Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 57
Filter
1.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(9): 1067-1077, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056363

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity with COVID-19 due to severe immune dysfunction. Recombinant adenovirus vector-based vaccine, such as AstraZeneca ChAdOx1, and mRNA-based vaccines, such as Pfizer BNT162b2 and Moderna mRNA-1273 have been used in Japan. COVID-19 vaccine administration to HSCT recipients was reported to result in a 68-96.5% seroconversion for the spike protein. Factors associated with the absence of humoral responses were the time-interval from HSCT to vaccination, absolute lymphocyte count, systemic immunosuppressive treatments, graft versus host disease (GVHD), B-cell count, and hypogammaglobulinemia. New onset and exacerbation of chronic GVHD have been reported as an adverse events associated with vaccination. COVID-19 vaccination of HSCT recipients is relatively safe, and recipients should be vaccinated against COVID-19 6 months after transplantation. In the future, it is necessary to consider passive immunotherapy for HSCT patients who do not benefit from COVID1-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Graft vs Host Disease/complications , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2099166, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967805

ABSTRACT

Vaccination for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) provides an effective approach for the general improvement of social safety and individual health. To date, few studies have analyzed the adoption of COVID-19 vaccines from an entire impact process perspective. Using the health belief model (HBM) and the valence theory, this research evaluates the impact process of vaccine adoption for COVID-19. The respondents in this study were individuals who have been vaccinated in China. The effective sample included 595 individuals. Four valuable and novel findings are identified through this research. First, neither perceived susceptibility nor perceived severity has a statistically significant impact on the benefits from vaccination, threats from vaccination and self-efficacy. Second, benefits from vaccination produce a significant positive effect on self-efficacy and vaccine adoption. Third, threats from vaccination produce a significant negative effect on self-efficacy and vaccine adoption. Fourth, both self-efficacy and cues to adoption produce a significantly positive impact on vaccine adoption. Our theoretical model, which is the main contribution of this research, indicates that individual vaccine adoption is simply a process that leads from behavioral cognition to behavioral intention, rather than from psychological perception to behavioral cognition and then from behavioral cognition to behavioral intention.

3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; 28(6):206-212, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893395

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)has played an important role in the prevention and treatment of novel coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19). Qingfei Paidu decoction, as a general prescription of Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia from the sixth to eighth versions, has been proved effective clinically and is suitable for mild, moderate, severe, and critical patients. It can significantly improve clinical symptoms such as fever, cough, asthma, fatigue, etc. On the basis of the findings of relevant research papers, this paper summarized the TCM understanding of COVID-19, including etiology, pathogenesis,  disease location, and treatment, and concluded that the disease is caused by the pestilential Qi, localized in the lungs, and can affect the five organs. It is mainly characterized by coldness, dampness, heat, toxicity, stasis, and deficiency. In response to the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, the therapeutic principles at all stages are dominated by the elimination of pathogens and removal of toxicity. According to the stages of disease development, the treatment should combine the severity of the disease and the course of the disease with the TCM syndromes. Furthermore, from the clinical application of Qingfei Paidu decoction, this paper discussed the therapeutic intention of "Qingfei(clearing of lungs)" and "Paidu(removal of toxicity)". Qingfei Paidu decoction can clear the pathogenic toxin in the lungs and eliminate external pestilential Qi, which is in line with the therapeutic principles for this pandemic by regulating the triple energizer and protecting healthy Qi using both coldness and warmth to treat both the symptoms and the root cause. Additionally, the experimental research progress on Qingfei Paidu decoction and its modified prescriptions were summarized. As studied,  this prescription can inhibit cytokine storm, moderate the overactive immune response, potentiate the immune function and anti-viral ability of the body, and exert its effect on COVID-19 with multiple components, multiple targets, multiple pathways, and multiple biological functions. In conclusion, Qingfei Paidu decoction, as a core prescription for the treatment of COVID-19, can rapidly contain the development of COVID-19, which has been confirmed in terms of TCM theory, clinical efficacy, and experimental research. © 2022, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Institute of Chinese Materia Medica. All rights reserved.

