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1.
EFSA Journal ; 19(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834268

ABSTRACT

“Obemirisk – Knowledge platform for assessing the risk of Bisphenols on gut microbiota and its role in obesogenic phenotype: looking for biomarkers” was a knowledge transfer project funded by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) that integrated a multidisciplinary team from Spain, France, Belgium, Slovakia and Poland. This project aimed to strengthen the knowledge capacity to assess the risk of bisphenol A and several structural analogues on gut microbiota that could mediate the obesogenic phenotype in childhood. Protocols and methodologies from different fields such as chemical analysis (food and biosamples), nutrition (surveys and questionnaires), microbiology (culturomics and metagenomics), and gene reporter assay (AhR‐Ligand) have been applied and shared. Several data generated under the project are available under open publications and databases for the Consortium and scientific community. Common documents and publications integrating data from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), bisphenols, microbiota dysbiosis and obesity were elaborated. A networking and specific capacity‐building programmes have been implemented to produce and share the new data on bisphenols data food composition, microbiota and its impact on obesity between providers and recipients’ partners. Scientific exchanges and specific designed courses provided training for students in the risk characterization related domains. The project was mainly focused on the bisphenols´ presence in consumed foods by Spanish children and in several children biosamples (saliva, urine, nails, and hair). Moreover, a pilot project on obese vs. normal‐weight children allowed to determine the obesity‐linked microbiota dysbiosis through metagenomics and specific biomarkers of the dysregulated microbiota‐immune system axis (AhR‐Ligands). The Obemirisk project applied a collaborative and multidisciplinary approach to establish scientific data compilation for harmonising risk assessment and to perform trainings on next generation of risk assessment where microbiome disruption might become a robust biomarker to be used in food safety. Several aspects of the process of capacity building have been mainly conceptual due to the COVId‐19 pandemic and will be further implemented through presential exchanges. Moreover, the consortium work strategy can also propose further EU collaborations for refining and elucidating the impact and mechanisms of bisphenols altering human microbiomes and triggering obesity. The knowledge, analyses and the integrative approach will be extrapolated for other foods, age ranges, geographical areas, and other biomatrices.For grant agreements: © OBEMIRISK consortium, 2022

2.
ADCES in Practice ; 10(3):18-25, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832864

ABSTRACT

According to the 2019 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Diabetes Report Card, the proportion of US adults living with diabetes has steadily increased since 1999, and in the last decade, the number of adults with diabetes has almost doubled. Excess weight contributes to insulin resistance and is the major factor driving the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the US. In fact, a recent study by researchers at Northwestern University School of Medicine, which examined National Health and Nutrition Survey and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data from 2000 to 2017, estimates 30% to 53% of incident diabetes in the US can be attributed to obesity.Unfortunately, a high percentage of US adults are overweight and obese. Currently, the CDC estimates that 3 of every 4 US adults has a BMI greater than 25 kg/m2. People with obesity are more likely to develop metabolic conditions and are at an increased risk for serious illness from acute causes, such as coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Because of the high association of obesity with type 2 diabetes, efforts that address both conditions should be a priority for US health care providers. Until recently, highly effective drug therapy options were limited by narrow therapeutic windows and/or poor effectiveness.The purpose of this review is to provide an update on emerging data for high-dose glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor agonists to treat overweight or obesity in those at risk for or diagnosed with diabetes.

3.
European Journal of Inflammation ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1832854

ABSTRACT

In 2020, a deadly pandemic caused by the SARS-COV-2 virus spread worldwide and killed many people. In some viral infections, in addition to the pathogenic role of the virus, impaired immune function leads to inflammation and further damage in internal tissues. For example, coronavirus in some patients prevents the stimulation of the acquired immune system. Therefore, innate immunity is over-stimulated to compensate, followed by the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and cytokine storm. Various underlying factors such as age, gender, blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity affect cytokine storm. It seems that cytokine storm is one of the leading causes of death among COVID-19 patients, and providing that this storm is detected and controlled in time, it can reduce the mortality of COVID-19 patients. This article aims to investigate the immune system response to COVID-19, various factors associated with cytokine storm, and its treatment. In the current situation, in parallel with the progress made in the field of vaccination, it is necessary to carefully examine the various dimensions of the immune system in response to the COVID-19 virus to seek a suitable treatment strategy to save the lives of patients in intensive care units [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of European Journal of Inflammation is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335079

