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1.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6664-6669, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elderly people in long-term care facilities (LTCF) are at higher risk for (severe) COVID-19, yet evidence of vaccine effectiveness (VE) in this population is scarce. In November 2021 (Delta period), a COVID-19 outbreak occurred at a LTCF in the Netherlands, continuing despite measures and booster vaccination campaign. We investigated the outbreak to assess VE of primary COVID-19 vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality, and to describe the impact of the booster vaccination. METHODS: We calculated attack rate (AR) and case fatality (CF) per vaccination status (unvaccinated, primarily vaccinated and boostered). We calculated VE - at on average 6 months after vaccination - as 1- risk ratio (RR) using the crude risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between vaccination status (primary vaccination versus unvaccinated) and outcomes (SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality < 30 days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2). RESULTS: The overall AR was 67% (70/105). CF was 33% (2/6) among unvaccinated cases, 12% among primarily vaccinated (7/58) and 0% (0/5) among boostered. The VE of primary vaccination was 17% (95% CI -28%; 46%) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and 70% (95% CI -44%; 96%) against mortality. Among boostered residents (N = 55), there were 25 cases in the first week after receiving the booster dose, declining to 5 in the second and none in the third week. CONCLUSION: VE of primary vaccination in residents of LTCF was very low against SARS-CoV-2 infection and moderate against mortality. There were few cases at 2 weeks after the booster dose and no deaths, despite the presence of susceptible residents. These data are consistent with the positive impact of the booster vaccination in curbing transmission. Timely booster vaccination in residents of LTCF is therefore important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccine Efficacy , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization Programs , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
2.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether and how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the use of antipsychotics among residents with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias in nursing homes. DESIGN: Observational study based on the Minimum Data Set and Medicare claims. SETTING: Medicare- and/or Medicaid-certified nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home residents diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias between 2017 and 2020. MEASUREMENTS: The main outcome variable was any antipsychotic use during a quarter. The secondary outcome was certified nursing assistants' staffing hours per bed per day in a quarter. We categorized nursing homes into quartiles based on the distribution of nursing home racial and/or ethnic composition. To explore the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and the frequency of antipsychotic use, we estimated a linear probability model with robust standard errors, individual and facility random effects. We used a similar model for certified nursing assistant hours. RESULTS: About 23.7% of residents with ADRD had antipsychotic uses during the study period. The frequency of antipsychotic use declined from 23.7%-23.1% between the first quarter of 2017 (2017Q1) and the first quarter of 2020 (2020Q1) but increased to 24.8% by the last quarter of 2020 (2020Q4). Residents in all four racial and/or ethnic groups experienced an increase in antipsychotic use during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the extent of the increase varied by race and/or ethnicity. For example, while residents in the very-high minority nursing homes experienced a greater increase in antipsychotic use than did the residents of other nursing homes at the beginning of the pandemic, the increasing trend during the pandemic was smaller in the very-high minority nursing homes compared to the low-minority nursing homes (0.2 percentage points less, p<0.001, based on heteroskedasticity-robust t statistics, t = 3.67, df = 8,155,219). On average, the certified nursing assistant hours decreased from 1.8-1.7 hours per bed per day between 2017Q1 and 2020Q1, and further decreased to 1.5 hours per bed per day by 2020Q4. There was also a decreasing trend in staffing hours across all racial and/or ethnic groups during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increase in the use of antipsychotics among nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and decreased staffing of certified nursing assistants, especially among nursing homes with a high minority penetration. Future research is needed to explore means for reducing antipsychotic use, particularly in homes with a high penetration of minority residents.

4.
Interdiscip J Partnersh Stud ; 9(1)2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081421

ABSTRACT

Nursing home experts and informatics nurses collaborated to develop guidelines for nursing homes that revealed partnership principles in action during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article describes efforts to define interprofessional nursing home staff roles within the partnership-based COVID-19 Response Guideline, and to examine changes in nursing practice compared to the pre-pandemic practice of nurses. The qualitative process of identification of nursing home staff roles revealed the extensive scope of interprofessional partnership needed to respond to the pandemic. Using the Omaha System structure, we compared these collective COVID-19 response interventions of Nursing Service roles with nursing interventions of RNs and LPN/LVNs defined in previous nursing home studies. This comparison showed the necessary transformation and collaboration among nurses needed for the pandemic response in nursing homes. The Omaha System Pandemic Guideline is available online and in the Omaha System Guidelines app for immediate use as COVID-19 response practice guidelines and references for interprofessional roles in nursing homes, as well as for multidisciplinary roles across diverse care settings. The guideline is an exemplar of how informatics can facilitate interprofessional and multidisciplinary partnership for nursing homes and other care settings. Future use of the guidelines for decision making and documentation related to infection prevention and control in nursing homes may improve care quality and health outcomes of residents and population.

