Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 605
Filter
1.
Trials ; 23(1): 218, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is indicated to avoid orotracheal intubation (OTI) to reduce hospital stay and mortality. Patients infected by SARS-CoV2 can progress to respiratory failure (RF); however, in the initial phase, they can be submitted to oxygen therapy and NIV. Such resources can produce aerosol and can cause a high risk of contagion to health professionals. Safe NIV strategies are sought, and therefore, the authors adapted diving masks to be used as NIV masks (called an Owner mask). OBJECTIVE: To assess the Owner mask safety and effectiveness regarding conventional orofacial mask for patients in respiratory failure with and without confirmation or suspicion of COVID-19. METHODS: A Brazilian multicentric study to assess patients admitted to the intensive care unit regarding their clinical, sociodemographic and anthropometric data. The primary outcome will be the rate of tracheal intubation, and secondary outcomes will include in-hospital mortality, the difference in PaO2/FiO2 ratio and PaCO2 levels, time in the intensive care unit and hospitalization time, adverse effects, degree of comfort and level of satisfaction of the mask use, success rate of NIV (not progressing to OTI), and behavior of the ventilatory variables obtained in NIV with an Owner mask and with a conventional face mask. Patients with COVID-19 and clinical signs indicative of RF will be submitted to NIV with an Owner mask [NIV Owner COVID Group (n = 63)] or with a conventional orofacial mask [NIV orofacial COVID Group (n = 63)], and those patients in RF due to causes not related to COVID-19 will be allocated into the NIV Owner Non-COVID Group (n = 97) or to the NIV Orofacial Non-COVID Group (n = 97) in a randomized way, which will total 383 patients, admitting 20% for loss to follow-up. DISCUSSION: This is the first randomized and controlled trial during the COVID-19 pandemic about the safety and effectiveness of the Owner mask compared to the conventional orofacial mask. Experimental studies have shown that the Owner mask enables adequate sealing on the patient's face and the present study is relevant as it aims to minimize the aerosolization of the virus in the environment and improve the safety of health professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC): RBR - 7xmbgsz . Registered on 15 April 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diving , Noninvasive Ventilation , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Trials ; 23(1): 105, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive respiratory support is frequently needed for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Helmet noninvasive ventilation has multiple advantages over other oxygen support modalities but data about effectiveness are limited. METHODS: In this multicenter randomized trial of helmet noninvasive ventilation for COVID-19 patients, 320 adult ICU patients (aged ≥14 years or as per local standards) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen < 200 despite supplemental oxygen with a partial/non-rebreathing mask at a flow rate of 10 L/min or higher) will be randomized to helmet noninvasive ventilation with usual care or usual care alone, which may include mask noninvasive ventilation, high-flow nasal oxygen, or standard oxygen therapy. The primary outcome is death from any cause within 28 days after randomization. The trial has 80% power to detect a 15% absolute risk reduction in 28-day mortality from 40 to 25%. The primary outcome will be compared between the helmet and usual care group in the intention-to-treat using the chi-square test. Results will be reported as relative risk  and 95% confidence interval. The first patient was enrolled on February 8, 2021. As of August 1, 2021, 252 patients have been enrolled from 7 centers in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. DISCUSSION: We developed a detailed statistical analysis plan to guide the analysis of the Helmet-COVID trial, which is expected to conclude enrollment in November 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04477668 . Registered on July 20, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Journal of Intensive Medicine ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082984

ABSTRACT

Optimal initial non-invasive management of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF), of both coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 etiologies, has been the subject of significant discussion. Avoidance of endotracheal intubation reduces related complications, but maintenance of spontaneous breathing with intense respiratory effort may increase risks of patients’ self-inflicted lung injury, leading to delayed intubation and worse clinical outcomes. High-flow nasal oxygen is currently recommended as the optimal strategy for AHRF management for its simplicity and beneficial physiological effects. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV), delivered as either pressure support or continuous positive airway pressure via interfaces like face masks and helmets, can improve oxygenation and may be associated with reduced endotracheal intubation rates. However, treatment failure is common and associated with poor outcomes. Expertise and knowledge of the specific features of each interface are necessary to fully exploit their potential benefits and minimize risks. Strict clinical and physiological monitoring is necessary during any treatment to avoid delays in endotracheal intubation and protective ventilation. In this narrative review, we analyze the physiological benefits and risks of spontaneous breathing in AHRF, and the characteristics of tools for delivering NIV. The goal herein is to provide a contemporary, evidence-based overview of this highly relevant topic.

