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1.
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience ; 14, 2022.
Article | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834467

ABSTRACT

Background: Handwriting is an acquired complex cognitive and motor skill resulting from the activation of a widespread brain network. Handwriting therefore may provide biologically relevant information on health status. Also, handwriting can be collected easily in an ecological scenario, through safe, cheap, and largely available tools. Hence, objective handwriting analysis through artificial intelligence would represent an innovative strategy for telemedicine purposes in healthy subjects and people affected by neurological disorders. Material and Methods: One-hundred and fifty-six healthy subjects (61 males;49.6±20.4 years) were enrolled and divided according to age into three subgroups: younger adults (YA), middle-aged adults (MA), and older adults (OA). Participants performed an ecological handwriting task that was digitalized through smartphones. Data underwent the DBNet algorithm for measuring and comparing the average stroke sizes in the three groups. A convolutional neural network (CNN) was also used to classify handwriting samples. Lastly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and sensitivity, specificity, positive, negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), accuracy and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated to report the performance of the algorithm. Results: Stroke sizes were significantly smaller in OA than in MA and YA. The CNN classifier objectively discriminated YA vs. OA (sensitivity=82%, specificity=80%, PPV=78%, NPV=79%, accuracy=77%, and AUC=0.84), MA vs. OA (sensitivity=84%, specificity=56%, PPV=78%, NPV=73%, accuracy=74%, and AUC=0.7), and YA vs. MA (sensitivity=75%, specificity=82%, PPV=79%, NPV=83%, accuracy=79%, and AUC=0.83). Discussion: Handwriting progressively declines with human ageing. The effect of physiological ageing on handwriting abilities can be detected remotely and objectively by using machine learning algorithms.

2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1832380

ABSTRACT

We report a case of Susac syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent vaccination that presented with meningitis and retinal microembolisation in the form of paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM). After presenting with headache, fever and myalgia followed by scotomata, a woman in her 50s was hospitalised for meningitis;she had had mild COVID-19 infection 2 months prior to admission, having received the first vaccine dose 1 month prior to the neurological manifestation. Eye fundus examination and optical coherence tomography were suggestive of PAMM. D-dimer levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated. Before infectious investigation results were available, she was started on empirical antibiotic and antiviral treatment. Having ruled out infectious causes, she was started on high-dose prednisolone. After 1 month, there was partial resolution of retinal lesions. This case highlights that exposure to SARS-CoV-2 antigen may be related to this rare syndrome;treatment with steroids may improve central and retinal impairment.

3.
Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry ; 26(2):29-32, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1826101

ABSTRACT

The link and association between COVID‐19 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial. This study aims to investigate whether COVID‐19 was associated with a different presenting clinical picture or a more severe course of illness (eg intubation and death) in people with AD in this study cohort.

4.
Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry ; 26(2):24-28, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1826100

ABSTRACT

The COVID‐19 pandemic has presented major challenges for all demographics of society. The strict lockdown measures utilised to control the spread of the virus have the potential unintended consequences of exacerbating social isolation and loneliness, which are recognised to be pre‐existing issues in the elderly population. Because of this, the pandemic may have disproportionality impacted the elderly population. One way that the distress caused by the pandemic could manifest is through self‐harm and suicide. Here, the authors present a retrospective, cross‐sectional study examining self‐harm in an older adult population in the south west of England.

5.
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology ; 9(5):622-632, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1825806

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveGiven the continued spread of coronavirus 2, the early predictors of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID‐19) associated mortality might improve patients' outcomes. Increased levels of circulating neurofilament light chain (NfL), a biomarker of neuronal injury, have been observed in severe COVID‐19 patients. We investigated whether NfL provides non‐redundant clinical value to previously identified predictors of COVID‐19 mortality.MethodsWe measured serum or plasma NfL concentrations in a blinded fashion in 3 cohorts totaling 338 COVID‐19 patients.ResultsIn cohort 1, we found significantly elevated NfL levels only in critically ill COVID‐19 patients. Longitudinal cohort 2 data showed that NfL is elevated late in the course of the disease, following the two other prognostic markers of COVID‐19: decrease in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Significant correlations between ALC and LDH abnormalities and subsequent rise of NfL implicate that the multi‐organ failure is the most likely cause of neuronal injury in severe COVID‐19 patients. The addition of NfL to age and gender in cohort 1 significantly improved the accuracy of mortality prediction and these improvements were validated in cohorts 2 and 3.InterpretationA substantial increase in serum/plasma NfL reproducibly enhanced COVID‐19 mortality prediction. Combined with other prognostic markers, such as ALC and LDH that are routinely measured in ICU patients, NfL measurements might be useful to identify the patients at a high risk of COVID‐19‐associated mortality, who might still benefit from escalated care.

6.
Case Reports in Neurology ; 14(1):58-67, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824156

ABSTRACT

Parsonage-Turner syndrome (PTS) following COVID-19 infection or vaccination is rare. The pathophysiology may involve an immune-mediated inflammatory reaction against brachial plexus nerve fibers in a genetically predisposed individual. We describe the clinical and electromyographic features of 6 patients presenting with the clinical picture of PTS following COVID-19 vaccination. All patients were referred for electromyographic studies to evaluate the acute onset of pain in the shoulder girdle/upper limb accompanied by muscle weakness in the distribution of one or more branches of the brachial plexus. Each patient had received the COVID-19 vaccine within a few weeks prior to the onset of symptoms. Patients underwent detailed neurological examinations followed by nerve conduction and EMG studies. The patients developed symptoms after a mean duration of 17 days (5 days–8 weeks) after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. The initial symptom was pain in the shoulder girdle/upper limb, followed within days by muscle weakness. Physical examinations and EMG studies showed upper trunk brachial plexopathy in 2 patients, lower trunk plexopathy in 1 patient, posterior cord brachial plexopathy in 1 patient, and anterior/posterior interosseous nerve involvement in 2 patients. All patients either improved or attained complete resolution of the arm pain at follow-up. Three (50%) patients did not have any improvement in the arm/hand weakness, while 3 (50%) patients had some recovery in strength. PTS may occur after the COVID-19 vaccine and should be suspected in patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of acute brachial plexopathy. Studies of a larger series may provide insight into predisposing factors.

7.
Case Reports in Neurology ; 14(1):130-148, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824148

ABSTRACT

The longer term neurocognitive/neuropsychiatric consequences of moderate/severe COVID-19 infection have not been explored. The case herein illustrates a complex web of differential diagnosis. The onset, clinical trajectory, treatment course/response, serial neuroimaging findings, and neuropsychological test data were taken into account when assessing a patient presenting 8 months post-COVID-19 (with premorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes mellitus, mood difficulties, and a positive family history of vascular dementia). Her acute COVID-19 infection was complicated by altered mental status associated with encephalopathy and bacterial pneumonia. After recovery from COVID-19, the patient continues to experience persisting cognitive and emotive difficulties despite an ongoing psychopharmacotherapy regimen (16 + years), psychotherapy (15 + sessions), and speech-language pathology SLP;2 × week/for 12 weeks). The purpose of her most recent and comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation was to determine the presence/absence of neurocognitive disorder. The patient is a 62-year-old Caucasian woman. Cognitive screening was completed 3 months post-acute COVID-19 as part of an SLP evaluation, and a full neuropsychological evaluation was conducted 8 months post-COVID-19 recovery on an outpatient basis (in person). The patient had serial neuroimaging. Initial neurological evaluation during acute COVID-19 included unremarkable brain computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging. However, follow-up CT (without contrast) revealed, in part, “asymmetric perisylvian atrophy on the left.” Full neuropsychological evaluation at 8 months post-COVID-19 recovery revealed a dysexecutive syndrome characterized by language dysfunction and affective theory-of-mind deficit, consistent with dementia. There is need for careful use of differential diagnosis in COVID-19 patients with multiple risk factors that make them more susceptible to long-term neurological complications post-COVID-19. Differential diagnosis should involve multidisciplinary assessment (e.g., neuropsychology, SLP, neurology, and psychiatry).

8.
Cerebrovascular Diseases. Extra ; 12(1):14-22, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824069

ABSTRACT

The Asia Pacific Stroke Organization is the largest international and professional stroke group in the region. It has worked consistently over the last 10 years to gain visibility and consistency across the Asia-Pacific and beyond. The 10-year journey will be reviewed in the background of many internal and external developments including changes in Asia-Pacific stroke epidemiology, stroke care systems, and stroke service developments as well as major research studies in the Asia-Pacific.

9.
Case Reports in Neurology ; 14(1):25-30, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1823985

ABSTRACT

Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy (ATL) and delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) are two possible adverse entities related to opioid intoxication (OI), each having a distinct clinical course. While ATL shows a monophasic course with gradual neurological deterioration, DPHL has a distinct biphasic course. We report a case of ATL along with a case of DPHL happening in young male patients with OI, including their clinical courses as well as imaging characteristics with comparable time intervals. Initially, both leukoencephalopathies typically show magnetic resonance imaging findings with confluent and symmetric white matter (WM) abnormalities in the periventricular regions on T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images along with restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted imaging. The DPHL patient however also presented with WM cystic substance loss in the deterioration phase, several weeks after hospital admission, which was previously described in a case of DPHL. Interestingly, similar WM changes have recently been observed in virus-associated necrotizing disseminated acute leukoencephalopathy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 which may suggest a common pathophysiological mechanism. Knowing the distinct imaging features of ATL and DPHL along with their typical clinical courses can provide a faster and more reliable differentiation between these two entities.

10.
Case Reports in Neurology ; 14(1):208-212, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1823790

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused several neurological complications by affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). Studies on the PNS involvement in COVID-19 are limited. These complications are likely unreported, given the difficulty of obtaining further diagnostic information, such as expert neurologist evaluation, electrodiagnostic testing, and skin biopsy. Herein, we report 2 cases of possible COVID-19-related small-fiber neuropathy (SFN). These cases are reported to increase awareness of a possible link between COVID-19 and SFN. Additional investigation, including neurology consultation, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsy, should be considered in patients who develop paresthesia during and after COVID-19 infection. Further research is also needed to determine a possible underlying neuropathology mechanism and the role of immunomodulatory treatment, such as intravenous immunoglobulin, in COVID-19-related SFN.

11.
Acta Medica Iranica ; 60(4):210-214, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1823671

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 frequently experience neurological symptoms. Headaches and dizziness are common but non-specific symptoms. Both peripheral and central nervous systems can be impacted in severe stages. We focused on the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 patients in critical care. A cohort study evaluated the acute neurological manifestations in 204 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) tertiary Imam Khomeini hospital complex, Tehran, Iran. Patients with positive COVID-19 tests and severe clinical symptoms in both sexes, older than 16 years, were included in the study. Two groups of patients with positive or negative neurologic complications were compared by chi-square or Fisher exact test for categorical variables. The differences in continuous variables between the two groups were investigated using an independent sample t-test. The Kolmogorov-Simonov test was used to verify the normality assumption. A P less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The study included 204 individuals (130 males and 74 females) out of 270 ICU patients. Ninety (44.1%) patients were discharged, while 114 (55.9%) died. Overall, 17 (8.3%) patients had neurological complications, while 187 (91%) did not (P=0.005). The two groups did not have significantly different mean age (P=0.325) and sex (P=.793). The ventilation support was significantly different in the two groups (P=0.002). The death group had a higher incidence of loss of consciousness (P=0.003). COVID-19 causes neurological symptoms, especially during the inflammatory phase, and clinicians should be alert for neurological issues. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Acta Medica Iranica is the property of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

12.
Brain Sciences ; 12(4):16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822412

ABSTRACT

Background: It can be easily inferred that dementia caregivers were severely affected by the general home confinement, or 'lockdown', due to their caregiving roles. Aim: The aim of the current study is to investigate how the quarantine measures applied during the COVID-19 pandemic affected the emotional function (specifically the emotional management, emotional experience, and stress symptoms) and the negative thoughts, as well as the adaptability skills, of Greek dementia caregivers. Materials and Methods: In total, 303 participants (138 in the non-caregiving adults-control group;165 in the dementia caregivers-experimental group) were recruited from the day centers of the Greek Association of Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders (GAADRD) from June 2020 to January 2021 in Thessaloniki, Greece. The caregiving population was split into group 1 (those who participated in support groups) and group 2 (those who did not participate in support groups). A self-reported questionnaire was created for research purposes and was digitally administered to participants via Google forms. Results: During the quarantine period, dementia caregivers had more difficulties in emotional management, especially in regards to stress symptoms, which was measured via the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), in comparison to the control group. In regards to the caregiving populations, caregivers from group 1 were more able to manage their emotions according to their self-reports, but had increased agony and loneliness. Moreover, statistical significance was found between emotional management, negative feelings, and stress symptoms in those from group 2 who self-reported that the PwD deteriorated. This evidence was not found in group 1. Finally, there were no differences in the means of negative thoughts about the pandemic, as well as in the adaptation skills, both in dementia caregivers and in the control group, according to their self-reports. Discussion: It seems that different emotional aspects were affected in the dementia caregivers' population, and, therefore, future psychotherapeutic interventions should focus on those most severely affected by the restrictive measures imposed.

13.
Fortschritte Der Neurologie Psychiatrie ; 90(04):140-141, 2022.
Article in German | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1821637
14.
Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie ; 90(04):140-140, 2022.
Article in German | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1821635
15.
Fortschritte Der Neurologie Psychiatrie ; 90(04):141-142, 2022.
Article in German | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1821634
16.
Neuropharmacology ; 209:8, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1821424

ABSTRACT

Acute neurological alterations have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, it is becoming clear that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors may experience long-term neurological abnormalities, including cognitive deficits and mood alterations. The mechanisms underlying acute and long-term impacts of COVID-19 in the brain are being actively investigated. Due to the heterogeneous manifestations of neurological outcomes, it is possible that different mechanisms operate following SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may include direct brain infection by SARS-CoV-2, mechanisms resulting from hyperinflammatory systemic disease, or a combination of both. Inflammation is a core feature of COVID-19, and both central and systemic inflammation are known to lead to acute and persistent neurological alterations in other diseases. Here, we review evidence indicating that COVID-19 is associated with neuroinflammation, along with blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Similar neuroinflammatory signatures have been associated with Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder. Current evidence demonstrates that patients with pre-existing cognitive and neuropsychiatric deficits show worse outcomes upon infection by SARS-CoV-2 and, conversely, COVID-19 survivors may be at increased risk of developing dementia and mood disorders. Considering the high prevalence of COVID-19 patients that recovered from infection in the world and the alarming projections for the prevalence of dementia and depression, investigation of possible molecular similarities between those diseases may shed light on mechanisms leading to long-term neurological abnormalities in COVID-19 survivors.

17.
Frontiers in Neurology ; 13:6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820151

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAlthough a direct relationship between tinnitus or hearing difficulties and COVID-19 has been suggested, current literature provides inconsistent results, and no research has been undertaken in older adults. MethodsIn November 2020, we conducted the LOST in Lombardia survey, a telephone-based cross-sectional study on a sample of 4,400 individuals representative of the general population aged >= 65 years from Lombardy region, Northern Italy. Individuals with diagnosed tinnitus and/or hearing loss were asked whether their conditions had improved or deteriorated in 2020 compared to 2019. ResultsOverall, 8.1% of older adults reported a diagnosis of tinnitus and 10.5% of hearing loss. In 2020 compared to 2019, among individuals with tinnitus, those with increasing severity (5.0%) were similar to those decreasing it (5.3%). Among individuals with hearing loss, more people reported an increase (13.6%) than a decrease (3.2%) in their disease severity. No individual with a diagnosis in 2020 of tinnitus (n = 6) or hearing loss (n = 13) had COVID-19. The incidence of tinnitus was lower in 2020 (rate: 14.8 per 10,000 person-years) than in previous years (rate in 1990-2019: 36.0 per 10,000 person-years;p = 0.026). There was no change in the incidence of hearing loss (p = 0.134). ConclusionsIn this large representative sample of older adults, on average neither COVID-19 confinement nor SARS-CoV-2 infection appeared to increase the severity or incidence of tinnitus. The increased severity of hearing difficulties may totally or partially be explained by physiologic deterioration of the condition, or by a misperception due to the use of face-masks.

18.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10(T7):63-67, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stroke is known as chronic disease, leading to disability which makes help from caregivers become necessary. Attending stroke patients possess certain challenges and burdens toward the caregivers. AIM: We aim to investigate risk factors related to depression among caregivers attending post-ischemic stroke. METHODS: Eighty-three caregivers and post-ischemic stroke patients were collected consecutively from the Neurology Department of Universitas Sumatera Utara Hospital, Medan, Indonesia. Linear regression was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Our multivariate study shows that patient’s age, caregiver’s gender, patient’s gender, and modified Barthel Index are associated with depression with adjusted R2 of 59.3%. CONCLUSION: Early detection and intervention should be addressed regularly for caregivers attending post-stroke patients.

20.
Neurology-Clinical Practice ; 12(2):164-168, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1817349

ABSTRACT

Patient demand continues to outpace growth of the neurology workforce, especially in its subspecialties such as movement disorders. Various strategies have been deployed to address this. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic accentuated the mismatch by propelling telemedicine and access demands to the forefront. Previously, we reported improving general neurology access using a physician-advanced practice provider team model. Here, we share our experiences of piloting a similar model in subspecialty care (movement disorders) between September 1 and December 17, 2020. Before the pilot, the wait time to be seen by movement disorders subspecialists exceeded 4 months. Our data show marked improvement in new patient access (23.8% improvement and 214% increase in the number of new patients seen) with excellent patient acceptance. Our approach and the lessons learned may be useful to address access for other neurology subspecialties.

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