ABSTRACT

Background: As mortality from COVID-19 is strongly age-dependent, we aimed to identify population subgroups at an elevated risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 using age/gender-adjusted data from European cohort studies with the aim to identify populations that could potentially benefit from booster vaccinations. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of underlying medical conditions as prognostic factors for adverse outcomes due to SARS-CoV-2, including death, hospitalisation, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, and mechanical ventilation within three separate settings (community, hospital and ICU). Cohort studies that reported at least age and gender-adjusted data from Europe were identified through a search of peer-reviewed articles published until 11th June 2021 in Ovid Medline and Embase. Results are presented as Odds Ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%C.I.) and absolute risk differences (RD) in deaths per 1,000 COVID-19 patients. Findings: We included 88 cohort studies with age/gender adjusted data from 6,653,207 SARS-CoV-2 patients from Europe. Hospital-based mortality was associated with high and moderate certainty evidence for solid organ tumours, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, liver disease, and obesity, while a higher risk, albeit with low certainty, was noted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. Community-based mortality was associated with a history of heart failure, stroke, diabetes, and end-stage renal disease. Evidence of high/moderate certainty revealed a strong association between hospitalisation for COVID-19 and solid organ transplant recipients, sleep apnoea, diabetes, stroke, and liver disease. Interpretation: The results confirmed the strong association between specific prognostic factors and mortality and hospital admission. Prioritisation of booster vaccinations and the implementation of non-pharmaceutical protective measures for these populations may contribute to a reduction in COVID-19 mortality, ICU and hospital admissions.

5.
The Lancet ; 399(10337):1810-1829, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1829701

ABSTRACT

Summary Progress has been made globally in improving the coverage of key maternal, newborn, and early childhood interventions in low-income and middle-income countries, which has contributed to a decrease in child mortality and morbidity. However, inequities remain, and many children and adolescents are still not covered by life-saving and nurturing care interventions, despite their relatively low costs and high cost-effectiveness. This Series paper builds on a large body of work from the past two decades on evidence-based interventions and packages of care for survival, strategies for delivery, and platforms to reach the most vulnerable. We review the current evidence base on the effectiveness of a variety of essential and emerging interventions that can be delivered from before conception until age 20 years to help children and adolescents not only survive into adulthood, but also to grow and develop optimally, support their wellbeing, and help them reach their full developmental potential. Although scaling up evidence-based interventions in children younger than 5 years might have the greatest effect on reducing child mortality rates, we highlight interventions and evidence gaps for school-age children (5–9 years) and the transition from childhood to adolescence (10–19 years), including interventions to support mental health and positive development, and address unintentional injuries, neglected tropical diseases, and non-communicable diseases.

6.
MSMR ; 29(3):8-16, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1824135

ABSTRACT

This study examined monthly prevalence of obesity and exercise in active component U.S. military members prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Information about obesity (BMI>=30) and self-reported vigorous exercise (>=150 minutes per week) were collected from Periodic Health Assessment (PHA) data. From 1 January 2018 through 31 July 2021, there was a gradual increase in obesity and an overall decrease in vigorous exercise. Comparing the mean monthly percentage of obesity during the 12-month period prior to the pandemic to the 12 months after its start showed an overall increase in obesity (0.43%);however, no obvious spike in the obesity trend was apparent following the onset of the pandemic. The prevalence of vigorous exercise showed an abrupt decrease following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, but this change did not coincide with an abrupt change in the obesity trend. These results suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic had a small effect on the trend of obesity in the active component U.S. military and that obesity prevalence continues to increase.

7.
Digital Biomarkers ; 6(1):19-30, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824097

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Clinical research and treatment of childhood obesity is challenging, and objective biomarkers obtained in a home-setting are needed. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of novel digital endpoints gathered by a home-monitoring platform in pediatric obesity. Methods: In this prospective observational study, 28 children with obesity aged 6–16 years were included and monitored for 28 days. Patients wore a smartwatch, which measured physical activity (PA), heart rate (HR), and sleep. Furthermore, daily blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed. Data from 128 healthy children were utilized for comparison. Differences between patients and controls were assessed via linear mixed effect models. Results: Data from 28 patients (average age 11.6 years, 46% male, average body mass index 30.9) and 128 controls (average age 11.1 years, 46% male, average body mass index 18.0) were analyzed. Patients were recruited between November 2018 and February 2020. For patients, the median compliance for the measurements ranged from 55% to 100% and the highest median compliance was observed for the smartwatch-related measurements (81–100%). Patients had a lower daily PA level (4,597 steps vs. 6,081 steps, 95% confidence interval [CI] 862–2,108) and peak PA level (1,115 steps vs. 1,392 steps, 95% CI 136–417), a higher nighttime HR (81 bpm vs. 71 bpm, 95% CI 6.3–12.3) and daytime HR (98 bpm vs. 88 bpm, 95% CI 7.6–12.6), a higher systolic BP (115 mm Hg vs. 104 mm Hg, 95% CI 8.1–14.5) and diastolic BP (76 mm Hg vs. 65 mm Hg, 95% CI 8.7–12.7), and a shorter sleep duration (difference 0.5 h, 95% CI 0.2–0.7) compared to controls. Conclusion: Remote monitoring via wearables in pediatric obesity has the potential to objectively measure the disease burden in the home-setting. The novel endpoints demonstrate significant differences in PA level, HR, BP, and sleep duration between patients and controls. Future studies are needed to determine the capacity of the novel digital endpoints to detect effect of interventions.

8.
Pharmacophore ; 13(1):48-55, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822791

ABSTRACT

At the current time, obesity itself can be a pandemic for many risk factors such as what is occurring in western countries were quickly comforted by the increase in the frequency of obesity, whose effects on health were soon manifested by a significant increase in cardiovascular disease in the general population. Inflammatory proteins can be classified according to their functions into different categories, although they are mainly involved in the response of the acute phase of inflammation, among which is the C-reactive protein (CRP). This study aimed to provide the effects of obesity according to the inflammatory analysis with CRP test on obese patients having a high-frequency inflammation which is one of several causes lead toward the infection and catching by Coronavirus COVID-19 disease because the influence of the obesity on the immunity system, according to sex, ethnicity, and age. We focused that obese patients must avoid any high-level CRP concentration to prevent them from any risk factors of contamination by COVID-19 pandemic. Copyright (C) 2013 - All Rights Reserved - Pharmacophore

9.
Revista Medica Herediana ; 33(1):15-23, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822664

ABSTRACT

In Peru, one of the first interventions to flattened the epidemiologic curve of the pandemic was quarantine that changed eating behavior, physical activity and mental health of the population. Objective: to determine modifications in eating behavior, physical activity and mental health in young adults before and after the quarantine. Methods: cohort study involving 384 adults from 18 to 24 years of age that were subjected to a virtual interview and application of an international questionnaire to evaluate changings in eating behavior, physical activity and mental health contrasted by Chi square. Results: an increase in the distribution of daily foods [breakfast (p<0.001), morning snack (p<0.05), lunch (p<0.001), afternoon snack (p<0.001), dinner (p<0.05)] and an increase in ingestion of fruits (p=0.005) and reduction in the ingestion of fast food (p<0.05) and candies (p=0.03). Physical activity decreases specially in males vs females (28.4% vs. 25.3%) and there was a reduction in the total number of sleep hours, mental health was severely affected. Conclusions: quarantine induced variations in eating behavior, reduction in physical activity and increase in mental health disorders. These modifications put the population at risk for weight gain or obesity and eventually to non-transmissible diseases.

10.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(4):6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822582

ABSTRACT

Introduction In Pakistan, the fourth wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) started around July 2021, which was dominated by the Delta variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The vaccination drive to immunize the people of Pakistan against Covid-19 was also going on during this period. There were multiple types of vaccines being administered to the people of Pakistan, as the vaccines had been procured from multiple sources. Some people had apprehensions about different vaccines being administered in the country. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics and outcome of the patients vaccinated against Covid-19 with those of the non-vaccinated patients during the fourth wave of Covid-19 in Pakistan Naval Ship (PNS) Shifa Hospital. Methods The cross-sectional descriptive study was performed at PNS Shifa Hospital Karachi, from July to October 2021. All the Covid-19 patients treated in PNS Shifa Hospital during the "fourth Covid-19 wave" were interviewed. Their medical records were accessed, and they were followed up till their discharge from the hospital. The vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients were compared for differences in their age or gender distribution, the severity of illness, comorbidities, and mortality. Results There were 884 participants in the study: 664 (75.11%) men and 220 (24.89%) women. There were 493 patients below 40 years of age, 233 were 40-59 years old, and 158 were aged 60 and above. One hundred and sixty-nine patients had one or more comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, various malignancies, bronchial asthma, and chronic kidney disease. There were 63 (7.13%) obese patients, 28 of whom developed severe disease. Five hundred and four (57%) patients were vaccinated and 380 (47%) were non-vaccinated. Among the vaccinated patients, the effect of Covid-19 was mild in 58.37%, moderate in 36.11%, severe in 0.79%, and critical in 4.37%. Among the non-vaccinated patients, the effect of Covid-19 was mild in 40.26%, moderate in 46.58%, severe in 3.16%, and critical in 10%. The difference in disease severity between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion Vaccinated Covid-19 patients had significantly lower severity of disease and displayed better outcomes when compared to non-vaccinated patients during the fourth Covid-19 wave dominated by the Delta variant of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

11.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(4):5, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822581

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary symptoms are the primary manifestation of the COVID-19 disease, which originated in Wuhan in China in December 2019. However, it is now established to show widespread extrapulmonary manifestations, including gastrointestinal involvement. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting are considered the most common gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastric perforation in association with COVID-19 is rarely reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old male COVID-19-infected patient, medically free, who presented to the emergency department complaining of severe abdominal pain for a one-week duration. He was diagnosed with a case of perforated viscus and septic shock. The patient was shifted to the operating room for exploratory laparotomy. We aim in this report to highlight this fatal complication of COVID-19 infection in order to improve patients' outcomes.

12.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(2):71-76, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822497

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the association between body weight and COVID-19 outcomes. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients admitted in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital, a tertiary health care center, between May and June 2021. Demographic data and baseline variables, including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and comorbidities were collected. Outcomes (death or mechanical ventilation) of the patients with different BMI, age, comorbidities, and qSOFA scores were compared. Besides, the risk factors for death or mechanical ventilation were determined. Results: The mean age of the subjects was (51.8±14.7) years old, and 233 (74.2%) were male. There were 103 (32.8%) patients with normal weight, 143 (45.5%) patients were overweight, and 68 (21.7%) patients were obese. In-hospital deaths and need of mechanical ventilations were significantly higher in the obese and the overweight group compared to the normal weight group, in age group ≥65 years compared to <65 years, in patients with ≥1 comorbidities compared to patients without comorbidities, in patients with qSOFA scores ≥2 compared to patients with qSOFA scores<2. There was a significantly increased risk of death (RR: 4.1, 95% CI 1.0-17.4, P=0.04) and significantly increased need of mechanical ventilation (RR: 5.2, 95% CI 1.8-15.2, P=0.002) in the obese patients compared with those with normal weight after controlling other covariates. Conclusion: Obesity is one of the significant risk factors for adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients and should be considered during management.

13.
Diabetes and Metabolism Journal ; 46(2):351-353, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822495
14.
Vaccines ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822459

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a significant factor for increased morbidity and mortality upon infection with SARS-CoV-2. Because of the higher potential for negative outcomes following infection of individuals with obesity, the impact of body mass index (BMI) on vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy is an important public health concern. Few studies have measured the magnitude and durability of the vaccine-specific response in relation to BMI. We measured the receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific serum IgG and surrogate neutralizing titers in a cohort of 126 vaccinated individuals with no clinical history or serological evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection 50 and 200 days following vaccination. BMI had no significant impact on RBD-specific IgG titers and surrogate neutralizing titers 50 days following immunization, and leptin levels had no correlation with the response to immunization. Two hundred days following immunization, antibody titers in all groups had declined by approximately 90%. The responses were also similar between male and female participants and did not significantly vary across age groups. These results indicate that the magnitude and durability of the antibody response to mRNA-based vaccines are unaffected by BMI in this cohort.

15.
Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation ; 27(1):36-44, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821995

ABSTRACT

Purpose of review Heart failure incidence continues to rise despite a relatively static number of available donor hearts. Selecting an appropriate heart transplant candidate requires evaluation of numerous factors to balance patient benefit while maximizing the utility of scarce donor hearts. Recent research has provided new insights into refining recipient risk assessment, providing additional tools to further define and balance risk when considering heart transplantation. Recent findings Recent publications have developed models to assist in risk stratifying potential heart transplant recipients based on cardiac and noncardiac factors. These studies provide additional tools to assist clinicians in balancing individual risk and benefit of heart transplantation in the context of a limited donor organ supply. Summary The primary goal of heart transplantation is to improve survival and maximize quality of life. To meet this goal, a careful assessment of patient-specific risks is essential. The optimal approach to patient selection relies on integrating recent prognostication models with a multifactorial assessment of established clinical characteristics, comorbidities and psychosocial factors.

16.
Advances in Nutrition ; : 25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1821682

ABSTRACT

Statement of Significance: In light of the COVID-19 emergency situation and the ongoing restrictive measures towards containing the spread of the infection, the health and food security of the already vulnerable temporary foreign farm workers become even more compromised since they provide essential services within exceptionally challenging work and living conditions. Recent reports and media news indicate severe illness and death outbreaks among migrant workers, especially on farms and food-processing facilities due to work-related exposure. There is an immediate need to address these workers' vulnerability to food security. This scoping review contributes to the efforts towards advancing our knowledge and understanding of a largely understudied and complex phenomenon of food security of temporary foreign farm workers within the context of an exceptionally challenging precarious status in which they live and work, in order to underline knowledge gaps and suggest further research focus and policy change recommendations. Temporary foreign farm workers (TFWs) are among the most vulnerable and exploitable groups. Recent research shows alarming rates of food insecurity among them. This review explores research focussing on food security of TFWs in Canada and the United States, summarizes findings, and identifies research gaps. Online databases, including MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and government and nongovernment websites, and websites of migrant worker-supporting organizations were searched for peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed papers and reports published between 1966 and 2020 regarding food security of TFWs. Articles reviewed were analyzed to determine publication type, country, year, target population, and main findings. Content analysis was performed to identify major themes. Of 291 sources identified, 11 met the inclusion criteria. Most articles (n = 10) were based on studies conducted in the United States. The prevalence of food insecurity among TFWs ranged between 28% and 87%. From the content analysis, we formulated 9 themes, representing a diversity of perspectives, including access to resources, income, housing and related facilities, food access, dietary pattern and healthy food choices, and migrant's legal status. Instruments reported for the measurement of food security include USDA Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM;n = 8, 72.7%), the modified version of the USDA HFSSM (n = 1, 9%), hunger measure (n = 1, 9%), the modified CDC's NHANES (n = 1, 9%), and 24-h recall, diet history, and/or food-frequency questionnaire (n = 3, 27.3%). Factors impacting food security of TFWs working under the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Programs (SAWPs) in North America are understudied. There is a need to advance research looking particularly at policies and regulatory and administrative aspects of the SAWPs to improve the food security of this cohort. There is also a need for qualitative studies that explore lived experiences and perspectives of TFWs and key informants. Longitudinal studies may be useful to examine various factors, including policy-related, contributing to food insecurity of TFWs over time.

17.
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821089

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Following the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, a complete analysis of the characteristics of the deceased hospitalized patients was performed, to identify factors related to premature mortality and to compare patient profiles according to the epidemic periods. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 1104 deceased patients in two University Hospitals in South-eastern France, between March 1, 2020 and March 12, 2021 from Hospital’s electronic medical records was performed. Results: Mean age was 80 years (± 11.1) and 10% of the deceased were younger than 65 years with specific comorbidities, e.g., genetic conditions, metastatic cancer, or massive obesity. Among the three clusters identified, two clusters (75% of deceased patients) include very elderly patients with numerous comorbidities, and differ by their proportion of dependent institutionalized patients. The third cluster is made up of younger patients with fewer but severe comorbidities. Deceased patients’ profiles varied according to the epidemic periods: during the first period (March–June 2020), more patients were institutionalized. The second period (September–December2020) coincided with a higher mortality rate. Conclusions: This study confirmed that most patients hospitalized and dying from COVID-19 were frail, i.e., elderly and/or highly comorbid and that the small proportion of young patients had severe comorbidities.

18.
Pediatric Pulmonology ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819388

ABSTRACT

IntroductionIt is not clear whether asthma, the most frequent chronic disease in childhood, is a risk for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pediatric population and how SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the lung functions in these patients.PurposeWe aimed to investigate the course and the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children with asthma and determine the risk factors for the decline in lung function testsMethodsIn this retrospective study, asthmatic children with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were compared with a random control group of asthmatic patients without COVID-19. In addition, the clinical course and the effect on lung function tests of COVID-19 among children with asthma were also evaluated.ResultsOne hundred eighty-nine patients who had COVID-19, and 792 who did not were included in the study. Fever, fatigue, and cough were the most frequent symptoms during COVID-19. Regarding the severity of COVID-19, 163 patients (87.6%) had a mild clinical condition, 13 (7%) had moderate disease, one (0.5%) had severe disease and two had (1.1%) critically ill disease. Two patients were diagnosed with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), one patient suffered from pneumothorax. Lung function tests of the patients before and after COVID-19 infection were analyzed;no significant differences were found in FEV1 % (91.7% vs 90.9%, p=0.513), FVC% (89.8% vs 90.8%, p=0.502) and FEV1/FVC (103.1% vs 100.6%, p=0.056), while FEF25-75% values (107.6% vs 98.4%, p<0.001) were significantly lower after the COVID-19 infection. Obesity [OR: 3.785, 95%CI: 1.152-12.429, P =0.028] and having a family history of atopy [OR:3.359, 95%CI:1.168-9.657, P = 0.025] were found to be the independent risk factors for ≥25% decrease in FEF25-75 after COVID-19 infection.ConclusionCOVID-19 infection leads to dysfunction of the small airways in asthmatic children and obesity is an independent risk factor for ≥25% decrease in FEF25-75. The long-term effects of COVID-19 infection especially on small airways require close monitoring in children with asthma.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 4, 2022. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1818721

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To estimate the relative risk (RR) of death associated with obesity, the attributable fraction in the exposed/with obesity (AFo), and the hospitalized population attributable risk (hospitalized PAR) associated with obesity of death among all adults and among Black and non-Black adults hospitalized for severe COVID-19 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS This retrospective cohort study of prognostic factors analyzed all cases of adults hospitalized for severe COVID-19 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The occurrence of obesity was measured using secondary data from hospital teams' surveillance records. The outcome assessed was hospital deaths caused by severe COVID-19. Poisson regression was used to estimate RRs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS The study sample consisted of 100,099 patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19, most of whom were White (84.7%) and male (54.7%). The effect of obesity was strongly modified by age, being higher in younger age groups. For the 18-39-year-old age group, RR = 2.54 (95%CI: 2.33-2.77), and in individuals 70 years and above, RR = 1.09 (95%CI: 1.05-1.13). For the 18-39-year-old age range, AFo = 60.6% and AFo = 42.5% in individuals 40-59 years old. For all hospitalizations, Hospitalized PAR measuring obesity for individuals 18-39 years old was 25.3%, while in the 40-59-year-old range, the hospitalized PAR = 11.2%. The hospitalized PAR was 31.7% in the Black population aged 18-39 years and 24.8% in non-Blacks. The hospitalized PAR was also larger in Blacks aged 40-59 years. CONCLUSIONS Obesity largely impacted in-hospital case-fatality rates among young adults and Black people contaminated by COVID-19. These data highlight the extent of the risk concerning obesity, a highly prevalent chronic condition.

20.
Progress in Nutrition ; 24(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819020

ABSTRACT

Objective: Body dissatisfaction is an increasing problem in adolescents, and it is thought that mindful eating and body image are related. These problems have become more serious during the pandemic period. This current study was carried out to examine the relationship between adolescents’ mindful eating, body image, and anthropometric measurements during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A total of 200 adolescents (100 boys and 100 girls) aged 11-17 years, were involved in the study. The data were collected by the researcher using the face-to-face interview method through a questionnaire. The Mindful Eating Questionnaire was used to determine mindful eating. The Stunkard body image scale was employed to evaluate the body image of individuals, and all anthropometric measurements were made by the researcher in accordance with technique. Results: The mean age of the individuals was 14.2±2.04 years, and more than half (52%) attended high school. 60.0% of obese boys and 38.0% of obese girls considered themselves obese. A statistically significant difference was found depending on gender in terms of body perception (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between the mindful eating scores of participants according to their body perception (p>0.05). A negative statistically significant correlation was determined between the total mindful eating score of those who described themselves as underweight, overweight, and obese, and BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm), hip circumference (cm), and body fat (%) (p<0.05). It was also found there were negative significant relationships between mindful eating subscales, anthropometric measurements, and BMI (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that body image in adolescents was affected by gender and BMI, and anthropometric measurements were associated with mindful eating.

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