4.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(11): e35622, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 disease has multiple symptoms, with anosmia and ageusia being the most prevalent, varying from 75% to 95% and from 50% to 80% of infected patients, respectively. An automatic assessment tool for these symptoms will help monitor the disease in a fast and noninvasive manner. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that people with COVID-19 experiencing anosmia and ageusia had different voice features than those without such symptoms. Our objective was to develop an artificial intelligence pipeline to identify and internally validate a vocal biomarker of these symptoms for remotely monitoring them. METHODS: This study used population-based data. Participants were assessed daily through a web-based questionnaire and asked to register 2 different types of voice recordings. They were adults (aged >18 years) who were confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction test to be positive for COVID-19 in Luxembourg and met the inclusion criteria. Statistical methods such as recursive feature elimination for dimensionality reduction, multiple statistical learning methods, and hypothesis tests were used throughout this study. The TRIPOD (Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis) Prediction Model Development checklist was used to structure the research. RESULTS: This study included 259 participants. Younger (aged <35 years) and female participants showed higher rates of ageusia and anosmia. Participants were aged 41 (SD 13) years on average, and the data set was balanced for sex (female: 134/259, 51.7%; male: 125/259, 48.3%). The analyzed symptom was present in 94 (36.3%) out of 259 participants and in 450 (27.5%) out of 1636 audio recordings. In all, 2 machine learning models were built, one for Android and one for iOS devices, and both had high accuracy-88% for Android and 85% for iOS. The final biomarker was then calculated using these models and internally validated. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that people with COVID-19 who have anosmia and ageusia have different voice features from those without these symptoms. Upon further validation, these vocal biomarkers could be nested in digital devices to improve symptom assessment in clinical practice and enhance the telemonitoring of COVID-19-related symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04380987; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04380987.

5.
Ann Thorac Med ; 17(4): 214-219, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080627

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Early use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) provides positive outcomes for preventing the risk of intubation. However, the efficiency and usage of HFNC in the case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among adult patients with multiple risk factors remain debatable and require more investigation. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of HFNC in preventing the possible risk of intubation. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This study was an observational cross-sectional study that was conducted at a selected hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from July 2020 to August 2021. METHODS: The data were collected from patients' medical records through the hospital health information system. Adult COVID-19 patients who used HFNC were included, while those who used bilevel positive airway pressure or continuous positive airway pressure without any trials of HFNC and neonatal or pediatric patients were excluded. The exposure of HFNC setting which included variables such as percentages of the fraction of inspired oxygen and the duration of using HFNC were measured to find the relation with respiratory rate oxygenation (ROX) index as a measurement of patient outcome. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The data were analyzed by using the online calculator socscistatistics. com for prevalence statistics, and correlation tests of significance. Prevalence statistics were presented in mean, median, frequencies, and percentages. Statistical tests were used to measure correlations of key variables. P < 0.05 of ANOVA and t-tests was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 159 adult COVID-19 patients using HFNC were included, and most of these patients were male. The median age was 64 years. Most of patients were reported to have hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The majority (94.34%) of patients were successfully weaned from HFNC and shows effective intervention with a mean of 7.53 of ROX score. Appropriate implementation of HFNC might be a successful intervention for preventing the risk of intubation. CONCLUSIONS: According to the success rate of HFNC, which was considered a positive outcome, there might be a promising intervention for HFNC to prevent the risk of intubation and decrease the mortality rate.

6.
J Clin Med ; 11(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071543

ABSTRACT

The best timing for endotracheal intubation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (hARF) remains debated. Aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hARF receiving either a trial of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or intubated with no prior attempt of NIV ("straight intubation"). All consecutive patients admitted to the 25 participating ICUs were included and divided in two groups: the "straight intubation" group and the "NIV" group. A propensity score matching was performed to correct for biases associated with the choice of the respiratory support. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of mechanical ventilation, hospital stay and reintubation rate. A total of 704 COVID-19 patients were admitted to ICUs during the study period. After matching, 141 patients were included in each group. No clinically relevant difference at ICU admission was found between groups. In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in the NIV group (22.0% vs. 36.2%), with no significant difference in secondary endpoints. There was no significant mortality difference between patients who received straight intubation and those intubated after NIV failure. In COVID-19 patients with hARF it is worth and safe attempting a trial of NIV prior to intubation.

