Study Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted at two university-affiliated medical centers. Women positive for SARS-CoV-2, as determined by reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR), during pregnancy were enrolled just prior to delivery. Levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG, spike IgG and spike-IgM were tested in maternal and cord blood at delivery, and neonatal nasopharyngeal swabs were subjected to PCR testing. The primary endpoint was the rate of vertical transmission, defined as either positive neonatal IgM, positive neonatal IgG with sero-negative mother or positive neonatal PCR. The rate of vertical transmission was estimated to be 7% when defined by RT-PCR. Assuming that using serology tests increases the rate to 10% versus 0% in non-infected population, 71 women were required (80% power, 5% one-sided alpha) Results: Among 72 women, 36 (50%), 39 (54%) and 30 (42%) were positive for anti-spike-IgM, anti-spike-IgG and anti-nucleocapsid-IgG, respectively (p < 0.0001 for IgG antibodies;table). At least 8/72 (11%) neonates were infected in utero;one had a positive PCR and seven had positive IgG while their mothers were seronegative for the same IgG. IgM was not detected in cord blood. Anti-nucleocapsid-IgG and anti-spike-IgG were detected in 83% and 85% of neonates of seropositive mothers, respectively (Pearson coefficient correlation 0.8, p< 0.001). The highest rate of positive maternal serology tests was 8-12 weeks post-infection (89% anti-spike IgG, 78% anti-spike IgM and 67% anti-nucleocapsid IgG). Thereafter, the rate of positive serology tests declined gradually;at 20 weeks post-infection, only anti-spike IgG was detected in 33-50% (figure). Conclusion: The rate of vertical transmission was at least 11%. Vaccination should be considered 3 months post-infection in pregnant women due to a decline in antibody levels. [Formula presented] [Formula presented]

20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(11): e88, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753355

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal swabs have been widely to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing is a generally safe and well-tolerated procedure, but numerous complications have been reported in the media. Therefore, the present study aimed to review and document adverse events and suggest procedural references to minimize preventable but often underestimated risks. A total of 27 articles were selected for the review of 842 related documents in PubMed, Embase, and KoreaMed. The complications related to nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing were reported to be rarely happened, ranging from 0.0012 to 0.026%. Frequently documented adverse events were retained swabs, epistaxis, and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, often associated with high-risk factors, including severe septal deviations, pre-existing skull base defects, and previous sinus or transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Appropriate techniques based on sufficient anatomical knowledge are mandatory for clinicians to perform nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing. The nasal floor can be predicted by the line between the nostril and external ear canal. For safe testing, the angle of swab insertion in the nasal passage should remain within 30° of the nasal floor. The swab was gently inserted along the nasal septum just above the nasal floor to the nasopharynx and remained on the nasopharynx for several seconds before removal. Forceful insertion should be attempted, and alternative examinations should be considered, especially in vulnerable patients. In conclusion, patients and clinicians should be aware of rare but possible complications and associated high-risk factors. The suggested procedural pearls enable more comfortable and safe nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing for both clinicians and patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/adverse effects , Humans , Nasal Cavity/anatomy & histology , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasopharynx/anatomy & histology , Specimen Handling/methods
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