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1.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):716-719, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055480

ABSTRACT

In May 2022, a total of 66 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 233 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were COVID-19 (233), monkeypox (36), dengue fever (31), measles (24) and cholera (11). The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola virus disease (100.0%), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (34.4%), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (22.2%), Lassa fever (19.8%) and monkeypox (4.0%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, malaria, cholera, dengue fever and measles. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19, dengue fever and cholera, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever, malaria and monkeypox, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus disease, the prevalent infectious disease in Europe were COVID-19, monkeypox and acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology.

2.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):720-724, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055479

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the risk of public health emergencies, including both indigenous and imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in June 2022.

3.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:11, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2044719

ABSTRACT

In recent weeks, many Ukrainian refugees have crossed into Hungary, Poland, Moldova, and Romania. The WHO works with these and other nations to increase disease surveillance and provide immunization programs according to their schedules and policies. This article provides a summary of the recommendations provided by WHO to all countries in the region. According to the guidelines, countries must continue to make efforts to ensure that their resident populations, including refugee populations, are fully vaccinated against polio, measles, rubella, COVID-19, and other vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccination against polio, measles, and rubella must be offered as a priority to incoming refugee children under the age of six who have missed any routine vaccinations Vaccine doses must be recorded and made available to vaccinated individuals.

4.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(12):1500-1508, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040500

ABSTRACT

Based on the M gene sequence of TGEV and PEDV and VP2 gene sequence of PoRV, the optimal reaction system and amplification procedure were established by optimizing primer, probe concentration and annealing temperature, and the Quantitative PCR method of TaqMan probes for three viruses is successfully established. On this basis, after further optimization of conditions, a triple real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method for detecting TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV was established. The detection sensitivity of this method for TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 2.49 copies/ L, 4.36 copies/ L, and 4.96 copies/ L respectively. The maximum value of CV in repeated trials detected by TGEV, PEDV and PoRV were 2.5%, 3.8%, 4.3%, and the maximum value of CV in repeated trials between groups were 3.7%, 3.4%, 3.2%, which are no more than 5%.indicating that the established method has good reproducibility. Using this method to detect PRV, PCV1, and PRRSV virus samples, there is no cross-reaction, indicating that the method is specific. Using the established method to detect 40 clinical diseases, the samples were tested, and the positive rates of TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 5%, 30%, and 12.5%respectively. The mixed infection rate of TGEV and PEDV was 2.5%, the mixed infection rate of PEDV and PoRV was 5%. The results of the multiple fluorescence quantitative PCR method are consistent with those of the detection of a single fluorescent RT-PCR method, indicating that the established method has good clinical application value.

5.
NCHS Data Briefs ; 402(8), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2040482

ABSTRACT

This article describes emergency department (ED) visit rates for patients with influenza and pneumonia (either influenza or pneumonia, or both) by selected patient characteristics. Results showed that the emergency department (ED) visit rate per 1,000 persons was 7.9 for patients with pneumonia, 4.4 for patients with influenza, and 12.2 for patients with either or both. The ED visit rate for patients with influenza and pneumonia was higher among younger children than older children and increased with age among adults, and ED visit rate for patients with influenza and pneumonia was highest among non-Hispanic black persons compared with persons from other race and ethnicity groups. The ED visit rate for patients with influenza and pneumonia was also higher for persons with Medicare (19.9 per 1,000 persons with Medicare) or Medicaid (26.2 per 1,000 persons with Medicaid) compared with persons with private insurance or uninsured persons. With the recent spread of COVID-19, which has signs and symptoms that can mirror or appear similar to those resulting from influenza and pneumonia, monitoring ED visits for influenza and pneumonia will continue to be important.

6.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039225

ABSTRACT

Over past decades, there has been increasing geographical spread of Lassa fever (LF) cases across Nigeria and other countries in West Africa. This increase has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite increasing focus on the disease by both local and international scientists. Many of these studies on LF have been limited to few specialised centres in the country. This study was done to identify sociodemographic and clinical predictors of LF disease and related deaths across Nigeria. We analysed retrospective surveillance data on suspected LF cases collected during January-June 2018 and 2019. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors independently associated with laboratory-confirmed LF diagnosis, and with LF-related deaths. There were confirmed 815 of 1991 suspected LF cases with complete records during this period. Of these, 724/815 confirmed cases had known clinical outcomes, of whom 100 died. LF confirmation was associated with presentation of gastrointestinal tract (aOR 3.47, 95% CI: 2.79-4.32), ear, nose and throat (aOR 2.73, 95% CI: 1.80-4.15), general systemic (aOR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.65-2.70) and chest/respiratory (aOR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.28-2.29) symptoms. Other factors were being male (aOR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06-1.63), doing business/trading (aOR 2.16, 95% CI: 1.47-3.16) and farming (aOR 1.73, 95% CI: 1.12-2.68). Factors associated with LF mortality were a one-year increase in age (aOR 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), bleeding (aOR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.07-4.00), and central nervous manifestations (aOR 5.02, 95% CI: 3.12-10.16). Diverse factors were associated with both LF disease and related death. A closer look at patterns of clinical variables would be helpful to support early detection and management of cases. The findings would also be useful for planning preparedness and response interventions against LF in the country and region.