5.
Nurs Ethics ; : 9697330221105631, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079276

ABSTRACT

Background: Older, frail patients with multimorbidity are at an especially high risk for disease severity and death from COVID-19. The social restrictions proved challenging for the residents, their relatives, and the care staff. While these restrictions clearly impacted daily life in Norwegian nursing homes, knowledge about how the pandemic influenced nursing practice is sparse. Aim: The aim of the study was to illuminate ethical difficult situations experienced by Norwegian nurses working in nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research design and participants: The research design involved semistructured individual interviews conducted with 15 nurses working in 8 nursing homes in 3 health regions in Norway, within both urban and rural areas. Ethical considerations: Oral and written information about the study was provided before the participants gave their written consent. The transcribed interviews were de-identified. The study was approved by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data. Findings: Four ethical difficult situations were identified: (a) turning the nursing home into a prison; (b) using medication to maintain peace and order; (c) being left alone with the responsibility; and (d) s. impact on decision-making. Conclusions: The nurses' ethical challenges were intertwined with external factors, such as national and local guidelines, and the nurses' own internalized factors, which were connected to their subjective professionality. This duality inflicted emotional distress and gave nurses few opportunities to perform nursing in a professionally sound and safe manner.

6.
Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing ; 39(3):45-53, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072504

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had widespread impacts on the community and has demanded a rapid response from the aged care sector. System changes for infection control have been required including the use of personal protective equipment, lockdowns, visitor restrictions and changes to activities within aged care facilities. Even prior to COVID-19, the high physical and emotional demands of aged care work were recognised. Objective: This study sought to understand aged care workers' experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Using a pragmatic paradigm qualitative data about work experiences during COVID-19 was collected from people employed in different aged care organisations in a range of aged care roles and settings from multiple Australian states. Data was collected using focus groups and interviews conducted online between August-October 2020. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify key themes in the data. Results: Participants included 15 people working across a range of aged care roles including clinical, care and management staff and across both residential and community settings. Five themes were identified which characterised aged care workers thoughts about their jobs during the pandemic. These included intensified procedures and emotional demands, feeling undervalued and detached from the frontline, exposure of existing system deficiencies, recognising teamwork and increased confidence in technology. Conclusion: Reflecting on aged care workers' experiences of COVID-19 highlights the need to better support workers and acknowledge their important role in caring for older Australians. This includes at an organisational level by providing supportive environments and access to online resources as well as at the community and policy level by recognising aged care workers as frontline workers. The COVID-19 pandemic has also highlighted existing systemic issues in the aged care sector that need to be addressed for the provision of quality aged care in Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic and into the future.

7.
J Clin Med ; 11(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic confronted nursing homes with a variety of challenges to ensure the provision of palliative care for residents. PallPan-Implement aimed to adapt the recommendations of the National Strategy for the Care of Seriously Ill, Dying Adults and their Families in Times of Pandemic (PALLPAN) in such a way that nursing facilities can use and implement them. METHODS: Based on 33 PALLPAN recommendations, we developed a questionnaire, conducted a pilot implementation for selected nursing homes, and asked for qualitative feedback. RESULTS: The developed questionnaire contains 22 main questions. A three-stage pilot implementation with an introductory event, processing phase, and evaluation event took place in seven facilities. The facilities evaluated the developed questionnaire as helpful. Feedback from the facilities identified three major categories: (a) requirements for facilities should be realistic to avoid frustration, (b) the creation of a pandemic plan for palliative care only is impractical, (c) measures for the psychosocial support of staff is particularly necessary, but was perceived as difficult to implement. CONCLUSIONS: The practical implementation of recommendations requires a concept and material tailored to facilities and areas. The strategy of PallPan Implement developed in this project appears to be target-oriented, well-received, and can be recommended for further implementation.

8.
SSM Qual Res Health ; 2: 100181, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069707

ABSTRACT

In January 2021, the Swiss government introduced the first COVID-19 vaccines and prioritized allocation to at-risk individuals and professionals working with them. Despite this opportunity, vaccine uptake among staff employed in retirement homes and institutes for people with disabilities was suboptimal. This study aimed to capture real-time decision-making about COVID-19 vaccine among staff employed in nursing homes and institutes for people with disabilities in Southern Switzerland. We conducted semi-structured phone-interviews with 25 staff employed in retirement homes and institutes for people with disabilities between February and May 2021, i.e., when participants had to decide whether they wanted to adhere to the priority vaccination programme. Among participants, 21 either signed up for the COVID-19 vaccination or were fully or partly vaccinated at the time of the interview. For most participants, the vaccination choice was a challenging process: information appeared to be lacking and conflicting; numerous moral principles were at stake and contradictory; the way vaccination was organized clashed with the health values to which respondents had been previously exposed; finally, the fear of discrimination for those who decided not to get vaccinated loomed over the vaccination choice. Participants decided for or against vaccination based on principles, traditions, emotions, and a reflexive assessment of the personal vs. collective benefit of the vaccination, the latter being the most common within the investigated sample. This study shows that deciding to get vaccinated against COVID-19 is a nuanced process and that individuals cannot simply be categorized as "novax" or "provax" based on their vaccination decision.