4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1205-1214, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774288

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes most cases of severe illness and fatality in older age groups. Over 92% of the Chinese population aged ≥12 years has been fully vaccinated against COVID-19 (albeit with vaccines developed against historical lineages). At the end of October 2021, the vaccination programme has been extended to children aged 3-11 years. Here, we aim to assess whether, in this vaccination landscape, the importation of Delta variant infections could shift COVID-19 burden from adults to children. We developed an age-structured susceptible-infectious-removed model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to simulate epidemics triggered by the importation of Delta variant infections and project the age-specific incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections, cases, hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and deaths. In the context of the vaccination programme targeting individuals aged ≥12 years, and in the absence of non-pharmaceutical interventions, the importation of Delta variant infections could have led to widespread transmission and substantial disease burden in mainland China, even with vaccination coverage as high as 89% across the eligible age groups. Extending the vaccination roll-out to include children aged 3-11 years (as it was the case since the end of October 2021) is estimated to dramatically decrease the burden of symptomatic infections and hospitalizations within this age group (39% and 68%, respectively, when considering a vaccination coverage of 87%), but would have a low impact on protecting infants. Our findings highlight the importance of including children among the target population and the need to strengthen vaccination efforts by increasing vaccine effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 362: 131764, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763980

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is continuously causing hazards for the world. Effective detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can relieve the impact, but various toxic chemicals are also released into the environment. Fluorescence sensors offer a facile analytical strategy. During fluorescence sensing, biological samples such as tissues and body fluids have autofluorescence, giving false-positive/negative results because of the interferences. Fluorescence near-infrared (NIR) nanosensors can be designed from low-toxic materials with insignificant background signals. Although this research is still in its infancy, further developments in this field have the potential for sustainable detection of SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we summarize the reported NIR fluorescent nanosensors with the potential to detect SARS-CoV-2. The green synthesis of NIR fluorescent nanomaterials, environmentally compatible sensing strategies, and possible methods to reduce the testing frequencies are discussed. Further optimization strategies for developing NIR fluorescent nanosensors to facilitate greener diagnostics of SARS-CoV-2 for pandemic control are proposed.

6.
Int J Afr Nurs Sci ; 16: 100407, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739782

ABSTRACT

Background: In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, nonadherence to the recommended physical exercise for diabetic patients is a difficult issue. Regular physical exercise is critical for reducing further complications of diabetes mellitus and the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of type 2 adult diabetes patients' exercise recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 576 diabetes mellitus patients from August 1, 2020, to September 28, 2020. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Frequency tables and percentages were used to explain the study variables. A binary logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Result: A total of 576 diabetes mellitus patients participated in the study, with a response rate of 99.3%. The overall prevalence of exercise adherence was 26.4%, whereas 73.6% were non-adherents to exercise recommendations. Rural residency (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.16-3.27) and COVID-19 related knowledge (AOR = 9.95, 95% CI: 41.14-5.24) were both strongly associated with exercise recommendations. Conclusion: In this study, only one-fourth of patients had exercised adherence during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. Knowledge about COVID-19 was one of the factors that was strongly associated with adherence to exercise recommendations for diabetes patients. During the COVID-19 pandemic, encouraging home-based exercises can improve adherence to exercise recommendations.

7.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3155-3159, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739185

ABSTRACT

We aimed to compare the differences in testing performance of extraction-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, elution-based direct PCR assay, and rapid antigen detection tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We used nasopharyngeal swab samples of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We used the MagNA Pure 24 System (Roche Diagnostics K.K.) or magLEAD 12gC (Precision System Science Co., Ltd.) for RNA extraction, mixed the concentrates with either the LightMix Modular SARS-CoV PCR mixture (Roche Diagnostics K.K.) or Takara SARS-CoV-2 direct PCR detection kit (Takara Bio Inc.), and amplified it using COBAS® z480 (Roche Diagnostics K.K.). For elution-based PCR, we directly applied clinical samples to the Takara SARS-CoV-2 direct PCR detection kit before the same amplification step. Additionally, we performed Espline SARS-CoV-2 (Fuji Rebio Co., Ltd.) for rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and used Lumipulse SARS-CoV-2 antigen (Fuji Rebio Co., Ltd.) and Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 antigen (Roche Diagnostics K.K.) for automated antigen tests (ATs). Extraction-based and elution-based PCR tests detected the virus up to 214-216 and 210 times dilution, respectively. ATs remained positive up to 24-26 times dilution, while RDT became negative after 22 dilutions. For 153 positive samples, positivity rates of the extraction-based PCR assay were 85.6% to 98.0%, while that of the elution-based PCR assay was 73.2%. Based on the RNA concentration process, extraction-based PCR assays were superior to elution-based direct PCR assays for detecting SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Japan World Econ ; 62: 101131, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734649

ABSTRACT

During past shocks (e.g., the 2008-2009 global financial crisis), the services trade was found to be more resilient than the goods trade; however, the ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has restricted cross-border mobility, which is disastrous to the services trade because it often requires physical proximity between suppliers and consumers. We empirically examined the impact of COVID-19 on the services trade using quarterly data from 146 countries in 2019 and 2020. Its severity is measured according to the number of cases, the number of deaths, and an index measuring the severity of lockdown orders. We found that the pandemic had a more significantly negative impact on the services trade than the goods trade, particularly on the import side. Moreover, the extent of the impact varied among disaggregated services sectors, reflecting the nature of services. Travel services were the most severely affected, followed by transport and construction services, which are largely related to the international movement of people and goods. On the other hand, other services typically provided as cross-border supply, including computer services, experienced almost no significant effect.

9.
Cureus ; 14(1): e21049, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687449

ABSTRACT

Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (KFD) is a rare self-limiting condition of unknown etiology. It is characterized by fever, and lymphadenopathy most commonly involving posterior cervical lymph nodes. Although it is of uncertain etiology, it is associated with viral infections and autoimmune diseases. Distinction from lymphadenopathy-associated alternate disorders is crucial to avoid unneeded diagnostic procedures and treatment. KFD is diagnosed based on histopathologic examination of the excised lymph node. The management is supportive with favorable outcomes within a few weeks or months. In this case, we describe a 13-year-old boy who complained of painful cervical lymphadenopathy and fever for more than three weeks following COVID-19. Diagnostic workup has been established and KFD diagnosis made based on the histopathologic features of the involved lymph node. The patient showed complete recovery with no recurrence during follow-up. So, this case highlights the possible association between COVID-19 and KFD during this pandemic and keeping it in the differential diagnosis.

10.
Radiol Med ; 127(2): 162-173, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626023

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the presence of signs of microvascular involvement at the CT scan, such as the vascular tree in bud (TIB) and the vascular enlargement pattern (VEP). Recent evidence suggests that TIB could be associated with an increased duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and intensive care unit (ICU) stay. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether microvascular involvement signs could have a prognostic significance concerning liberation from IMV. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the COVID-19 patients requiring IMV admitted to 16 Italian ICUs and having a lung CT scan recorded within 3 days from intubation were enrolled in this secondary analysis. Radiologic, clinical and biochemical data were collected. RESULTS: A total of 139 patients affected by COVID-19 related ARDS were enrolled. After grouping based on TIB or VEP detection, we found no differences in terms of duration of IMV and mortality. Extension of VEP and TIB was significantly correlated with ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and crazy paving pattern extension. A parenchymal extent over 50% of GGO and crazy paving pattern was more frequently observed among non-survivors, while a VEP and TIB extent involving 3 or more lobes was significantly more frequent in non-responders to prone positioning. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of early CT scan signs of microvascular involvement in COVID-19 patients does not appear to be associated with differences in duration of IMV and mortality. However, patients with a high extension of VEP and TIB may have a reduced oxygenation response to prone positioning. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04411459.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Microvessels/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 33(43B):379-383, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1579799