7.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(4 Suppl):S69-S69, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2035714

ABSTRACT

Study Objective: Seasonal influenza is associated with significant healthcare resource utilization. An estimated 490,000 hospitalizations and 34,000 deaths were attributed to influenza during the 2018 - 2019 season. Despite robust influenza vaccination programs in both the inpatient and outpatient setting, the emergency department (ED) represents a missed opportunity to vaccinate patients at high risk for influenza who do not have access to routine preventive care. Feasibility and implementation of ED-based influenza vaccination programs have been previously described but have stopped short of describing the predicted health resource impact. The goal of our study was to describe the potential impact of an influenza vaccination program in an urban adult emergency department population using historic patient data.

8.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(12):1880-1884, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore a new method for detecting respiratory viruses by extracting residual virus on mask, and verify its reliability and sensitivity. METHODS: The novel coronavirus analogs-s La Sota strains of chicken Newcastle disease virus and H120 strains of infectious bronchitis virus with different diluted concentrations were sprayed onto surgical masks and N95 masks through a respiratory simulator, and they were left standing at room temperature for 2 hours and 12 hours, respectively. The cDNA and its amplification cycle(CT) values of the nucleoocapsid protein(N) of chicken Newcastle disease virus and the nucleoprotein(NP) genes of infectious bronchitis virus were detected by ordinary polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR). The minimum detectable virus concentration and viral content in masks under different retention times were compared. RESULTS: The gene bands of the Newcastle disease virus La Sota strains and the infectious bronchitis virus H120 strains were detected on the masks stored for different times, and the total RNA of the virus had good amplification curves in the range of 10 pg-10 ng. The mean CT values of N gene and NP gene of the residual virus on the general medical surgical mask and N95 masks placed for 2 h were 22.547+or-0.342,23.698+or-0.501 and 22.855+or-0.308,24.036+or-0.338, respectively. However, only part of them could be detected after 12 h. respectively, and there was no significant difference in CT values between the two masks during the same period of time(P2 h=0.452, P12 h=0.355). The minimum detectable concentration of virus in the masks was 1:800, and the number of residual viruses on the mask that can be detected was 6.75x10~3. CONCLUSION: The method of screening coronavirus by detecting virus residues on masks within 2 hours was feasible and suitable for medical surgical masks and N95 masks, which can be used for preliminary screening of respiratory viruses.

9.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 61(2):157-165, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034280

ABSTRACT

Environmental factors and infectious diseases are closely related, mathematical models seek to explain these interactions, however, the same analytical practices are often observed with infectious diseases despite substantial differences from non-infectious diseases that can result in analytical challenges.

10.
Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis ; 45(2):72-74, 2020.
Article in Slovak | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034129

ABSTRACT

This article describes the differences between the influenza pandemic and the Covid-19 pandemic and the immunological and virus-host cell characteristics of SARS-CoV-2.

11.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:26, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033656
12.
HPS Weekly Report ; 55:35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033645

ABSTRACT

This study presents the current epidemiological scenario for influenza in EU and EEA countries. Results showed that no human cases of avian influenza were reported in the EU and EEA for 2020. Sporadic human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H5N6), A(H5N8) and A(H9N2) infection were reported. In 2020, outbreaks and detections of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, mainly A(H5) of clade 2.3.4.4, continued to affect poultry, wild and captured birds worldwide. Influenza virus A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused sporadic human cases in Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, the Netherlands, and the USA. Slightly more human cases were identified, possibly due to greater awareness, combined with more targeted testing in those with respiratory symptoms during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, for the EU and EEA, influenza activity remained at, or below, inter-seasonal levels throughout the 2020 to 2021 season, possibly due to the impact of the various public health and social measures implemented to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Zoonoses ; 2(19), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025752

ABSTRACT

Since the International Health Regulations National Focal Point for the United Kingdom alerted the WHO of ten cases of acute severe hepatitis of unknown etiology in children on April 5, 2022, relevant cases have been reported worldwide. These patients had acute hepatitis (negative for hepatitis viruses A-E) and elevated aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminase (ALT) exceeding 500 U/L. Furthermore, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and/or adenovirus type F41 have been detected in some cases. This unknown hepatitis has been hypothesized to be induced by a viral reservoir of novel coronavirus superantigen, which repeatedly stimulates the intestines and leads to a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), which causes immune abnormalities in the presence of human adenovirus. Although this hypothesis has not been confirmed by any in vivo experimental or clinical studies, it may provide ideas for possible intervention strategies.

14.
Zhongguo Meijie Shengwuxue ji Kongzhi Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Vector Biology and Control ; 33(4):596-600, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025547

ABSTRACT

Hantaviruses are important pathogenes of natural focal diseases that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. According to the latest classification of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, hantaviruses can be divided into 53 species, 7 genera, and 4 subfamilies. Hantaviruses are widely found in Rodentia, Chiroptera, and Insectivora, and later also found in reptile, Actinopterygii, and Agnatha. There are many species of bats, which are the second largest group of mammals in the world after rodents. At present, 1 446 species have been reported, accounting for about 22% of global mammals. In addition, bats have strong flight ability and are widely distributed in all continents except Antarctica. As the host animal of viruses, bats bear a variety of viruses, and many emerging infectious pathogens such as Marburg virus, Hendra virus, and Nipah virus have been confirmed to come from bats. Bats have also been associated to Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In recent decades, more and more bat-borne hantaviruses have been discovered. Bats and bat-borne hantaviruses have an important research value. Therefore, this paper reviews the latest classification of Hantavirus and bat-borne hantaviruses.

15.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; 38(7):577-581, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2024428

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop a rapid diagnostic method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid based on recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD), to provide technical support for the prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in basic hospitals and remote areas. According to the conserved nucleotide sequence of the N gene of SARS-CoV-2, the best recombinase polymerase amplification primers and lateral flow strip probes were designed, analyzed and screened in bioinformatics software. The reaction conditions for recombinase polymerase amplification were optimized, and the sensitivity and specificity of the established method were examined. The RPA-LFD assay for detecting SARS-CoV-2 performed best at 37 degrees C at 15 min. The lowest quantity of SARS-CoV-2 detected in a reaction was 100 fg. No cross-reaction with influenza virus, para-influenza virus, rhinovirus and adenovirus in the RPA-LFD assay was found. Thus, an easily performed, rapid diagnostic method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 with high sensitivity and specificity was established. In conclusion, our preliminary rapid diagnostic method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 with good sensitivity and specificity through RPA-LFD is worthy of further clinical application.

16.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021498

ABSTRACT

Early and accurate diagnosis of respiratory pathogens and associated outbreaks can allow for the control of spread, epidemiological modeling, targeted treatment, and decision making-as is evident with the current COVID-19 pandemic. Many respiratory infections share common symptoms, making them difficult to diagnose using only syndromic presentation. Yet, with delays in getting reference laboratory tests and limited availability and poor sensitivity of point-of-care tests, syndromic diagnosis is the most-relied upon method in clinical practice today. Here, we examine the variability in diagnostic identification of respiratory infections during the annual infection cycle in northern New Mexico, by comparing syndromic diagnostics with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing-based methods, with the goal of assessing gaps in our current ability to identify respiratory pathogens. Of 97 individuals that presented with symptoms of respiratory infection, only 23 were positive for at least one RNA virus, as confirmed by sequencing. Whereas influenza virus (n = 7) was expected during this infection cycle, we also observed coronavirus (n = 7), respiratory syncytial virus (n = 8), parainfluenza virus (n = 4), and human metapneumovirus (n = 1) in individuals with respiratory infection symptoms. Four patients were coinfected with two viruses. In 21 individuals that tested positive using PCR, RNA sequencing completely matched in only 12 (57%) of these individuals. Few individuals (37.1%) were diagnosed to have an upper respiratory tract infection or viral syndrome by syndromic diagnostics, and the type of virus could only be distinguished in one patient. Thus, current syndromic diagnostic approaches fail to accurately identify respiratory pathogens associated with infection and are not suited to capture emerging threats in an accurate fashion. We conclude there is a critical and urgent need for layered agnostic diagnostics to track known and unknown pathogens at the point of care to control future outbreaks.

17.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021475

ABSTRACT

This study uses two existing data sources to examine how patients' symptoms can be used to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory diseases. One dataset consisted of 839,288 laboratory-confirmed, symptomatic, COVID-19 positive cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from March 1, 2019, to September 30, 2020. The second dataset provided the controls and included 1,814 laboratory-confirmed influenza positive, symptomatic cases, and 812 cases with symptomatic influenza-like-illnesses. The controls were reported to the Influenza Research Database of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) between January 1, 2000, and December 30, 2018. Data were analyzed using case-control study design. The comparisons were done using 45 scenarios, with each scenario making different assumptions regarding prevalence of COVID-19 (2%, 4%, and 6%), influenza (0.01%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%) and influenza-like-illnesses (1%, 3.5% and 7%). For each scenario, a logistic regression model was used to predict COVID-19 from 2 demographic variables (age, gender) and 10 symptoms (cough, fever, chills, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, runny nose, sore throat, myalgia, and headache). The 5-fold cross-validated Area under the Receiver Operating Curves (AROC) was used to report the accuracy of these regression models. The value of various symptoms in differentiating COVID-19 from influenza depended on a variety of factors, including (1) prevalence of pathogens that cause COVID-19, influenza, and influenza-like-illness;(2) age of the patient, and (3) presence of other symptoms. The model that relied on 5-way combination of symptoms and demographic variables, age and gender, had a cross-validated AROC of 90%, suggesting that it could accurately differentiate influenza from COVID-19. This model, however, is too complex to be used in clinical practice without relying on computer-based decision aid. Study results encourage development of web-based, stand-alone, artificial Intelligence model that can interview patients and help clinicians make quarantine and triage decisions.

18.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 92, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2017614

ABSTRACT

Air pollution in the environment in which poultry is raised is one of the most serious problems facing the poultry sector across various aspects of production. Perhaps the most dangerous gas emitted from poultry houses is ammonia. The high concentrations of this gas in the air above the permissible limits (15 ppm) will have disastrous consequences. Ammonia directly affects the health and safety of birds, as it is a cause of ammonia blindness in birds accompanied by many respiratory diseases that destroy production and increase breeding costs. In addition, high concentrations of ammonia (above 20 ppm) contribute to enhancing the infection of birds with Newcastle and the bronchitis virus. In general, the greenhouse gases emitted from poultry houses included four main gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and hydrogen sulphide). Studies regarding their direct effects on the health and productivity of birds have been insufficient. In the direct form, as the concentrations of greenhouse gases rise to very high limits, they cause suffocation and death., the behaviour of the greenhouse gases in the indirect effect is reflected being a source of nutritional stress and a group of diseases and parasites which lead to a decrease in productivity levels. The intensity and concentrations of gas emissions are directly related to many factors such as geographic location, the season of the year, ventilation technologies, humidity, litter quality, nutritional status and stocking density. The advances in ventilation technologies have played a key role in expelling all harmful gases, especially those that depend on negative pressure. However, greenhouse gases remain a real threat to the poultry industry in particular and to the planet's environment in general.

19.
Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development ; 62(6):31-40, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2017046

ABSTRACT

This review article discusses the following: (1) infectious diseases and the Sustainable Development Goals, (2) pandemic proofing and the SDGs, (3) climate change and food insecurity, (4) antibiotics and antibiotic resistance, (5) vaccines, prevention, and vaccine hesitancy, (6) plastics, waste, and pollution. Therefore, it is increasingly clear that the pandemic is disproportionately impacting the most vulnerable of our communities: the elderly, persons with preexisting conditions, and persons living with disabilities, as well as communities of color, immigrants, our prison population, and front-line workers, who often have low income. Promoting respect for cultural diversity (SDG16) within a human-rights-based approach helps facilitate cultural understanding and peace, prevents conflicts, and protects the rights of marginalised groups.

20.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(9):554-559, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011448

ABSTRACT

Throughout the course of civilization, epidemics and pandemics have ravaged humanity, destroyed animal breeding and horticulture, and has also changed the course of history. It has been estimated that Justinian plague has affected half of the population of Europe and killed in three pandemics 50 million people, the avian-borne flu (Spanish flu), resulted in 50 million deaths worldwide in the years 1918-1919, and recently the COVID-19 is officially a pandemic, after barreling through 114 countries in just three months. In the past, rinderpest has hit Europe with three long panzootics, African swine fever (ASF), is still a threat to both the swine production industry and the health of wild boar populations. Several molecular changes occur in the pathogen that may trigger an epidemic or even pandemic. These include increase of virulence, introduction into a novel host, and changes in host susceptibility to the pathogen. Once the infectious disease threat reaches an epidemic or pandemic level, the goal of the response is to mitigate its impact and reduce its incidence, morbidity and mortality as well as disruptions to economic, political, and social systems. An epidemic curve shows progression of illnesses in an outbreak over time and the SIR, SI, SIRD and SEIR represent the simplest compartmental models that enable simplify the mathematical modelling of epidemics. This article throws a light on changing ideas in epidemiology of infectious diseases.

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