9.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 308(7962), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065044
10.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 306(7947), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064932
11.
Gesundheitswesen, Supplement ; 84(8-9):882-883, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062332

ABSTRACT

Background Linguistic or semiotic landscapes can be defined as spatial representations of language in particular multilingualism - for example in the form of public signs, posters, advertising billboards, graffiti, stickers or flyers. Since the beginning of the pandemic health communication has gained increasing importance in public space. In the summer semester of 2021 in the Department of Applied Linguistics at the University of Vienna, a seminar was offered in which students were introduced to the concepts of health communication, public health and health literacy. Students conducted empirical research in which they investigated and photographed language in public space related to the pandemic. Methods The author of this has a background in public health. As a first time lecturer at the university it was required to create a teaching concept as well as a self-reflection and self-evaluation. At the end of the semester these documents were analysed and themes were identified. Results The following themes were extracted: personal motivation for teaching, the role of linguists in medical communication, reflection on central concepts such as top down vs bottom up Covid-19 messaging and socioc ultural, ethical, and political meanings attributed to face masks and vaccination campaigns. Students showed evidence of learning health communication content by actively participating in discussions about linguistic landscapes in healthcare and conducting empirical research in settings including schools, pharmacies, long term care facilities and vaccination centres. Conclusion The Covid-19 crisis has created increasing awareness of public health and learning opportunities across disciplines including applied linguistics and medical communication.

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A1776, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060859

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 3 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: The most reported fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 include aspergillosis, invasive candidiasis, and mucormycosis. We hereby present a case of a male who developed acute pulmonary histoplasmosis (APH) after COVID-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: 51-year-old male with PMHx of COVID-19 infection 3 weeks ago presenting with worsening shortness of breath. Patient had a complicated hospital course with COVID-19 treated with high doses of methylprednisolone. Patient was local to Arizona and lived on a ranch with livestock. CT chest suggestive of multilobar pneumonia and bilateral pleural effusions (Image 1). Coccidiomycosis serology came back negative. Urinary Histoplasma galactomannan antigen came back positive. The diagnosis of APH after COVID-19 infection was established. Patient was started on voriconazole. His symptoms significantly improved. Patient was discharged to skilled nursing facility with outpatient infectious disease follow-up. DISCUSSION: The current literature on APH in the setting of COVID-19 infection is limited. The few proposed mechanisms are: 1. Liberal use of high dose steroids in COVID-19 leading to reactivation of latent H. Capsulatum. 2. Systemic inflammation in COVID-19 causes interstitial lung damage permitting conidia to proliferate leading to acute infection. The Histoplasma urine antigen test is highly sensitive in the diagnosis of APH, especially in immunocompromised patients like our patient. With this case we would like to increase awareness of the possibility of rare fungal infections like APH in patients with COVID-19, as timely diagnosis and appropriate management can lead to improved outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Rare fungal infections following COVID-19 have been documented and timely diagnosis and management are imperative to improve patient outcomes. Reference #1: Macedo, Priscila M, et al. APH following COVID-19. Case Report J.Fungi 2021 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Ali Raja no disclosure on file for Yamin Saddouk;No relevant relationships by Parita Soni No relevant relationships by Lyndie Wilkins Parker

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A1047, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060760

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Thinking SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 09:15 am - 10:15 am INTRODUCTION: Cephalosporins have been known to cause hypo-prothrombinemia and prothrombin prolongation (1). The proposed mechanism of this coagulopathy is secondary to a N-methylthiotetrazole side chain interfering with vitamin-k metabolism (1). Current literature supporting the association between cefazolin and hypo-prothombinemia have only been reported through case reports. As cefazolin is a commonly used antibiotic, it is important that healthcare professionals are aware of its potential bleeding risk. We present a case of a 72 year old female with cefazolin-induced hypo-prothrombinemia. CASE PRESENTATION: A malnourished 72-year old female with a past medical history of recent methicillin-susceptible Staphyloccocus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia and COVID-19 pneumonia presented to the emergency department from a skilled nursing facility (SNF) due to shortness of breath. The patient was previously discharged to SNF to complete a 14 day course of IV cefazolin due to her MSSA bacteremia. On admission, vital signs were significant for a respiratory rate of 22 and a pulse oximetry reading of 78% on room air. Laboratory findings were significant for an elevated prothrombin time of >100 seconds, an INR >15, and a D-dimer of 42,344 ng/mlL. A computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the chest revealed a small segmental pulmonary embolus in the right lower lobe of the lung. The patient was started on a heparin drip, placed on a non-rebreather mask, and admitted to the ICU for closer monitoring. Infectious disease was consulted and cefazolin was discontinued. Due to the patient's risk of bleeding her heparin drip was stopped. It was decided not to reverse the patient's coagulopathy with vitamin K as there were no signs of an acute bleed in the setting of an acute pulmonary embolus. The patient was started on nafcillin in place of cefazolin. Four days after discontinuation of cefazolin, the patient's INR had trended down from >15 to 1.6 and she was started on Lovenox 1mg/kg for the treatment of her acute PE. DISCUSSION: Due to the timing of the discontinuation of cefazolin and the correction of the hypo-prothrombinemia, a clear association between the two can be made. It has been proposed that cefazolin's side chain, heterocyclic thiol, 2-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-thiol (MTD), causes a similar reaction that other cephalosporins have on the metabolism of Vitamin K (2). This altered Vitamin K metabolism was also likely exacerbated due to the patient's malnourishment and likely depleted vitamin k reserves (2). CONCLUSIONS: Although rare, this case demonstrates the need for clinicians to be aware of the potential bleeding risk associated with cephalosporins and cefazolin in particular. In the future, routine monitoring of PT/INR levels may be recommended when initiating cephalosporins. Reference #1: Park GH, Kim S, Kim MS, Yu YM, Kim GH, Lee JS, Lee E. The Association Between Cephalosporin and Hypoprothrombinemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Oct 16;16(20):3937 Reference #2: Shearer, M. J., Bechtold, H., Andrassy, K., Koderisch, J., McCarthy, P. T., Trenk, D., Jähnchen, E., & Ritz, E. (1988). Mechanism of cephalosporin-induced hypoprothrombinemia: relation to cephalosporin side chain, vitamin K metabolism, and vitamin K status. Journal of clinical pharmacology, 28(1), 88–95 DISCLOSURES: no disclosure on file for John Abernathy;No relevant relationships by Ethan Goldberg No relevant relationships by Renee Miu No relevant relationships by Luis Osorio no disclosure on file for Satesh Saroop;no disclosure on file for Oliver Sevilla;no disclosure on file for Kristen Zubel;

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A604, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060645

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Co-Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 has been associated with co-infecting pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Little has been reported about community acquired atypical bacterial co-infections with SARS-CoV-2. We present a case of a patient with recent COVID-19 pneumonia and diagnosis of Legionella and Mycoplasma pneumonia, in addition of E. coli and C. perfringens bacteremia, that emphasizes SARS-CoV-2 impact in human immunity and the need to consider community acquired infections. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old male with history of hypertension, alcohol use disorder, iron deficiency anemia, and recent COVID-19 pneumonia presented to the ED with shortness of breath, dark urine, and increased confusion. The patient was admitted to the hospital a week prior with COVID-19 pneumonia and acute kidney injury. He received dexamethasone, remdesivir, and IV fluids. After 8 days, he was discharged home. Upon evaluation, he was afebrile and normotensive, but tachycardic, 129/min, on 4 L of nasal cannula sating 100%. On exam, the patient was oriented only to person and had decreased breath sounds bilaterally. Labs revealed an elevated WBC, 15.3 K/mcL, with left shift, low Hgb, 7.8 g/dL, with low MCV, 61 fL, increased BUN/Cr, 56 mg/dL and 2.8 mg/dL, and an abnormal hepatic panel, AST 121 U/L, ALT 45 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 153 U/L. Ammonia, GGT, CPK and lactic acid were within normal range;but the D-dimer and procalcitonin were elevated, 4618 ng/mL and 25.12 ng/mL, respectively. A urinalysis showed gross pyuria, positive leukocyte esterase and mild proteinuria. CT head showed no acute abnormalities, but the chest X-Ray revealed a hazy opacity in the left mid and lower lung, followed by a CT chest that demonstrated peripheral and lower lobe ground glass opacities and a CT abdomen that showed right sided perinephric and periureteral stranding. Given increased risk for thromboembolism, a VQ scan was done being negative for pulmonary embolism. The patient was admitted with acute metabolic encephalopathy, acute kidney injury, transaminitis, pyelonephritis and concern for hospital acquired pneumonia. Vancomycin, cefepime and metronidazole were ordered. HIV screen was negative. COVID-19 PCR, Legionella urine antigen and Mycoplasma IgG and IgM serologies were positive. Blood cultures grew E. coli and C. perfringens. Infectious Disease and Gastroenterology were consulted. The patient was started on azithromycin and a colonoscopy was done showing only diverticulosis. After an extended hospital course, the patient was cleared for discharge, without oxygen needs, to a nursing home with appropriate follow up. DISCUSSION: Co-infection with bacteria causing atypical pneumonia and bacteremia should be considered in patients with recent or current SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Prompt identification of co-existing pathogens can promote a safe and evidence-based approach to the treatment of patients with SARS-CoV-2. Reference #1: Alhuofie S. (2021). An Elderly COVID-19 Patient with Community-Acquired Legionella and Mycoplasma Coinfections: A Rare Case Report. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 9(11), 1598. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111598 Reference #2: Hoque, M. N., Akter, S., Mishu, I. D., Islam, M. R., Rahman, M. S., Akhter, M., Islam, I., Hasan, M. M., Rahaman, M. M., Sultana, M., Islam, T., & Hossain, M. A. (2021). Microbial co-infections in COVID-19: Associated microbiota and underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis. Microbial pathogenesis, 156, 104941. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104941 Reference #3: Zhu, X., Ge, Y., Wu, T., Zhao, K., Chen, Y., Wu, B., Zhu, F., Zhu, B., & Cui, L. (2020). Co-infection with respiratory pathogens among COVID-2019 cases. Virus research, 285, 198005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198005 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Albert Chang No relevant relationships by Eric Chang No relevant relationships by KOMAL KAUR No relevant relationships by Katiria Pintor Jime ez

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A519, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060618

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Infections: Issues During and After Hospitalization SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: To characterize the health care utilization (HCU) of patients after discharge from a hospitalization due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Retrospective analysis from a national cohort using the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart. Included all adults hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19 between April 2020 and March 2021, with prior 12 months of continuous enrollment. HCU of patients discharged to a home setting was evaluated in three periods (0-90 days;91-180 days;181-275 days post-discharge). HCU was defined as emergency department (ED) visits, inpatient (IP) admissions, rehabilitation/skilled nursing facility (SNF) admissions, outpatient (OP) and telemedicine visits and was expressed as the number of visits per 10,000 person-days to adjust for time from discharge. We also examined the distribution of office visits by provider specialty RESULTS: We identified 91,374 unique patients who were discharged alive after a hospitalization due to COVID-19. A greater percentage of patients was discharged to a home setting (n=63,674 or 65.6%: home 41.54%;home with home health services 14.65%: home with outpatient services 4.42%) than to a non-home setting (26.23%: i.e., SNF, hospice, rehabilitation facility, etc.). The patients discharged to a home setting were mostly white (58.8%), females (53.4%), whose mean age was 72.4 (SD± 12). The percentage of office visits to Primary care provider (57.8%;48.3%, 47.7%), Cardiology (7.7%;8.0%;7.4%) Pulmonary medicine (4.7%;3.9%;3.1%) varied in the 3 time periods evaluated. Additionally, the outpatient visits to endocrinology (1.3%, 1.6%, 1.7%), Neurology (1.1%, 1.5%, 1.5%), Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (0.7%, 1.0%, 1.2%), Psychiatry (0.7%, 0.9%, 1.1%) and other mental health professionals (0.4%, 0.5%, 0.5%) increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: In our nationally representative study, health care utilization remains high among patients discharged to a home setting after a hospitalization due to COVID-19. Additionally, the use of mental health services increased overtime among survivors. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Understanding post-discharge health care utilization of patients after an index hospitalization due to COVID-19 will help health systems prepare and allocate resources for the most likely to be used services. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Alexander Duarte No relevant relationships by Yong-Fang Kuo No relevant relationships by Shawn Nishi, value=Consulting fee Removed 04/03/2022 by Shawn Nishi No relevant relationships by Efstathia Polychronopoulou No relevant relationships by Daniel Puebla Neira No relevant relationships by Gulshan Sharma No relevant relationships by Mohammed Zaidan

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A465, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060602

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Care in Chest Infections Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Shewanella are gram-negative bacteria that inhabit salt and brackish watery environments, rarely causing skin and soft tissue infections. We report a case of septic shock, bacteremia, and empyema due to Shewanella in a COVID-ARDS survivor who previously received ECMO. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, diabetes, recent COVID-ARDS illness complicated with STEMI, leading to a VT/VF arrest requiring 21-days of VV-ECMO support presented three weeks after discharge due to worsening oxygen needs. The patient was hypotensive, febrile, tachycardic, tachypneic, with SatO2 92% on HFNC> 50%FIO2. Labs showed leukocytosis, lactic acidosis, and acute kidney injury. Chest x-ray showed a loculated left pleural effusion. Broad spectrum antibiotics were started. Blood cultures grew Shewanella species in aerobic and anaerobic bottles. A CT of the chest is shown (Figure 1). Thoracentesis was performed with findings consistent with empyema (Table 1). The empyema was managed with pigtail catheters and TPAse-DNAse. Pleural fluid cultures had no growth. The patient improved and was discharged on 6-week course of IV ceftazidime. DISCUSSION: Shewanella is a rare cause of skin and soft tissue infections, following traumatic injuries in association with exposure to salt or brackish water. It has also been associated with pneumonia, in the setting of near drownings, in both fresh and saltwater. Individuals with underlying liver disease and immunocompromising conditions are at the highest risk of contracting the pathogen and manifesting illness. Shewanella algae and putrefaciens may manifest as deep ulcers with hemorrhagic bullae, bacteremia, endocarditis, and meningitis (1). In addition, biliary tract infections and peritonitis can occur (2). Our patient had no epidemiologic risk factors for Shewanella infection. Although nosocomial transmission is possible, we are not aware of any previous reports of such exposure in association with this infection. Given negative pleural fluid culture with positive blood culture, we hypothesize our patient's empyema is due to Shewanella given no other apparent infectious etiology. Studies have shown that approximately 40% of pleural infection are culture negative. It is possible that antibiotic therapy started before fluid collection lowered the diagnostic yield of thoracentesis. The prevalence of bloodstream infections during ECMO ranges from 3 to 18%, with coagulase-negative staphylococcus as the most frequent cause, followed by Candida spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. (3) with no known reports of Shewanella per the ELSO registry. CONCLUSIONS: This case may confer possible healthcare-related acquirement of Shewanella. Our case adds awareness to clinicians about potential routes of inoculation, predisposing factors, and the wide clinical manifestations of Shewanellosis. Reference #1: Weiss TJ, Barranco-Trabi JJ, Brown A, Oommen TT, Mank V, Ryan C. Case Report: Shewanella Algae Pneumonia and Bacteremia in an Elderly Male Living at a Long-Term Care Facility. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021;106(1):60-61. Published 2021 Nov 15. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0614 Reference #2: Savini V, Marrollo R, Nigro R, Fazii P. Chapter 6-Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Following Marine Injuries. In: The Microbiology of Skin, Soft Tissue, Bone and Joint Infections. Vol 2.;2017:93-103. Reference #3: S. Biffi et al. / International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 50 (2017) 9–16 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Akram Alkrekshi No relevant relationships by Robert Kalayjian No relevant relationships by Ismini Kourouni No relevant relationships by Srinivasa Potla No relevant relationships by Zahra Zia

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A362-A363, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060574

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Issues After COVID-19 Vaccination Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Covid 19 pandemic has infected 125 million people so far (1). The development of safe and effective vaccines is crucial to lessen the impact of SARS-COV 2 on global health. Some adverse events of the covid 19 vaccination have been reported including few dermatological reactions. We report a case of severe allergic erythematous drug reaction that occurred 3 days after the second dose of messenger RNA (mRNA) Pfizer vaccine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42 year old female with past medical history of Grover's disease and Multiple Sclerosis presented to the Emergency department from the nursing home with complaints of erythematous, scaly, painful rash that occurred 3 days after the second dose of mRNA covid 19 vaccine. Patient states she had a generalized rash after the first dose of vaccine but it resolved spontaneously and did not require treatment. This time the rash started on the scalp and gradually progressed to the rest of the body. It was associated with severe itching, burning and serosanguinous discharge. Patient did not report any change in medication, use of new detergent or contact with an offending agent. The patient denied fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, chest pain or palpitations. She had no history of similar complaints in the past. On physical examination, she was afebrile and hemodynamically stable but in severe distress due to pain. The rash covered 95% of the body surface area and was more severe around the mouth, in the axilla, neck and the inframammary area. Erosions could be seen in the skin folds with serosanguinous discharge. The laboratory results were positive for eosinophilia with absolute eosinophil count of 0.7. Remaining laboratory results were within normal limits. The pathology report for the erythematous rash was consistent with drug reaction. A slight vacuolar degeneration along the dermal epidermal junction with few apoptotic keratinocytes were noted. A compact horn and band-like lymphoid infiltrate were also noted. The patient was started on high dose steroids, analgesics and antihistamines. Petroleum gel impregnated gauze was used for dressing. She was placed in the intensive care unit for careful monitoring. Her rash resolved gradually and her symptoms improved. DISCUSSION: mRNA vaccines are associated with type 1 interferon responses that result in inflammation and autoimmune conditions. This could explain the skin manifestations associated with these vaccines. Allergenic components in the vaccines could also be a possible cause of these reactions. A patch test can be performed to prevent these reactions in susceptible individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights the need for vigilance to detect severe allergic reactions after covid 19 vaccination to improve the safety of the vaccine. Reference #1: WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard. [ Jul;2021 ];https://covid19.who.int/ 2021 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Ruhma Ali No relevant relationships by Sneha Bijoy No relevant relationships by Chrystina Kiwan no disclosure on file for Richard Miller;No relevant relationships by Aditya Patel No relevant relationships by jihad slim, value=Honoraria Removed 03/25/2022 by jihad slim No relevant relationships by jihad slim, value=Honoraria Removed 03/25/2022 by jihad slim No relevant relationships by jihad slim, value=Honoraria Removed 03/25/2022 by jihad slim No relevant relationships by jihad slim, value=Honoraria Removed 03/25/2022 by jihad slim No relevant relationships by jihad slim, value=Honoraria Removed 03/25/2022 by jihad slim

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A343, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060569

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Post-COVID-19 Infection Complications SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic remains a burden to healthcare worldwide. Current literature suggests a possible link between COVID-19 survivors and opportunistic infections. We present a case of an immunocompetent male who presented with pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in the setting of a recent COVID-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old man with 65 pack-year smoking history, COPD, and recent COVID-19 pneumonia requiring hospitalization 1 month prior, presented with 2 days of dyspnea. His physical exam was notable for hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen and bibasilar crackles. WBC was elevated at 15,500. ABG was significant for hypoxemia. A CT chest demonstrated bilateral peripheral mixed ground glass and consolidative opacities (Figure 1). Upon admission, the patient received ceftriaxone and azithromycin for presumed community acquired pneumonia. However, the patient continued to clinically decompensate with increasing oxygen requirements. As such, a repeat CT was ordered which demonstrated bilateral ground glass opacities, interstitial scarring, and subpleural honeycombing (Figure 2). A bronchoscopy was also performed;bronchoalveolar lavage was positive for PJP by PCR but with negative DFA. The patient was started on trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and prednisone. After 3 weeks, the patient clinically improved and was discharged to a skilled nursing facility for rehabilitation. Subsequent CT scan 1 month after initial presentation demonstrated fibrotic changes and bronchial wall thickening (Figure 3). DISCUSSION: In our case, the patient was an immunocompetent male with underlying COPD and recent COVID-19 pneumonia, found to have PJP by PCR. The PCR test for PJP has a higher sensitivity compared to DFA (1), so our patient's incongruent positive PCR and negative DFA test results may represent true PJP or an organizing pneumonia with colonization. A lung biopsy with histology ultimately could have confirmed the diagnosis but was not performed in this case given the patient's clinical improvement with steroids and TMP/SMX (2). Previous studies have demonstrated that COVID-19 can cause immune dysregulation via decreased T cell count and thus can increase the risk for opportunistic infections (3). Furthermore, multiple case reports have shown concurrent COVID-19 and PJP in immunocompetent patients (1). Based on his findings, we believe that our patient was at increased risk for and subsequently developed PJP as a direct consequence of his recent COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has been identified as a predisposing factor for subsequent chronic conditions. Studies have demonstrated the capability of COVID-19 infection to weaken the immune system for opportunistic infections as well as remodel the pulmonary architecture. Both conditions can confer high morbidity and mortality for COVID-19 survivors. As such, a close surveillance of this population is warranted. Reference #1: Chong WH, Saha BK, Chopra A. Narrative review of the relationship between COVID-19 and PJP: does it represent coinfection or colonization? Infection (2021) 49:1079–1090. doi:10.1007/s15010-021-01630-9 Reference #2: Culebras M, Loor K, Sansano I, Persiva Ó, Clofent D, Polverino E, Felipe A, Osorio J, Muñoz X, Álvarez A, et al. Histological Findings in Transbronchial Cryobiopsies Obtained From Patients After COVID-19. Chest (2022) 161:647–650. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2021.09.016 Reference #3: Qin C, Zhou L, Hu Z, Zhang S, Yang S, Tao Y, Xie C, Ma K, Shang K, Wang W, et al. Dysregulation of immune response in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis (2020) 71:762–768. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa248 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Duc Do No relevant relationships by Clara Suh

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A338-A339, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060568

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: The FDA limits REGEN-COV (Casirivimab/Imdevimab) use to asymptomatic adults at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19 pneumonia or post-exposure prophylaxis. Here, we present a case of compassionate use of REGEN-COV in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old male with a medical history significant for COPD, Rheumatoid arthritis (treated with hydroxychloroquine and low dose steroids), and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) presented with one week of fever, cough, and fatigue. He was febrile to 103 F, with normal oxygen saturation on admission. SARS-CoV-2 rapid molecular PCR was positive. He was started on Levofloxacin, but he did not meet the criteria for administration of dexamethasone, remdesivir, or monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy. On day one of admission, he became hypoxemic and was subsequently started on dexamethasone and remdesivir. He was given convalescent plasma to address inadequate antibody response to COVID-19 immunization secondary to his chronic immunosuppressed/immunodeficient state. His hypoxemia continued to worsen, requiring high-flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC). A regimen of tocilizumab was also initiated. CT chest angiography ruled out pulmonary embolism but revealed diffuse bilateral patchy opacities. His oxygen requirements continued to increase with decreasing ROX index and hence was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit. Repeat PCR for SARS-COV-2 was significant for a high viral load. Approval for compassionate use of REGEN-COV was obtained and administered to the patient. Following administration, his symptoms improved significantly with the transition from HFNC to simple nasal cannula oxygen. Repeat PCR for SARS-CoV-2 also showed a remarkable decline of the viral load. He was transferred back to the medical floors and later to the skilled nursing facility once he was clinically more stable. DISCUSSION: In the United States, REGEN-COV (Casirivimab/Imdevimab) treatment has been approved for emergency use since November 2020. The combination of these two neutralizing immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG1) mAb attacks the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been shown to effectively prevent the progression of symptomatic COVID-19 pneumonia and decrease the high viral load of SARS-CoV-2. It also reduces COVID-19 related hospitalization or death, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Our patient received dexamethasone, remdesivir, tocilizumab, and convalescent plasma as part of conventional COVID-19 treatment with continued worsening of COVID-19 pneumonia. However, the compassionate use of REGEN-COV led to rapid clinical improvement of the patient's symptoms and reduced the SARS-CoV-2 viral load. CONCLUSIONS: Hence, physicians and FDA should consider expanding the use of REGEN-COV mAB therapy to immunosuppressed patients with rapidly worsening COVID-19 pneumonia in adjunct to conventional COVID-19 treatment. Reference #1: Stein D, Oviedo-Orta E, Kampman WA, McGinniss J, Betts G, McDermott M, Holly B, Lancaster JM, Braunstein N, Yancopoulos GD, Weinreich DM. Compassionate Use of REGEN-COV ® in Patients with COVID-19 and Immunodeficiency-Associated Antibody Disorders. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Dec 31:ciab1059. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab1059. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34971385;PMCID: PMC8755381. Reference #2: O'Brien MP, Forleo-Neto E, Musser BJ, Isa F, Chan KC, Sarkar N, Bar KJ, Barnabas RV, Barouch DH, Cohen MS, Hurt CB, Burwen DR, Marovich MA, Hou P, Heirman I, Davis JD, Turner KC, Ramesh D, Mahmood A, Hooper AT, Hamilton JD, Kim Y, Purcell LA, Baum A, Kyratsous CA, Krainson J, Perez-Perez R, Mohseni R, Kowal B, DiCioccio AT, Stahl N, Lipsich L, Braunstein N, Herman G, Yancopoulos GD, Weinreich DM;Covid-19 Phase 3 Prevention Trial Team. Subcutaneous REGEN-COV Antibody Combination to Prevent Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 Sep 23;385(13):1184-1195. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2109682. Epub 2021 Aug 4. PMID: 34347950;PMCI : PMC8362593. Reference #3: Weinreich DM, Sivapalasingam S, Norton T, Ali S, Gao H, Bhore R, Xiao J, Hooper AT, Hamilton JD, Musser BJ, Rofail D, Hussein M, Im J, Atmodjo DY, Perry C, Pan C, Mahmood A, Hosain R, Davis JD, Turner KC, Baum A, Kyratsous CA, Kim Y, Cook A, Kampman W, Roque-Guerrero L, Acloque G, Aazami H, Cannon K, Simón-Campos JA, Bocchini JA, Kowal B, DiCioccio AT, Soo Y, Geba GP, Stahl N, Lipsich L, Braunstein N, Herman G, Yancopoulos GD;Trial Investigators. REGEN-COV Antibody Combination and Outcomes in Outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 Dec 2;385(23):e81. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2108163. Epub 2021 Sep 29. PMID: 34587383;PMCID: PMC8522800. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mubashir Ayaz Ahmed No relevant relationships by Shayet Hossain Eshan No relevant relationships by Sami Hussein No relevant relationships by Khalid Hussein No relevant relationships by Kamalnath Sankaran Rajagopalan No relevant relationships by Chenyu Sun

20.
Australian Journal of Primary Health ; 28(4):xlix, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058330

ABSTRACT

Background: While the UK's Royal College of General Practitioners developed guidance concerning the delivery of essential services during the COVID pandemic, no such guidance was available in Australia and little is known about the experiences or approaches taken by general practitioners (GPs) for the delivery of care in Australia. Aims/Objectives: To describe GPs' experiences and approaches to delivering essential clinical services (ECS) during COVID lockdowns. Method(s): A survey of GPs who had practiced during lockdowns in Melbourne and Sydney. Questions focused on changes made to care delivery including what services were continued: (1) regardless of outbreak scale, (2) if capacity allowed, or (3) postponed. Finding(s): Of 274 completed surveys, 95% of participants reported increased use of telehealth for diagnosis, investigation, and management of clinical conditions, and 97% for follow-up. Time-sensitive services such as provision of care for symptoms consistent with cancer or those with immediate health impact (e.g., immunisations, prolia injections) were generally continued even if requiring face-to face delivery. Consultations involving screening or health assessments or those necessitating face-to-face care but not clinically urgent (e.g., low risk cervical cancer screening and IUD insertions), were more likely to be postponed, as were visits to homebound and nursing home patients. Implications: The almost universal uptake of telehealth by GPs supported continuity of service provision during lockdown. Australian GPs acted autonomously to triage and provide ECS face to face through the lockdowns. To optimise future preparedness, local guidance for safe delivery of ECS must be developed considering contextual factors relevant to the Australian primary healthcare system.

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