ABSTRACT

Leptospirosis in pregnancy is often underdiagnosed and not commonly reported due to its unusual appearance and rarity. It looks like HELLP syndrome, obstetric cholestasis, viral hepatitis & pregnancy-related acute fatty liver. Miscarriages in the first trimester, stillbirths, and neonatal leptospirosis are serious complications that necessitate a high degree of concern, heightened sensitivity, and prompt diagnosis and treatment. We have one such incidence of leptospirosis in a COVID-19 positive pregnant female. A 21-year-old Primigravida with a predisposition of serious anaemia & thrombocytopenia, presented with fever, haematemesis, malena and sore throat at 38 weeks and 2 days gestation, during the COVID-19 pandemic. She had pallor, oedema, and haematuria on catheterization, rest all investigations were within normal limits. Proteinuria, haemolysis, low platelets, and elevated bilirubin were discovered during the investigation. Due to the lack of hypertension and elevated transaminases, the working diagnosis was atypical haemolysis, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. The patient was tested for COVID-19 RT-PCR, came out to be positive and the fever spikes continued, leading to further investigations for Dengue, Malaria, Scrub Typhus, and Leptospirosis due to the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. After the EIA (Enzyme Immunoassay) IgM antibody (confirmatory for Leptospirosis) tested positive for Leptospirosis, the decision to start Doxycycline was made. Meanwhile, the patient's CTG (Cardio tocograph) revealed signs of foetal distress, and a decision for an emergency LSCS was taken (Lower Segment Caesarean Section). The histology of the placenta after the section revealed normal findings. Doxycycline was initiated with a neonatal feeding regimen that was acceptable. On day two of life, the newborn had no indications of inherited leptospirosis and was removed from Neonatal Intensive Care. Within one week, the patient's symptoms had disappeared, and her biochemistry had went back to normal within 2 weeks.

12.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 10(1): e00909, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588891

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in late December 2019 in china and has rapidly spread to many countries around the world. The effective pharmacotherapy can reduce the mortality of COVID-19. Antiviral medications are the candidate therapies for the management of COVID-19. Molnupiravir is an antiviral drug with anti-RNA polymerase activity and currently is under investigation for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. This review focuses on summarizing published literature for the mechanism of action, safety, efficacy, and clinical trials of molnupiravir in the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Drug Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4954-4963, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565881

ABSTRACT

Vaccination for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) provides an effective approach for the general improvement of social safety and individual health. However, given that the current COVID-19 vaccine can only work for a period of time, the continuous vaccination of the vaccine will be particularly important. Using the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model, Expectation Confirmation Model (ECM) and vaccine hesitancy (VH) theory, this research evaluates the continuous vaccination for COVID-19. This research selected Chinese survey platform to recruit respondents and conducted online surveys. A total of 768 Chinese individuals who were vaccinated participated in the survey, and 561 responses were effective after screening. Six valuable and novel findings are identified through this research. First, perceived efficacy has a positive significant impact on vaccination intention, but the positive effects of outcome expectancy and risk perception on vaccination intention are not significant. Second, social positive cues play a significant role in promoting vaccination intention. Third, VH has a negative significant influence on vaccination intention. Fourth, vaccination behavior produces a positive significant effect on perceived usefulness and satisfaction, respectively. Fifth, perceived usefulness exerted a positive significant impact on satisfaction and continuous vaccination, respectively. Sixth, satisfaction has no positive significant influence on continuous vaccination. Our theoretical model, which is the main contribution of this research, indicates that individual continuous vaccination is a process from motivation to intention, and from intention to behavior, and then from behavior to continuous vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 49(4): 320-323, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556040