7.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13875, 2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prehospital Respiratory Early Warning Scores to estimate the requirement for advanced respiratory support is needed. To develop a prehospital Respiratory Early Warning Score to estimate the requirement for advanced respiratory support. METHODS: Multicentre, prospective, emergency medical services (EMS)-delivered, longitudinal cohort derivationvalidation study carried out in 59 ambulances and five hospitals across five Spanish provinces. Adults with acute diseases evaluated, supported and discharged to the Emergency Department with high priority were eligible. The primary outcome was the need for invasive or non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS or IRS) in the prehospital scope at the first contact with the patient. The measures included the following: epidemiological endpoints, prehospital vital signs (respiratory rate, pulse oximetry saturation, fraction of inspired oxygen, systolic and diastolic mean blood pressure, heart rate, tympanic temperature and consciousness level by the GCS). RESULTS: Between 26 Oct 2018 and 26 Oct 2021, we enrolled 5793 cases. For NIRS prediction, the final model of the logistic regression included respiratory rate and pulse oximetry saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio. For the IRS case, the motor response from the Glasgow Coma Scale was also included. The REWS showed an AUC of 0.938 (95% CI: 0.918-0.958), a calibration-in-large of 0.026 and a higher net benefit as compared with the other scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that REWS is a remarkably aid for the decision-making process in the management of advanced respiratory support in prehospital care. Including this score in the prehospital scenario could improve patients' care and optimise the resources' management.

8.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology ; 40(10):83-84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067774

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To determine characteristics associated with a more severe COVID-19 outcome in people with Sjogren's disease (SJD). Methods. People with SJD and COVID-19 reported to two international registries (Sjogren Big Data Consortium and COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance) from March 2020 to October 2021 were included. An ordinal COVID-19 severity scale was defined: (1) not hospitalized, (2) hospitalized with no ventilation, (3) hospitalized requiring non-invasive ventilation, (4) hospitalized requiring invasive ventilation, and (5) death. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using a multivariable ordinal logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities and anti-rheumatic medications included as covariates. Results. A total of 898 people with SJD were included (825 (91.8%) women, mean age SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis: 55.5 years), including 652 patients with primary SJD and 246 with other associated systemic rheumatic diseases. 33.9% were hospitalized, 14.5% required ventilation, and 4.3% died. In the multivariable model, older age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.05), male sex (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.92), two or more comorbidities (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.92 to 4.67;vs none), baseline therapy with corticosteroids (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.46), immunosuppressive agents (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.38) and B-cell depleting agents (OR 5.38, 95% CI 2.77 to 10.47) were associated with worse outcomes (reference for all medications: hydroxychloroquine only). Conclusions. More severe COVID-19 outcomes in individuals with Sjogren's are largely driven by demographic factors and baseline comorbidities. Patients using immunosuppressants, especially rituximab, also experienced more severe outcomes.

9.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(9):OC05-OC09, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067202

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) had devastating effects on the healthcare and economic sector worldwide. India stands second in the list of most number of COVID-19 cases. Most of the deaths due to COVID-19 were seen in patients with associated co-morbidities like hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and obesity. This study would like to examine specific co-morbidities in relation to the COVID-19 disease progression and outcomes. Aim(s): To compare the clinicoradiological profile and outcome of COVID-19 in patients with and without co-morbidities (diabetes and hypertension). Material(s) and Method(s): The present observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh between June 2020 to September 2020, after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) approval. A total of 148 patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. The COVID-19 patients admitted in the hospital were divided into four groups as those having only diabetes, only hypertension, both diabetes and hypertension, and those without any co-morbidities. Those with any other co-morbidity were excluded from the study. The general clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, disease severity, morbidity and mortality were compared among various groups and the data was analysed. Categorical data were analysed using the Chi-square test. Result(s): A total of 148 patients with COVID-19 were included in the study, of which 26 patients were diabetic, 36 were hypertensive, 24 were both hypertensive and diabetic and 62 patients didn't had any significant co-morbidity. Severe COVID-19 disease was most commonly observed in those with diabetes (n=14) (53.8%). The highest proportion of patients requiring oxygen (84.6%) and Non Invasive Ventilator (NIV) support (46.1%) was also seen among diabetics. The presence of diabetes, severe disease and leukocytosis at presentation increased the risk of mortality. The association of hypertension with COVID-19 does not seem to affect the in-hospital mortality. Conclusion(s): COVID-19 in diabetics is associated with both increased risk of severe disease and increased odds of death. In diabetics, those with uncontrolled diabetes were more prone to severe disease and death than those with good glycaemic control. Hypertension, on the other hand, showed no association. Copyright © 2022 Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

10.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(10):1152, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066998
11.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(10):1159-1160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066997
12.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 70, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive inspiratory effort could translate into self-inflicted lung injury, thus worsening clinical outcomes of spontaneously breathing patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Although esophageal manometry is a reliable method to estimate the magnitude of inspiratory effort, procedural issues significantly limit its use in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study is to describe the correlation between esophageal pressure swings (ΔPes) and nasal (ΔPnos) as a potential measure of inspiratory effort in spontaneously breathing patients with de novo ARF. METHODS: From January 1, 2021, to September 1, 2021, 61 consecutive patients with ARF (83.6% related to COVID-19) admitted to the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of the University Hospital of Modena (Italy) and candidate to escalation of non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) were enrolled. Clinical features and tidal changes in esophageal and nasal pressure were recorded on admission and 24 h after starting NRS. Correlation between ΔPes and ΔPnos served as primary outcome. The effect of ΔPnos measurements on respiratory rate and ΔPes was also assessed. RESULTS: ΔPes and ΔPnos were strongly correlated at admission (R2 = 0.88, p < 0.001) and 24 h apart (R2 = 0.94, p < 0.001). The nasal plug insertion and the mouth closure required for ΔPnos measurement did not result in significant change of respiratory rate and ΔPes. The correlation between measures at 24 h remained significant even after splitting the study population according to the type of NRS (high-flow nasal cannulas [R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001] or non-invasive ventilation [R2 = 0.95, p < 0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patients with ARF, nasal pressure swings did not alter respiratory mechanics in the short term and were highly correlated with esophageal pressure swings during spontaneous tidal breathing. ΔPnos might warrant further investigation as a measure of inspiratory effort in patients with ARF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03826797 . Registered October 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
13.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1065-1066, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063498

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The increased COVID-19 severity observed in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) has been widely reported. In addition, several studies have shown a reduced humoral and cellular response after mRNA vaccination in this population compared to hemodialysis patients. However, there is currently no information on real-life clinical protection (deaths and hospitalizations), a gap that this study aims to fill. Method(s): Observational prospective study. A total population of 1336 KTR and hemodialysis patients from three dialysis units affiliated to Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain, vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. The outcomes measured were SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed by a positive RT-PCR fourteen days after the second vaccine dose, hospital admissions derived from infection, and a severe COVID-19 composite outcome, defined as either ICU admission, invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. Result(s): Six per cent (18/302) of patients on hemodialysis were infected, of whom four required hospital admission (1.3%), only one (0.3%) had severe COVID-19, and none of them died. In contrast, 4.3% (44/1034) of KTR were infected, and presented more hospital admissions (26 patients, 2.5%), severe COVID-19 (11 patients, 1.1%) or death (4 patients, 0.4%). There were no correlations on the multivariate analysis between measured outcomes and baseline characteristics nor immunosuppressive treatment. Conclusion(s): The study highlights the need for further booster doses in KTR. In contrast, the hemodialysis population appears to have an adequate clinical response to vaccination, at least up to four months from its administration.

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A2693-A2694, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060983

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Late Breaking Posters in Critical Care SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: This systematic review aims to better understand the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, diagnostic findings, and clinical outcomes associated with COVID-19 myocarditis. METHODS: A search for “COVID-19 OR SARS COV-2 OR Coronavirus AND Myocarditis” was performed on 1/4/2022. 2011 studies from Embase and 1165 studies from PubMed were identified. Selection criteria included studies on SARS COV-2 infection-related myocarditis. 142 PubMed and 104 Embase studies were identified. Studies were appraised per protocols and s, vaccine-related myocarditis, uncertain vaccine/infection-related myocarditis, and, systematic reviews. Duplicate studies were removed. A total of 53 articles from which 57 cases were selected to be part of this systematic review. Data on age, sex, days since diagnosis, comorbid conditions such as morbid obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, CAD, preexisting CHF, ischemic heart disease, D- Dimer, ferritin, high sensitivity troponin, BNP, EKG, echocardiogram, cMRI findings, medications, ventilation requirements, and mortality were extracted from 57 studies and were analyzed using IBM SPSS v26. RESULTS: Mean EF was 32.65 ± 16.57 %. EKG findings of diffuse ST elevation were present in 22% of all cases. Echocardiogram findings of diffuse hypokinesis present in 42.1% and depressed EF in 31.6% of all cases. 21.1% required non-invasive ventilation while 26.3% of all cases ended up requiring mechanical ventilation. Ischemic cardiomyopathy was present in 1.7%, Hypertension in 24.5%, Hyperlipidemia in 7%, Morbid obesity, and a previous diagnosis of CHF was present in 0% of all cases. Overall mortality was seen in 5.3% of all cases. 50% of the cases reported using cardiac MRI (cMRI) and 58% with reported cMRI findings met the Lake Louis criteria for diagnosis of myocarditis. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review presents findings of demographics, comorbidities, diagnostic findings, and clinical outcomes of adult COVID-19 patients with myocarditis. The mean days since COVID-19 diagnosis has a wide range due to varied presentations noted in case reports. The previously presumed high-risk factors for COVID-19-related myocarditis are not present in a significant percentage of the cases. SARS-CoV2 myocarditis-related mortality is lower in cases than expected. In the setting of the appropriate clinical context, acute/subacute chest pain, with elevated cardiac biomarkers, abnormal EKGs, and echocardiogram findings in patients with recent or /remote SARS-CoV2 infection/ vaccination, a clinical diagnosis of myocarditis can be made in absence of cMRI. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Diagnosis of SARS-CoV2-related myocarditis can be made based on clinical presentation, abnormal EKG, and echocardiogram with or without the added benefit of cardiac MRI. This systematic review aims to update current knowledge on the characteristics of COVID-19 infection-related myocarditis. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mubashir Ayaz Ahmed No relevant relationships by Hari Bhattarai No relevant relationships by shyam chalise No relevant relationships by Saral Desai No relevant relationships by Shayet Hossain Eshan No relevant relationships by Sudha Misra No relevant relationships by Zahin Islam Rafa No relevant relationships by Shrungavi Ramanathan No relevant relationships by Monica Sharma

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A2637, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060976

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Late Breaking Chest Infections Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: (1) Assess the characteristics of COVID-19 patients who developed pulmonary cysts, bullae, blebs, and pneumatoceles. (2) Investigate outcomes of patients who developed cystic lung disease from COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search using Pubmed, Cochrane, and Embase was performed for case reports from 2020 to 2022 describing COVID-19 patients who developed lung cysts, bullae, blebs and pneumatoceles. The following data were extracted: patient demographics, presence of underlying lung disease, history of smoking, maximum oxygen requirements during acute illness, imaging findings, complications, and patient mortality. RESULTS: 65 publications (11 case series and 54 case reports) with a total sample size of 76 patients were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 52.2 ± 15.8 years. A majority of the cases were males (n=67, 88.2%). Twelve (15.8%) cases had an underlying lung disease, such as COPD or asthma, and 16 (21.1%) cases had a history of smoking tobacco. We categorized severity of illness based on the levels of oxygen requirement defined as: (1) mild - 0 to 2 liters of oxygen, (2) moderate - greater than 2 liters of oxygen to face mask/venturi mask and (3) severe - high flow nasal cannula, non-invasive ventilation, or mechanical ventilation. The majority of patients (n=40, 52.6%) had severe illness while 7 (9.2%) and 17 (22.4%) presented with mild and moderate disease, respectively. Of the 25 (32.9%) patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation, duration of ventilator days was provided for 14 patients, with a median of 40 days (interquartile range=54). Twenty-one (27.6%) patients were found to have cysts on imaging, 26 (34.2%) were found to have bullae, 3 (3.9%) were found to have blebs, 15 (19.7%) were found to have pneumatoceles, and 11 (14.5%) were found to have more than one of the aforementioned findings. A total of 53 (69.7%) patients developed pneumothorax and 12 (15.8%) developed pneumomediastinum. Seventeen (22.4%) patients were on the mechanical ventilator while pulmonary complications occurred. Additionally, 41 (53.9%) required chest tube placement, 16 (21.1%) required surgical intervention including open thoracotomy or video assisted thoracoscopy. A total of 47 (61.8%) cases reported either resolution of symptoms and complications, or improved imaging findings following interventions. The rate of inpatient mortality was 11.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe COVID-19 may have a higher risk for developing cystic lung disease, hence, increasing the risk for complications such as pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Patients who had severe COVID-19 may benefit from closer follow up and serial imaging for early detection of cystic lung disease. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kavita Batra No relevant relationships by Rajany Dy No relevant relationships by Christina Fanous No relevant relationships by Wilbur Ji No relevant relationships by Max Nguyen No relevant relationships by Omar Sanyurah

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A2611, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060973

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Late Breaking Posters in Critical Care SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Respiratory failure is a life threatening emergency and the management of respiratory failure includes invasive or non-invasive ventilation based on the various clinical parameters. Hence the present study was conducted to assess the outcome of NIV in patients with respiratory failure and to determine the factors predicting the outcome. METHODS: This Prospective observational study had included a total of 104 subjects.The demographic details, clinical examination,vitals and arterial blood gas levels at 0,1, 4 and 24 hours were analyzed among study subjects. Descriptive analysis was carried out, that include mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables, frequency and proportion for categorical variables.Parametric statistics used were paired t test and ANOVA.Non parametric statistics used were Chisquare test.At 95% Confidence interval, p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Multivariate Regression analysis was done to predict the factors determining outcome of NIV. The data was entered in excel sheet and analyzed using SPSS (Version 16). RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 52.88±16.58 years.70.78% success rate was found among males and 29.23% success rate was found among females. The difference between gender and outcome was not statistically significant.There was no statistical significant association observed between BMI and outcome of NIV ( p value 0.84).Higher rate of success was seen among subjects with COPD (43.37%) followed by COVID 19 patients (18.07%), acute pulmonary edema and pneumonia (9.64% each), ARDS (8.43%).In our study, the difference between etiological diagnosis and outcome was found to be statistically significant in ARDS (P value 0.02), pneumonia (P value 0.04) and COPD (P value 0.007). Patients with GCS < 8, 12% were successful and GCS >8, 78.48% were successful. The difference between GCS and outcome was found to be statistically significant (P value <0.0001). All ABG parameters at 0, 1, 4 and 24 hours (except PaCo2 at 4 and 24 hours) were statistically significant to predict outcome of NIV. CONCLUSIONS: A successful outcome of 62.5% was observed in the subjects initiated on NIV for respiratory failure, COPD being the major etiological diagnosis and the factors determing NIV were based on etiological diagnosis, GCS and Arterial Blood gas parameters. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Though studies on outcome of NIV are available involving multiple variables including sociodemographic data, clinical and ABG parameters, there are only limited Indian studies to determine NIV outcome based on etiological diagnosis, comorbidities, GCS and ABG parameters at different time intervals affecting outcome of NIV in respiratory failure.Thus, the present study was conducted to study the outcome of non-invasive ventilation in patients with respiratory failure and to determine the above factors that affect the outcome of non-invasive ventilation DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sahana K No relevant relationships by SURESH SAGADEVAN

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A2552-A2553, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060959

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Issues in Transplantation Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Fibrotic interstitial lung disease (fILD) can be idiopathic or associated with several underlying conditions and in response to various types of injury. Post COVID-19 fILD is an increasingly recognized clinical entity with the potential for a large burden of morbidity and mortality.[1] We present a series of 6 patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis as sequela of COVID-19 requiring lung transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: Four of the 6 patients had known underlying chronic ILD prior to COVID-19 infection (2 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis [IPF] and 1 each with scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis associated ILD). The other 2 patients had no prior history of lung disease and asymptomatic before infection. One of these had a strong family history of IPF. The presentations involved signs of progressive respiratory failure after the initial lung injury from COVID-19. 4 patients were hospitalized during their acute COVID-19 illness and had varying treatments including steroids, antibiotics, anti-virals, convalescent plasma, Tocilizumab, and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. At the time of transplant evaluation, CT imaging showed prominent interstitial thickening, honeycombing consistent with fibrotic processes for all our patients;PFT revealed severe restrictive ventilatory defect with reduced diffusion capacity ranging 24%-53%;3 patients required venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to transplantation for 14 and 93 days. The remainder required 6-10 L of supplemental oxygenation at rest. Two patients underwent initial transplant evaluation while in respiratory failure.5 patients received bilateral lung transplantation and one single left lung transplantation.Duration of time between initial COVID-19 induced lung injury and transplantation ranged from 3-13 months, with a median 6-7 months.Lung explant pathology showed advanced usual interstitial pneumonia in all. Superimposed diffuse alveolar damage was noted in 3 cases. Post-transplant to discharge ranged 10-31 days and at 2 months follow-up, all patients were liberated of oxygen needs. All subjects remain alive at a median 11-12 months, with no evidence of allograft dysfunction. DISCUSSION: Since the emergence of SARS-COV2 in 2019, histopathological fibrotic anomalies have been found to be present in up to one-third of those who recover from ARDS due to COVID-19 [2] and their incidence increases as duration of ARDS increases [3]. Further work is required to understand the pathogenesis of the fibrotic process following acute COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight this syndrome with our case series of 6 patients who showed progressive fibrotic disease after COVID-19. Patients with pre-exiting ILD appear to be particularly at risk but this entity may occur in those without pre-existing ILD. Lung transplantation offers a viable treatment option for selected patients with an otherwise poor prognosis. Reference #1: 1.Bharat, A., Querrey, M., Markov, N. S., Kim, S., Kurihara, C., Garza-Castillon, R., Manerikar, A., Shilatifard, A., Tomic, R., Politanska, Y., Abdala-Valencia, H., Yeldandi, A. V., Lomasney, J. W., Misharin, A. V., & Budinger, G. (2020). Lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis secondary to severe COVID-19. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences, 2020.10.26.20218636. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.26.20218636 Reference #2: 2. Rai DK, Sharma P, Kumar R. Post covid 19 pulmonary fibrosis. Is it real threat?. Indian J Tuberc. 2021;68(3):330-333. doi:10.1016/j.ijtb.2020.11.003 Reference #3: 3. Williamson EJ, Walker AJ, Bhaskaran K, Bacon S, Bates C, Morton CE, Curtis HJ, Mehrkar A, Evans D, Inglesby P, Cockburn J, McDonald HI, MacKenna B, Tomlinson L, Douglas IJ, Rentsch CT, Mathur R, Wong AYS, Grieve R, Harrison D, Forbes H, Schultze A, Croker R, Parry J, Hester F, Harper S, Perera R, Evans SJW, Smeeth L, Goldacre B. Factors associated with C VID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY. Nature. 2020 Aug;584(7821):430-436. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4. Epub 2020 Jul 8. PMID: 32640463;PMCID: PMC7611074. DISCLOSURES: no disclosure on file for Philip Camp;research relationship with United Therapeutics Please note: 2016- ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research research relationship with Pfizer Please note: 2014-2020 by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Boehringher Ingelheim Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Genentech Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria No relevant relationships by Ryan Hadley No relevant relationships by Sheila Krishnan No relevant relationships by Sheetal Maragiri No relevant relationships by Edward Murphy No relevant relationships by Jay Patel No relevant relationships by Keval Ray No relevant relationships by Gayathri Sathiyamoorthy No relevant relationships by Neel Shah No relevant relationships by Subhan Toor

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A2467, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060945

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Outcomes Across COVID-19 SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: The ROX index (Respiratory rate - OXygenation), obtained by the calculation of SpO2/FiO2/respiratory rate (RR), is a tool previously found to predict intubation in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure (AHRF). There is variation in the time intervals described from HFNC to ROX index assessment as well as the cutoff value. This study investigates the role of the ROX index from 12 to 72 hours after HFNC initiation to predict intubation or death while on HFNC in patients with COVID-19 AHRF. METHODS: Adult patients (18 years or older) with confirmed nasopharyngeal PCR SARS-CoV-2 infection who received HFNC therapy between March 1 and July 15, 2020, at Monmouth Medical Center were included. 52 patients were available for analysis. Patients were divided into two groups: those able to be weaned to traditional nasal cannula (group one) and those who were intubated or died while on HFNC (group two). RESULTS: Of the 52 patients evaluated, 28 (54%) required intubation or died while on HFNC (Group two). Group two mortality was 53.85% and overall mortality was 42.31%. A Kaplan-Meier analysis comparing patients whose ROX remained above 4.67 (Group A) with those with ROX <= 4.67 (Group B) within the first 12 hours showed that patients in Group B had a significantly shorter time to the event than those in Group A. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, higher ROX index values are associated with a lower risk of intubation on HFNC in AHRF. In this patient sample, any ROX index less than 4.67 at 12 hours or less than 4.04 at 24 hours was associated with an increased risk of eventual intubation or death while on HFNC. Thus, a low or decreasing ROX index may prompt more frequent reassessment and, if accompanied by other evidence of deterioration, may trigger an escalation of care. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study shows that the ROX index can stratify patients into low or higher risk for deterioration on HFNC among patients with COVID-19 AHRF. This could help optimize the use of critical care services, minimize PPE use, and promote safety for patients and healthcare workers. Future studies may include prospective analysis of the ROX index and exploration of modalities for monitoring patients receiving non-invasive ventilation. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Reem alhashemi no disclosure on file for Alvin Buemio;No relevant relationships by Kenneth Granet No relevant relationships by Ikwinder Preet Kaur No relevant relationships by Violet Kramer No relevant relationships by Mohsin Mughal No relevant relationships by Chandler Patton

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A1810, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060868

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Diagnosis of Lung Disease through Pathology Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare pulmonary disease often resulting in diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. The majority of diagnoses present in infanthood with limited studies demonstrating late onset disease in patients older than 30 years. The mainstay of treatment is immunosuppressive therapy including systemic corticosteroids. Here we present a unique case of IPH in an unvaccinated individual with COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was a 31 year-old male with a history of IPH diagnosed in early childhood with past hospitalizations for DAH and progressive pulmonary fibrosis for which he was treated with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide years prior to this admission. He presented with six days of progressive shortness of breath and respiratory distress. He tested positive for COVID-19 four days prior to presentation. He was unvaccinated for COVID-19. Initial oxygen saturation was found to be 56% and non-invasive mechanical ventilation was started. CT angiography of the chest revealed diffuse ground glass opacities, bilateral consolidative changes, and redemonstration of pulmonary fibrosis with extensive honeycombing. Lab results were remarkable for elevated inflammatory enzymes including ferritin 1,335 ng/mL, lactate dehydrogenase 1,369 units/L, and C-reactive protein 6.5 ml/dL. Patient was started on intravenous glucocorticoids, IL-6 inhibitor, remdesivir. Work up for bacterial superinfection was unremarkable. His hospitalization was complicated by acute kidney injury, elevated liver enzymes, and anxiety. Despite the immunosuppressive therapy, the patient continued to have refractory hypoxemia. Due to his persistent hypoxemia, the family was contacted regarding the impending need for endotracheal intubation. They ultimately declined and the patient succumbed to his respiratory failure. DISCUSSION: Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis remains to be a largely unstudied and rare disease with catastrophic respiratory sequela. There remains a scarcity of evidence surrounding the most effective treatment of these patients, although limited studies have shown mortality benefit with immunosuppressive therapy. In patients with IPH an insult such as COVID-19 infection could prove fatal. Preventative measures such as vaccination is vital in the protection of these patients. Further research regarding pathogenesis and treatment mechanisms for IPH is an aim of future study. CONCLUSIONS: Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis is a rare but deadly disease often complicated by diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and pulmonary fibrosis. Considering the underlying pulmonary compromise in these patients, secondary insult from infection can have catastrophic outcomes. Reference #1: Saha B. K. (2021). Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis: A state of the art review. Respiratory medicine, 176, 106234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106234 Reference #2: Ioachimescu, O. C., Sieber, S., & Kotch, A. (2004). Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis revisited. The European respiratory journal, 24(1), 162–170. https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.04.00116302 Reference #3: Thornton, G. & Alotaibi, M. (2016). 979: IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY HEMOSIDEROSIS IN ADULT PATIENTS: AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS. Critical Care Medicine, 44 (12), 321-321. doi: 10.1097/01.ccm.0000509655.03624.6e. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Allison Kunze No relevant relationships by Mohammed Siddiqui

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A1383-A1384, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060812

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Infections: Issues During and After Hospitalization SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum (PTX/PM) has been associated with patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infections. The aim of our study was to assess the risk factors, hospital length of stay, and mortality of PTX/PM among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection in a matched case-controlled study. METHODS: Adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 infections who were hospitalized at 5 Mayo Clinic hospitals (Minnesota, Arizona, Florida, Wisconsin) between March 2020 and January 2022 were retrospectively screened. PTX and or PM in at least two consecutive imaging studies were included. They were matched to control patients based on age, gender, hospital admission period, severity on admission day and the day preceding the incident. Summary statistics, Mann Whitney-U, and chi-square tests were performed RESULTS: A total of 197 patients were included in the descriptive analyses.The median age was 61 years and the majority were men (70.8%). Patients with underlying pulmonary comorbidities was 2.27 (OR 1.42-3.62, p value < 0.001) times more likely to develop PTX/PM. Ten percent of the total cases had these complications present upon hospital admission.Patients who developed PTX/PM had a longer hospital length of stay compared to controls, 20 versus 12 days, OR 4.53 (p=0.002). On the day prior to developing PTX/PM, 42 (31%) of patients had been on high-flow nasal cannula only and 14 on non-invasive ventilation (10.4%). The highest recorded positive end-expiratory pressure, plateau, and driving pressures were recorded in our case group on the day before the complication and all were significantly higher than matched controls. In-hospital mortality in patients whose COVID-19 course was complicated by PTX/PM was 44.2% vs. those without, 21.1%, adjusted OR 2.71 (p=0.001). Sixty two percent were treated conservatively without any intervention. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated in the largest study to date, that patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 infection and had a PTX/PM had a longer hospital length of stay, were associated with higher mechanical ventilatory pressures, and had a higher in-hospital mortality, when compared with matched controls. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Complications of PTX/PM in patients with COVID-19 infections can occur spontaneously and in barotrauma. Pre-existing lung disease is a risk factor for the development of these complications. Patients with PTX/PM have a longer hospital length of stay and higher in-hospital mortality which is in contrast with existing published data. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Natalya Azadeh No relevant relationships by Meghan Brown No relevant relationships by Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba No relevant relationships by Anusha Devarajan No relevant relationships by Juan Pablo Domecq No relevant relationships by Sandeep Khosa No relevant relationships by Amos Lal No relevant relationships by Shahraz Qamar No relevant relationships by Kenneth Sakata No relevant relationships by Mayank Sharma No relevant relationships by Nikhil Sharma No relevant relationships by Jamil Taji No relevant relationships by Fahimeh Talaei No relevant relationships by Aysun Tekin No relevant relationships by Diana Valencia Morales No relevant relationships by Stephanie Welle

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL