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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 576-584, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Observing the serological cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and dengue virus (DV), we aimed to elucidate its effect on dengue serodiagnosis and infectivity in a highly dengue-endemic city in India. METHODS: A total of 52 COVID-19 (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR] positive) serum samples were tested in rapid lateral flow immunoassays and DV immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect DV or SARS-CoV-2 IgG/immunoglobulin M. The COVID-19 antibody (Ab) positive samples were subjected to a virus neutralization test (Huh7 cells) using DV type 1 (DV1) clinical isolate. RESULTS: Most (93%) of the SARS-CoV-2 Ab-positive serum samples cross-reacted with DV in rapid or ELISA tests. All were DV RNA and nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen-negative. COVID-19 serum samples that were DV cross-reactive neutralized DV1. Of these, 57% had no evidence of DV pre-exposure (DV NS1 Ab-negative). The computational study also supported potential interactions between SARS-CoV-2 Ab and DV1. CONCLUSION: DV serodiagnosis will be inconclusive in areas co-endemic for both viruses. The COVID-19 pandemic appears to impart a protective response against DV in DV-endemic populations.

2.
Methods in Enzymology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007357

ABSTRACT

After more than two years, COVID-19 still represents a global health burden of unprecedented extent and assessing the degree of immunity of individuals against SARS-CoV-2 remains a challenge. Virus neutralization assays represent the gold standard for assessing antibody-mediated protection against SARS-CoV-2 in sera from recovered and/or vaccinated individuals. Neutralizing antibodies block the interaction of viral spike protein with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in vitro and prevent viral entry into host cells. Classical viral neutralization assays using full replication-competent viruses are restricted to specific biosafety level 3-certified laboratories, limiting their utility for routine and large-scale applications. We developed therefore a cell-fusion-based assay building on the interaction between viral spike and ACE2 receptor expressed on two different cell lines, substantially reducing biosafety risks associated with classical viral neutralization assays. This chapter describes this simple, sensitive, safe and cost-effective approach for rapid and high-throughput evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies relying on high-affinity NanoLuc® luciferase complementation technology (HiBiT). When applied to a variety of standards and patient samples, this method yields highly reproducible results in 96-well, as well as in 384-well format. The use of novel NanoLuc® substrates with increased signal stability like Nano-Glo® Endurazine™ furthermore allows for high flexibility in assay set-up and full automatization of all reading processes. Lastly, the assay is suitable to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of sera against the existing spike variants, and potentially variants that will emerge in the future.

3.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964108

ABSTRACT

The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants poses a serious threat to human health worldwide. Recently, the emergence of Omicron has presented a new challenge to the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic. A convenient and reliable in vitro neutralization assay is an important method for validating the efficiency of antibodies, vaccines, and other potential drugs. Here, we established an effective assay based on a pseudovirus carrying a full-length spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 variants in the HIV-1 backbone, with a luciferase reporter gene inserted into the non-replicate pseudovirus genome. The key parameters for packaging the pseudovirus were optimized, including the ratio of the S protein expression plasmids to the HIV backbone plasmids and the collection time for the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Kappa, and Omicron pseudovirus particles. The pseudovirus neutralization assay was validated using several approved or developed monoclonal antibodies, underscoring that Omicron can escape some neutralizing antibodies, such as REGN10987 and REGN10933, while S309 and ADG-2 still function with reduced neutralization capability. The neutralizing capacity of convalescent plasma from COVID-19 convalescent patients in Wuhan was tested against these pseudoviruses, revealing the immune evasion of Omicron. Our work established a practical pseudovirus-based neutralization assay for SARS-CoV-2 variants, which can be conducted safely under biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) conditions, and this assay will be a promising tool for studying and characterizing vaccines and therapeutic candidates against Omicron-included SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938729

ABSTRACT

Makkah in Saudi Arabia hosts the largest annual religious event in the world. Despite the many strict rules enacted, including Hajj cancellation, city lockdowns, and social distancing, the region has the second highest number of new COVID-19 cases in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions that identify, isolate, and manage new cases could slow the infection rate. While RT-PCR is the current gold standard in SARS-CoV-2 identification, it yields false positive and negative results, which mandates the use of complementary serological tests. Here, we report the utility of serological assays during the acute phase of individuals with moderate and severe clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID19). Fifty participants with positive RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled in this study. Following RT-PCR diagnosis, serum samples from the same participants were analyzed using in-house ELISA (IgM, IgA, and IgG) and microneutralization test (MNT) for the presence of antibodies. Of the 50 individuals analyzed, 43 (86%) showed a neutralizing antibody titer of ≥20. Univariate analysis with neutralizing antibodies as a dependent variable and the degree of disease severity and underlying medical conditions as fixed factors revealed that patients with no previous history of non-communicable diseases and moderate clinical manifestation had the strongest neutralizing antibody response "Mean: 561.11". Participants with severe symptoms and other underlying disorders, including deceased individuals, demonstrated the lowest neutralizing antibody response. Anti-spike protein antibody responses, as measured by ELISA, showed a statistically significant correlation with neutralizing antibodies. This reinforces the speculation that serological assays complement molecular testing for diagnostics; however, patients' previous medical history (anamnesis) should be considered in interpreting serological results.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906306

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Autoantibodies (aAbs) to type I interferons (IFNs) have been found in less than 1% of individuals under the age of 60 in the general population, with the prevalence increasing among those over 65. Neutralizing autoantibodies (naAbs) to type I IFNs have been found in at least 15% of patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in several cohorts of primarily European descent. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of aAbs and naAbs to IFN-α2 or IFN-ω in Japanese patients who suffered from COVID-19 as well as in the general population. METHODS: Patients who suffered from COVID-19 (n = 622, aged 0-104) and an uninfected healthy control population (n = 3,456, aged 20-91) were enrolled in this study. The severities of the COVID-19 patients were as follows: critical (n = 170), severe (n = 235), moderate (n = 112), and mild (n = 105). ELISA and ISRE reporter assays were used to detect aAbs and naAbs to IFN-α2 and IFN-ω using E. coli-produced IFNs. RESULTS: In an uninfected general Japanese population aged 20-91, aAbs to IFNs were detected in 0.087% of individuals. By contrast, naAbs to type I IFNs (IFN-α2 and/or IFN-ω, 100 pg/mL) were detected in 10.6% of patients with critical infections, 2.6% of patients with severe infections, and 1% of patients with mild infections. The presence of naAbs to IFNs was significantly associated with critical disease (P = 0.0012), age over 50 (P = 0.0002), and male sex (P = 0.137). A significant but not strong correlation between aAbs and naAbs to IFN-α2 existed (r = - 0.307, p value < 0.0001) reinforced the importance of measuring naAbs in COVID-19 patients, including those of Japanese ancestry. CONCLUSION: In this study, we revealed that patients with pre-existing naAbs have a much higher risk of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in Japanese population.

6.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896924

ABSTRACT

A robust serological test to measure neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories is useful for monitoring antibody response after vaccination or natural infection. The gold standard assay is the conventional plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) which requires extensive labor, live viruses, and BSL-3 facilities. Recently, we developed a novel single-round infection fluorescent SARS-CoV-2 virus (SFV) that can be safely used at BSL-2 laboratories for high-throughput neutralization and antiviral testing. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the neutralization test using this SFV with 80 PRNT-positive and 92 PRNT-negative clinical serum or plasma specimens. The SFV neutralization test (SFVNT) has 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to the PRNT. Furthermore, the neutralizing titers generated by the SFVNT and PRNT are highly correlated, with R2 = 0.903 (p < 0.0001). Due to high sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and reproducibility, the SFVNT can be deployed for the large-scale testing of COVID-19 patients or vaccinated people in general lab settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Containment of Biohazards , Humans , Laboratories , Neutralization Tests , Reproducibility of Results
7.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 5038-5043, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888757

ABSTRACT

We aimed to provide in vitro data on the neutralization capacity of different monoclonal antibody (mAb) preparations against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) delta and omicron variant, respectively, and describe the in vivo RNA kinetics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients treated with the respective mAbs. Virus neutralization assays were performed to assess the neutralizing effect of the mAb formulations casirivimab/imdevimab and sotrovimab on the SARS-CoV-2 delta and omicron variant. Additionally, respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 RNA kinetics are provided for 25 COVID-19 patients infected with either delta variant (n = 18) or omicron variant (n = 7) treated with the respective mAb formulations during their hospital stay. In the virus neutralization assay, sotrovimab exhibits neutralizing capacity at therapeutically achievable concentrations against the SARS-CoV-2 delta and omicron variant. In contrast, casivirimab/imdevimab had neutralizing capacity against the delta variant but failed neutralization against the omicron variant except for a very high concentration above the currently recommended therapeutic dosage. In patients with delta variant infections treated with casivirimab/imdevimab, we observed a rapid decrease of respiratory viral RNA at day 3 after mAb therapy. In contrast, no such prompt decline was observed in patients with delta variant or omicron variant infections receiving sotrovimab.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Neutralization Tests , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Treatment Outcome , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: . Scarce information is available regarding the long-term immunogenicity of the Sputnik V vaccine. Here Sputnik V vaccinated subjects were evaluated 6 months after receiving the 2-dose prime-boost schedule. METHODS: . Eighty-four hospital workers from Venezuela, 32 with a previous COVID-19 infection and 54 SARS-CoV-2 naïve subjects, were enrolled. IgG antibodies levels against the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) were measured in an ELISA and with an in vitro ACE2-RBD neutralization assay at day 42 and day 180 after receiving the second dose. IgG levels were expressed in BAU/ml. Neutralizing antibodies were expressed in IU/ml. RESULTS: . On average, RBD-IgG levels decreased by approximately 50% between the two time-points in the COVID-19 naïve cohort (geometric mean titer (GMT) 675 BAU/mL vs. 327 BAU/ml) and decreased by approximately 25% in the previously infected cohort (GMT 1209 BAU/mL vs 910 BAU/ml). Within our cohort, 94% showed a "good to excellent" neutralizing activity measured with the in vitro test 6 months after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: . The Sputnik V vaccine provided long-term and durable humoral immunity in our cohort specially if a person has been both vaccinated and had a previous infection with SARS-CoV-2. These individuals with hybrid immunity are no priority for a third booster vaccine dose.

9.
Vaccine ; 40(32): 4403-4411, 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ad26.COV2.S is a well-tolerated and effective vaccine against COVID-19. We evaluated durability of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies elicited by single-dose Ad26.COV2.S and the impact of boosting. METHODS: In randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2a and phase 2 trials, participants received single-dose Ad26.COV2.S (5 × 1010 viral particles [vp]) followed by booster doses of 5 × 1010 vp or 1.25 × 1010 vp. Neutralizing antibody levels were determined by a virus neutralization assay (VNA) approximately 8-9 months after dose 1. Binding and neutralizing antibody levels were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and pseudotyped VNA 6 months after dose 1 and 7 and 28 days after boosting. RESULTS: Data were analyzed from phase 1/2a participants enrolled from 22 July-18 December 2020 (Cohort 1a, 18-55 years [y], N = 25; Cohort 2a, 18-55y, N = 17; Cohort 3, ≥65y, N = 22), and phase 2 participants from 14 to 22 September 2020 (18-55y and ≥ 65y, N = 73). Single-dose Ad26.COV2.S elicited stable neutralizing antibodies for at least 8-9 months and stable binding antibodies for at least 6 months, irrespective of age. A 5 × 1010 vp 2-month booster dose increased binding antibodies by 4.9- to 6.2-fold 14 days post-boost versus 28 days after initial immunization. A 6-month booster elicited a steep and robust 9-fold increase in binding antibody levels 7 days post-boost. A 5.0-fold increase in neutralizing antibodies was observed by 28 days post-boost for the Beta variant. A 1.25 × 1010 vp 6-month booster elicited a 3.6-fold increase in binding antibody levels at 7 days post-boost versus pre-boost, with a similar magnitude of post-boost responses in both age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose Ad26.COV2.S elicited durable antibody responses for at least 8 months and elicited immune memory. Booster-elicited binding and neutralizing antibody responses were rapid and robust, even with a quarter vaccine dose, and stronger with a longer interval since primary vaccination. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04436276, NCT04535453.


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 889736, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875416

ABSTRACT

During the pre-vaccine era of the COVID-19 pandemic convalescent plasma has once again emerged as a major potential therapeutic form of passive immunization that in specific cases still represents irreplaceable treatment option. There is a growing concern that variable concentration of neutralizing antibodies, present in convalescent plasma which originates from different donors, apparently affects its effectiveness. The drawback can be overcome through the downstream process of immunoglobulin fraction purification into a standardized product of improved safety and efficacy. All modern procedures are quite lengthy processes. They are also based on fractionation of large plasma quantities whose collection is not attainable during an epidemic. When outbreaks of infectious diseases are occurring more frequently, there is a great need for a more sustainable production approach that would be goal-oriented towards assuring easily and readily available immunoglobulin of therapeutic relevance. We propose a refinement strategy for the IgG preparation achieved through simplification and reduction of the processing steps. It was designed as a small but scalable process to offer an immediately available treatment option that would simultaneously be harmonized with an increased availability of convalescent plasma over the viral outbreak time-course. Concerning the ongoing pandemic status of the COVID-19, the proof of concept was demonstrated on anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma but is likely applicable to any other type depending on the current needs. It was guided by the idea of persistent keeping of IgG molecules in the solution, so that protection of their native structure could be assured. Our manufacturing procedure provided a high-quality IgG product of above the average recovery whose composition profile was analyzed by mass spectrometry as quality control check. It was proved free from IgA and IgM as mediators of adverse transfusion reactions, as well as of any other residual impurities, since only IgG fragments were identified. The proportion of S protein-specific IgGs remained unchanged relative to the convalescent plasma. Undisturbed IgG subclass composition was accomplished as well. However, the fractionation principle affected the final product's capacity to neutralize wild-type SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, reducing it by half. Decrease in neutralization potency significantly correlated with the amount of IgM in the starting material.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , DNA Viruses , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin M , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(7): e0037622, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874498

ABSTRACT

Measuring SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies after vaccination or natural infection remains a priority in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic to determine immunity, especially against newly emerging variants. The gold standard for assessing antibody-mediated immunity against SARS-CoV-2 are cell-based live virus neutralization assays. These assays usually take several days, thereby limiting test capacities and the availability of rapid results. In this study, therefore, we developed a faster live virus assay, which detects neutralizing antibodies through the early measurement of antibody-mediated intracellular virus reduction by SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR. In our assay, Vero E6 cells are infected with virus isolates preincubated with patient sera and controls. After 24 h, the intracellular viral load is determined by qRT-PCR using a standard curve to calculate percent neutralization. Utilizing COVID-19 convalescent-phase sera, we show that our novel assay generates results with high sensitivity and specificity as we detected antiviral activity for all tested convalescent-phase sera, but no antiviral activity in prepandemic sera. The assay showed a strong correlation with a conventional virus neutralization assay (rS = 0.8910), a receptor-binding domain ELISA (rS = 0.8485), and a surrogate neutralization assay (rS = 0.8373), proving that quantifying intracellular viral RNA can be used to measure seroneutralization. Our assay can be adapted easily to new variants, as demonstrated by our cross-neutralization experiments. This characteristic is key for rapidly determining immunity against newly emerging variants. Taken together, the novel assay presented here reduces turnaround time significantly while making use of a highly standardized and sensitive SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR method as a readout.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(6): 1622-1634.e4, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in patients with predominant antibody deficiency (PAD) is associated with high morbidity, yet data regarding the response to SARS-CoV-2 immunization in PAD patients, including additional dose vaccine, are limited. OBJECTIVE: To characterize antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in PAD patients and define correlates of vaccine response. METHODS: We assessed the levels and function of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 62 PAD patients compared with matched healthy controls at baseline, at 4 to 6 weeks after the initial series of immunization (a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S [Janssen] or two doses of BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]), and at 4 to 6 weeks after an additional dose immunization, if received. RESULTS: After the initial series of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, PAD patients had lower mean anti-spike antibody levels compared with matched healthy controls (140.1 vs 547.3 U/mL; P = .02). Patients with secondary PAD (eg, B-cell depletion therapy was used) and those with severe primary PAD (eg, common variable immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory complications) had the lowest mean anti-spike antibody levels. Immune correlates of a low anti-spike antibody response included low CD4+ T helper cells, low CD19+ total B cells, and low class-switched memory (CD27+IgD/M-) B cells. In addition, a low (<100 U/mL) anti-spike antibody response was associated with prior exposure to B-cell depletion therapy, both at any time in the past (odds ratio = 5.5; confidence interval, 1.5-20.4; P = .01) and proximal to vaccination (odds ratio = 36.4; confidence interval, 1.7-791.9; P = .02). Additional dose immunization with an mRNA vaccine in a subset of 31 PAD patients increased mean anti-spike antibody levels (76.3 U/mL before to 1065 U/mL after the additional dose; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with secondary and severe primary PAD, characterized by low T helper cells, low B cells, and/or low class-switched memory B cells, were at risk for low antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 immunization, which improved after an additional dose vaccination in most patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822471

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, has caused over 460 million cases of infection and over 6 million deaths worldwide. The pandemic has called for science, technology, and innovation to provide solutions and, due to an incredible scientific and financial global effort, several prophylactic and therapeutic apparatuses such as monoclonal antibodies and vaccines were developed in less than one year to address this emergency. After SARS-CoV-2 infection, serum neutralizing antibodies are produced by B cells and studies on virus-neutralizing antibodies' kinetics are pivotal. The process of protective immunity and the duration of this kind of protection against COVID-19 remain to be clarified. We tested 136 sera from 3 groups of individuals, some of them providing multiple sequential sera (1-healthy, no previous CoV2-infected, vaccinated; 2-healthy, previous CoV2 infected, vaccinated; 3-healed, previous CoV2-infected, not vaccinated) to assess the kinetics of antibodies (Abs) neutralizing activity. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection elicits moderate neutralizing antibody activity in most individuals; neither age nor gender appear to have any influence on Abs responses. The BNT162b2 vaccine, when administered in two doses, induces high antibodies titre endowed with potent neutralizing activity against bare SARS-CoV-2 in in vitro neutralizing assay. The residual neutralization capability and the kinetic of waning immunity were also evaluated over 9 months after the second dose in a reference group of subjects. Neutralization titre showed a decline in all subjects and the median level of S-protein IgG, over 270 days after the second vaccination dose, was below 10 AU/mL in 53% of serum tested.

14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2055373, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784265

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have been reported to be resistant to several neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) targeting Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) and N Terminal Domain (NTD) of spike (S) protein and thus inducing immune escape. However, fewer studies were carried out to investigate the neutralizing ability of S2-specific antibodies. In this research, 10 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting SARS-CoV-2 S2 subunit were generated from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent patients by phage display technology and molecular cloning technology. The binding activity of these S2-mAbs toward SARS-CoV-2 S, SARS-CoV-2 S2, SARS-CoV-2 RBD, SARS-CoV-2 NTD, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S, SARS-CoV S2 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) S proteins were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Their neutralizing potency toward SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (WT), B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.2, B.1.1.1 and B.1.621 variants were determined by pseudo-virus-based neutralization assay. Results showed that S2E7-mAb had cross-activity to S or S2 proteins of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, while with limited neutralizing activity to pseudo-viruses of SARS-CoV-2 WT and variants. It is undeniable that the binding and neutralizing activities of the S2-targeting mAbs are significantly weaker than the previously reported antibodies targeting RBD and NTD, but our study may provide some evidences for understanding immune protection and identifying targets for vaccine design based on the conserved S2 subunit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
15.
Virus Genes ; 58(3): 172-179, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756860

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is handled in biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) facilities, whereas the antiviral screening of pseudotype virus is conducted in BSL-2 facilities. In this study, we developed a SARS-CoV-2 spike-pseudotyped virus based on a semi-replication-competent retroviral (s-RCR) vector system. The s-RCR vector system was divided into two packageable vectors, each with gag-pol and env genes. For env vector construction, SARS-CoV-2 SΔ19 env was inserted into the pCLXSN-IRES-EGFP retroviral vector to generate pCLXSN-SΔ19 env-EGFP. When pCLXSN-gag-pol and pCLXSN-SΔ19env-EGFP were co-transfected into HEK293 T cells to generate an s-RCR virus, titers of the s-RCR virus were consistently low in this transient transfection system (1 × 104 TU/mL). However, a three-fold higher amounts of MLV-based SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped viruses (3 × 104 TU/mL) were released from stable producer cells, and the spike proteins induced syncytia formation in HEK293-hACE2 cells. Furthermore, s-RCR stocks collected from stable producer cells induced more substantial syncytia formation in the Vero E6-TMPRSS2 cell line than in the Vero E6 cell line. Therefore, a combination of the s-RCR vector and the two cell lines (HEK293-hACE2 or Vero E6-TMPRSS2) that induce syncytia formation can be useful for the rapid screening of novel fusion inhibitor drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Giant Cells , HEK293 Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells
16.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-330043

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid detection represents limitations due to its high false-negative rate and technical complexity in the COVID-19 pandemic. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody tests are widely spread all over the world presently. However, there is no report on the effectiveness of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing methods in China. Here, we gathered 10776 serum samples from close contacts of the SARS-CoV-2 infections in Fujian of China and used two chemiluminescence immunoassays (Wantai bio., Xiamen, China, and Yahuilong bio., Shenzhen, China) and two lateral flow immunoassays (Lizhu bio., Zhuhai, China and Dongfang bio., Zhejiang, China) to perform the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests in China. The results show that the four antibody tests have great diagnostic value for infected or uninfected, especially in the neutralizing antibodies tests, the AUC can reach 0.939 (Wantai bio.) and 0.916 (Yahuilong bio.). Furthermore, we used pseudoviruses and euvirus neutralization assay to validate the effectiveness of these antibody test, the results of pseudoviruses neutralization assay or euvirus neutralization assay shows a considerable correlation with the 4 antibody detection respectively, particularly in euvirus neutralization assay, neutralizing antibodies detected by Wantai bio. or Yahuilong bio., the correlation can get the level of 0.93 or 0.82. The findings of this study demonstrate that the detections of antibodies have profound value in the diagnosis of COVID-19.

17.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705787

ABSTRACT

In light of an increasing number of vaccinated and convalescent individuals, there is a major need for the development of robust methods for the quantification of neutralizing antibodies; although, a defined correlate of protection is still missing. Sera from hospitalized COVID-19 patients suffering or not suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were comparatively analyzed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and pseudotype-based neutralization assays to quantify their neutralizing capacity. The two neutralization assays showed comparable data. In case of the non-ARDS sera, there was a distinct correlation between the data from the neutralization assays on the one hand, and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA), as well as biophysical analyses, on the other hand. As such, surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assays for quantification of binding antibodies or analysis of the stability of the antigen-antibody interaction and inhibition of syncytium formation, determined by cell fusion assays, were performed. In the case of ARDS sera, which are characterized by a significantly higher fraction of RBD-binding IgA antibodies, there is a clear correlation between the neutralization assays and the ELISA data. In contrast to this, a less clear correlation between the biophysical analyses on the one hand and ELISAs and neutralization assays on the other hand was observed, which might be explained by the heterogeneity of the antibodies. To conclude, for less complex immune sera-as in cases of non-ARDS sera-combinations of titer quantification by ELISA with inhibition of syncytium formation, SPR-based analysis of antibody binding, determination of the stability of the antigen-antibody complex, and competition of the RBD-ACE2 binding represent alternatives to the classic PRNT for analysis of the neutralizing potential of SARS-CoV-2-specific sera, without the requirement for a BSL3 facility.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Convalescence , Immune Sera/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 97-102, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the status of immune responses after primary and booster immunization for SARS-CoV-2 variants and evaluate the differences in disease resistance based upon titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the variants. METHODS: Participants aged 18-59 years received 2 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine, 14 days apart, and a booster dose after 12 months. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (baseline), 1 and 6 months after primary immunization, and at multiple instances within 21 days of the booster dose. NAbs against the spike protein of Wuhan-Hu-1 and 3 variants were measured using pseudovirus neutralization assays. RESULTS: Of 400 enrolled participants, 387 completed visits scheduled within 6 months of the second dose and 346 participants received the booster dose in the follow-up research. After 1 month of primary immunization, geometric mean titers (GMTs) of NAbs peaked for Wuhan-Hu-1, whereas GMTs of other variants were <30. After 6 months of primary immunization, GMTs of NAbs against all strains were <30. After 3 days of booster immunization, GMTs were unaltered, seroconversion rates reached approximately 50% after 7 days, and GMTs of NAbs against all strains peaked at 14 days. CONCLUSION: Two-dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine induced the formation of NAbs and memory-associated immune responses, and high titers of NAbs against the variants obtained after booster immunization may further improve the effectiveness of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Middle Aged , Young Adult
19.
Phytomedicine ; 98: 153970, 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic will continue to threaten our health care systems in the next years. In addition to vaccination there is a need for effective tools for prevention and treatment. Products from natural sources, like standardized plant extracts offer a wide range of antiviral effects and possible applications. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate, whether a sorbitol/lecithin-based throat spray containing concentrated green tea extract (sGTE) interacts with SARS-CoV-2 viral particles and additionally is capable to block the virus replication. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The antiviral effect was studied in a VeroE6 cell culture model, including concentration/effect correlations and the biological mechanism of virus blockade, using the Wuhan type of SARS CoV-2 as well as its beta- and delta-mutations. In addition, the qualitative and quantitative tannin profile present on the oral mucosa after spray application has been investigated by LC-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD analyses of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and related catechin derivatives. RESULTS: The findings of this study demonstrate, that sGTE has strong neutralizing activity on SARS-CoV-2 resulting in an up to 6,3E+04-fold reduction of infectivity independent from the strain. The type of interaction of sGTE with surface proteins seems to be direct and non-specific concerning the viral surface protein structures and resembles the general non-specific activity of polyphenols. By HPLC-DAD analysis, eight catechins were identified in sGTE, with EGCG and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate as the most abundant ones. The total content of catechin derivatives, calculated as catechin, was 76 g/100 g. LC-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD analyses of throat swabs after application of a sGTE spray have shown that the concentrations of green tea tannins in the pharyngeal mucosa are higher than the effective dose found in the in vitro studies with SARS-CoV-2, even 1 h after the last application. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that sGTE has strong neutralizing activity on SARS-CoV-2 independent from the strain (Wuhan strain, beta- or delta-variants). sGTE might be relevant for reduction of corresponding viral infections when periodically applied to mouth and throat.

20.
Clin Lab Med ; 42(1): 57-73, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654214

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the development, validation, and rapid adoption of multiple novel diagnostic approaches. Hundreds of SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays have been developed and deployed to contain the spread of the virus, and to supply timely and important health information. Most of these serologic assays were based on a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or the lateral flow assay format. The immunoassays that were developed were based on alternative technologies and are highlighted in this article with a brief discussion of the assay principle and the pros and cons for each assay. Measurement of neutralizing antibodies is also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
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