ABSTRACT

The incidence of thromboembolic complications in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is well recognized. The present study retrospectively evaluated the type and prevalence of lung perfusion defects in early-post-COVID-19 patients with hypoxia and was aimed to identify the risk factors for mismatched perfusion defects. Methods: We analyzed SPECT/CT images of 54 early-post-COVID-19 patients (44 men and 10 women). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the risk. Results: The mean age of the study population was 55.4 y (range, 34-76 y). All received prophylactic anticoagulation from the day of hospitalization to the date of perfusion scanning. The median interval between COVID-19-positive reports and lung perfusion scanning was 22 d. Lung perfusion defects (of any type) were observed in most (87%). Twenty-three subjects (42.6%) had mismatched perfusion defects. Mismatched perfusion defects were segmental in 14 subjects (25.9%) and subsegmental in 11 (20.4%). Higher age was a risk factor for mismatched perfusion defects (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.13; P = 0.06). Subjects with a serum D-dimer level of at least 2,500 ng/mL on the day before the scan were not at higher risk for having mismatched perfusion defects (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.34-3.9; P = 0.83). Conclusion: Despite prophylactic anticoagulation, mismatched perfusion defects suggestive of pulmonary thromboembolism were observed. Serum D-dimer level in patients early after COVID-19 is a poor predictor of mismatched perfusion defects. Confirmed evidence of pulmonary embolism by imaging studies should support the decision to extend anticoagulant prophylaxis in post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Perfusion , Perfusion Imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 738044, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497031

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has outbroken in China and subsequently spread worldwide since the end of 2019. Chest computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the diagnosis of lung diseases, but its value in the diagnosis of cardiac injury remains unknown. Methods: We enrolled 241 consecutive hospitalized patients (aged 61 ± 16 years, 115 males) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 11 to March 2, 2020. They were divided into two groups according to whether major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) occurred during the follow-up. The anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium (LAD), the length of the left ventricle (LV), and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) were measured. The values of myocardial CT were also recorded. Results: Of 241 patients, 115 patients (47.7%) had adverse cardiovascular events. Compared with no MACEs, patients with MACEs were more likely to have bilateral lesions (95.7% vs. 86.5%, p = 0.01). In multivariable analysis, bronchial wall thickening would increase the odds of MACEs by 13.42 (p = 0.01). LAD + LV and CTR was the best predictor for MACEs (area under the curve = 0.88, p < 0.001) with a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 80.2%. Plasma high-sensitivity troponin I levels in patients with cardiac injury showed a moderate negative correlation with minimum CT value (R 2 = -0.636, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Non-contrast chest CT can be a useful modality for detection cardiac injury and provide additional value to predict MACEs in COVID-19 patients.

16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 124, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China is facing substantial risks of imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and a domestic resurgence in the long run, and COVID-19 vaccination is expected to be the long-lasting solution to end the pandemic. We aim to estimate the size of the target population for COVID-19 vaccination at the provincial level in the mainland of China, and summarize the current progress of vaccination programs, which could support local governments in the timely determination and adjustment of vaccination policies and promotional measures. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study of the entire population in the mainland of China, between December 2020 and August 2021. By extracting provincial-stratified data from publicly available sources, we estimated the size of priority target groups for vaccination programs, and further characterized the ongoing vaccination program at the provincial level, including the total doses administered, the coverage rate, and the vaccination capacity needed to achieve the target coverage of 80% by the end of 2021. We used R (version 4.1.0) to complete the descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The size of the target population shows large differences among provinces, ranging from 3.4 million to 108.4 million. As of 31 August, 2021, the speed of vaccine roll-out differs considerably as well, with the highest coverage occurring in Beijing and Shanghai, where 88.5% and 79.1% of the population has been fully vaccinated, respectively. In 22 of 31 provincial-level administrative divisions (PLADs), more than 70% of the population was administered at least one dose by August. With the current vaccination capacity, the target of 80% coverage could be achieved by 2021 in 28 PLADs. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities exist in the target population size and vaccination progress across provinces in the mainland of China. China has made great strides in the vaccination speed since roll-out, and could basically achieve the targeted vaccine coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Program Evaluation , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(11): 3558-3564, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412519

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia computed tomography imaging features have been described in detail in many studies. The pseudocavitation sign has not been described in the previous COVID-19 studies. We present chest computed tomography scans of 5 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction positive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who has bare areas among pulmonary infiltrates. All 5 also had previous scans with similarly sized low attenuated areas in the same location prior to the addition of pulmonary infiltrates. The pre-existing cystic changes had become remarkable due to the contrast around them after the pulmonary infiltrates added. Therefore, they should be termed as "pseodocavity" according to Fleischner Society glossary. Small air-containing spaces between pulmonary infiltrates have been termed in previous COVID-19 studies as a new sign called "round cystic changes/air bubble sign/vacuolar sign." We would like to draw attention that the vacuolar sign and the synonyms may be the pseudocavity sign that is due to pre-existing changes rather than a new defined sign.

18.
Cities ; 120: 103439, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401317

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought great challenges to the improvement of global smart city services. To date, few studies have been conducted on the effects of service quality on citizen engagement in smart cities in a public emergency. Based on the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) model and uncertain management theory, this study analyses the impact of the service quality of smart city system on citizen engagement in a public emergency. Data were collected in Chinese smart cities. Three valuable and novel results are identified. First, high-quality information content, highly reliable systems and highly responsive systems have a significant positive effect on citizens' continuous experiences, but not on citizens' immediate experiences. Second, both the immediate and continuous experiences of citizens have a significant positive effect on citizen engagement. Third, continuous experiences impose a full mediation effect between information content and citizen engagement, between reliability and citizen engagement and between responsiveness and citizen engagement. As its main contribution, this study focuses on the construction of a theoretical model. Based on this model, smart city managers can understand citizens' reactions in public emergencies from stimulation to experience and their behaviours in relation to smart city services.

19.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 43(4): 1116-1122, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333104

ABSTRACT

Background Liver injury has been documented independently in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. Objective to investigate the drug-induced liver injury associated with lopinavir-ritonavir among the patients with COVID-19. Methods We conducted a disproportionality analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) between 2020Q1 and 2021Q1 to evaluate the association between lopinavir-ritonavir and risk of drug-induced liver injury (or severe drug-induced liver injury) and calculated their reporting odds ratios (RORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 3,425 cases of drug-induced liver injury were reported in 19,782 patients with COVID-19. The ROR for drug-induced liver injury was 2.99 (2.59-3.46), 3.16 (2.68-3.73), and 5.39 (4.63-6.26) when comparing lopinavir-ritonavir with all other drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine only, and remdesivir, respectively. For severe drug-induced liver injury, RORs for lopinavir-ritonavir provided evidence of an association compared with all other drugs (3.98; 3.15-5.05), compared with hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine only (5.33; 4.09-6.94), and compared with remdesivir (3.85; 3.03-4.89). Conclusions In the FAERS, we observed a disproportional signal for drug-induced liver injury associated with lopinavir-ritonavir in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/complications , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Lopinavir/toxicity , Ritonavir/toxicity , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Female , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration
20.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1491-1504, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269197

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Estimating the risk of disease progression is of utmost importance for planning appropriate setting of care and treatment for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to develop and validate a novel prediction model of COVID-19 progression. METHODS: In total, 814 patients in the training set were included to develop a novel scoring system; and 420 patients in the validation set were included to validate the model. RESULTS: A prediction score, called ACCCDL, was developed on the basis of six risk factors associated with COVID-19 progression: age, comorbidity, CD4+ T cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). For predicting COVID-19 progression, the ACCCDL score yielded a significantly higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) compared with the CALL score, CoLACD score, PH-COVID-19 score, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio both in the training set (0.92, 0.84, 0.83, 0.83, 0.76, and 0.65, respectively) and in the validation set (0.97, 0.83, 0.83, 0.78, 0.74, and 0.60, respectively). Over 99% of patients with the ACCCDL score < 12 points will not progress to severe cases, and over 30% of patients with the ACCCDL score > 20 points will progress to severe cases. CONCLUSION: The ACCCDL score could stratify patients with at risk of COVID-19 progression, and was useful in regulating the large flow of patients with COVID-19 between primary health care and tertiary centers.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL