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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; 28(23):117-121, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245321

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize and compare the main traditional Chinese medicineTCMsyndromes of Delta and Omicron variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2SARS-CoV-2 carriers to provide references for the syndrome evolution and syndrome differentiation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Method(s):The TCM medical records of imported and local cases of infection with Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Changsha since September 23,2021 to March 27,2022 were collected,including 18 Delta variant cases and 36 Omicron variant cases. Their TCM diagnosis information and TCM pathogenesis were analyzed and compared. Result(s): The common manifestations in Delta variant cases were cough,fever,chest distress/shortness of breath,sore muscles,nausea,dry mouth,dry or sore throat,thick and greasy tongue coating,and rapid and slippery pulse. The predominant pathogenesis was dampness-heat in the upper-energizer and heat stagnation in the lesser Yang combined with dampness. The occurrence of chest distress/shortness of breath,greasy tongue coating,slippery pulse,and the proportion of dampness-heat in the upper-energizer syndrome were higher in Delta variant cases than in Omicron variant cases P<0.05. The common manifestations in Omicron variant cases were itchy and sore throat,nasal congestion,running nose,fever,mild aversion to cold,dry mouth,dizziness,slightly reddish tongue with thin white coating,and rapid or wiry pulse. The predominant pathogenesis was wind-dryness invading defensive exterior,and heat stagnation in the lesser Yang. The occurrence of white-coated tongue and the proportion of wind-dryness invading defensive exterior syndrome were higher in Omicron variant cases than in Delta variant casesP<0.05. Conclusion(s): There are certain differences in TCM syndromes and the corresponding pathogenesis between Delta variant and Omicron variant cases in Changsha,Hunan. The Delta variant of SARS-COV-2 tends to induce dampness-heat syndrome, whereas Omicron variant infection tends to elicit wind-dampness syndrome,which is expected to provide a reference for the pathogenesis evolution of SARS-COV-2 infection.Copyright © 2022, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Institute of Chinese Materia Medica. All rights reserved.

2.
Bulletin of Siberian Medicine ; 22(1):164-169, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244315

ABSTRACT

The article presents a clinical case of a 51-year-old patient first seeking medical care with complaints of paroxysmal cough bringing up bronchial casts. The diagnosis of plastic bronchitis was verified. The disease which has not been well described in the literature, difficulty of verifying the underlying diagnosis due to polysymptomatic clinical presentation characterized by the mortality rate of 50–80%, COVID-19 coinfection, resistance to therapy, and little concern of medical specialists determine the relevance and value of this clinical case. © 2023 Authors. All rights reserved.

3.
Byulleten Sibirskoy Meditsiny ; 22(1):164-169, 2023.
Article in Russian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20244314

ABSTRACT

The article presents a clinical case of a 51-year-old patient first seeking medical care with complaints of paroxysmal cough bringing up bronchial casts. The diagnosis of plastic bronchitis was verified. The disease which has not been well described in the literature, difficulty of verifying the underlying diagnosis due to polysymptomatic clinical presentation characterized by the mortality rate of 50-80%, COVID-19 coinfection, resistance to therapy, and little concern of medical specialists determine the relevance and value of this clinical case.

4.
Pulmonologiya ; 33(1):27-35, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242493

ABSTRACT

The respiratory pump that provides pulmonary ventilation includes the respiratory center, peripheral nervous system, chest and respiratory muscles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the respiratory center and the respiratory muscles strength after COVID-19 (COronaVIrus Disease 2019). Methods. The observational retrospective cross-sectional study included 74 post-COVID-19 patients (56 (76%) men, median age - 48 years). Spirometry, body plethysmography, measurement of lung diffusing capacity (DLCO), maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP), and airway occlusion pressure after 0.1 sec (P0.1) were performed. In addition, dyspnea was assessed in 31 patients using the mMRC scale and muscle strength was assessed in 27 of those patients using MRC Weakness scale. Results. The median time from the COVID-19 onset to pulmonary function tests (PFTs) was 120 days. The total sample was divided into 2 subgroups: 1 - P0.1 <= 0.15 kPa (norm), 2 - > 0.15 kPa. The lung volumes, airway resistance, MIP, and MEP were within normal values in most patients, whereas DLCO was reduced in 59% of cases in both the total sample and the subgroups. Mild dyspnea and a slight decrease in muscle strength were also detected. Statistically significant differences between the subgroups were found in the lung volumes (lower) and airway resistance (higher) in subgroup 2. Correlation analysis revealed moderate negative correlations between P0.1 and ventilation parameters. Conclusion. Measurement of P0.1 is a simple and non-invasive method for assessing pulmonary function. In our study, an increase in P0.1 was detected in 45% of post-COVID-19 cases, possibly due to impaired pulmonary mechanics despite the preserved pulmonary ventilation as well as normal MIP and MEP values.Copyright © Savushkina O.I. et al., 2023.

5.
Siberian Medical Review ; 2022(4):114-116, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238849

ABSTRACT

Surgical care in a mono-hospital for patients with COVID-19 leads to a number of organisational problems due to the lack of specialised departments. The article presents the experience of surgical treatment in a mono-hospital obtained from one and a half years of work in this mode. In total, approximately 400 surgeries were performed. The experience of treatment of 7 patients with acute intestinal obstruction has been summarised. In the abdominal cavity, a significant number of hematomas of varied localisation were found under the parietal and visceral peritoneum, as well as in the subcutaneous fat. This is possibly associated with anticoagulant therapy included in the treatment regimen for patients with COVID-19 according to the methodical recommendations by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. As an illustration, a successful case of treating COVID-19 patient with strangulated hernia of the abdominal white line complicated by acute intestinal obstruction is presented.Copyright © 2022, Krasnoyarsk State Medical University. All rights reserved.

6.
Journal of SAFOG ; 15(2):199-205, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237185

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2/COVID-19 infection is still a global concern, with pregnant women are considered as vulnerable population. Until now, the characteristics of pregnant women in Indonesia who are infected with COVID-19, as well as pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, are still unknown. This study aims to obtain national data, which are expected to be useful for the prevention and management of COVID-19 in pregnant women in Indonesia. Method(s): There were 1,427 patients recruited in this retrospective multicenter study. This study involved 11 hospitals in 10 provinces in Indonesia and was carried out using secondary patient data from April 2020 to July 2021. COVID-19 severity was differentiated into asymptomatic-to-mild symptoms and moderate-to-severe symptoms. The collected data include maternal characteristics, laboratory examinations, imaging, pregnancy outcomes, and neonatal outcomes. Result(s): Leukocyte, platelets, basophil, neutrophils segment, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), C-reactive protein (CRP), urea, and creatinine were found to be significantly associated with severity differences (p < 0.05). Moderate-severe symptoms of COVID-19 also shown to have suggestive pneumonia findings on chest X-ray findings. Patients with asymptomatic-to-mild symptoms had significantly (p < 0.001) higher recovery rate, shorter hospital stay, less intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and had more vaginal delivery. Neonates from mother with mild symptoms also had significantly (p < 0.001) higher survival rate, higher birth weight, and higher APGAR score. Conclusion(s): Several laboratory and radiology components, as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes are related to the severity of COVID-19 in pregnant women in Indonesia.Copyright © The Author(s). 2023.

7.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons ; 236(5 Supplement 3):S3, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236569

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant decreases in outpatient procedures, many of which are required before to antireflux operation (ARS). The purpose of this study was to add functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) to esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and esophageal pH monitoring to assess its utility in decreasing the need for follow up studies in patients being evaluated for ARS. Method(s): Retrospective observational study was performed on 81 patients being evaluated for GERD who underwent EGD, pH monitoring, and FLIP. Data collected included average distensibility index (DI) at 60 mL, presence of repetitive anterograde or retrograde contractions, hiatal hernia dimensions, pathology results, pH data, and need for follow-up testing. Result(s): Based on FLIP results, HRM was recommended in 35 patients (43.2%). This included 14 patients with DI suggestive of significant esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction, eight of whom completed HRM with four confirmed as achalasia. FLIP results were suspicious for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in four patients of which one was confirmed as EoE on biopsy. Gastric emptying study was felt to be necessary for 11 patients before to ARS. Conclusion(s): FLIP identified patients with possible alternative pathologies including achalasia and EoE that would otherwise be a contraindication to ARS. FLIP at the time of EGD and pH monitoring is useful as it guides the clinical decision on need for additional outpatient procedures, which may be difficult to obtain in pandemic conditions. FLIP was effective at reducing the requirements for further follow-up testing in the majority of patients being evaluated for potential ARS.

8.
Perfusion ; 38(1 Supplement):153, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232850

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is well established in cardiorespiratory failure. Here we report the use of ECMO in an airway emergency to provide respiratory support. Method(s): Informed consent was obtained from patient at the time of admission. Result(s): A 48-year-old with COVID-19 requiring venovenous ECMO (VVECMO) for 32 days and tracheostomy for 47 days had developed tracheal stenosis three months after tracheostomy removal, and undergone tracheal resection and reconstruction. He presented two weeks later with acute dyspnea, bloody drainage and a bulge in his neck with coughing. A computerized tomography (CT) of the cervical spine and chest showed dehiscence of the tracheal wound and a gap in the trachea. He was managed with High Flow Nasal Canula and supported on VVECMO support using 25 Fr. right femoral drainage cannula and 23 Fr. left IJ return cannula. A covered stent was placed, neck wound was irrigated and debrided. Patient was decannulated after 10 days on ECMO. Future therapeutic considerations include mediastinal tracheostomy, aortic homograft interposition of the disrupted segment of trachea with stent placement and permanent self-expandable stent with internal silicone stent. Conclusion(s): ECMO is increasingly used in complex thoracic surgery as well as in the perioperative period as salvage support. One of the areas where it has shown promising results is traumatic main bronchial rupture, airway tumor leading to severe airway stenosis, and other complex airway problems. The ease of cannulation, the technological advances and growing confidence in the management of ECMO patients are the main reasons for the expansion of ECMO use beyond conventional indications. The case described above is an example of the use of ECMO in the perioperative management of impending respiratory failure due to airway obstruction or disconnection. (Figure Presented).

9.
Annals of Clinical and Analytical Medicine ; 13(1):62-66, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232183

ABSTRACT

Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the frequency of patient emergency visits to the Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) Department during coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic and compare it with that before coronavirus COVID-19. Material(s) and Method(s): A retrospective comparative study was performed at Al-Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif (Saudi Arabia), and data regarding various diagnoses of ORL cases were collected from medical records of patients who visited/admitted to ORL-ED during the lockdown (Group 1) and those who visited/ admitted to ORL-ED before the pandemic (Group 2). Result(s): Group 2 had a significantly higher percentage of cases who had no ENT-related disorders, hypertrophy inferior turbinate (HIT), stridor, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), epistaxis and who had no complications, had general ENT, foreign body ingestion-aspiration, trauma, otology and who had more than one disorder and Group 1 had a significantly higher percentage of those having nasal obstruction, tonsil hypertrophy grade 3, had emergency head and neck cancer, had deep neck space infections and who had complicated. Discussion(s): During coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic period, cold ENT visits were much less and foreign body ingestion remains the highest reason for ENT visits. Additionally, telemedicine has been shown to be effective in reducing ED visits during the pandemic period. Furthermore, older cases with chronic ENT problems who had regular follow-up ENT visits were less likely to visit ED during the pandemic.Copyright © 2022, Derman Medical Publishing. All rights reserved.

10.
Am Surg ; : 31348211023461, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231674

ABSTRACT

Chronic sequelae of COVID-19 remain undetermined. We report a case of postinfection sequelae in a patient presenting with subacute obstruction 2 months after COVID-19 infection. A 34-year-old man with a prior prolonged hospital stay due to COVID-19 complicated by upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed presented with subacute obstruction and failure to thrive. Upper GI push enteroscopy revealed residual ulcers and multiple proximal jejuno-jejunal fistulae. Midline laparotomy revealed strictures with dense intra-abdominal adhesions, a large jejuno-jejunal fistula, and evidence of prior jejunal perforation following severe COVID-19 infection. The patient recovered after small bowel resection with anastomoses and was discharged home. Histopathological examination of resected specimen confirmed transmural infarction with evidence of prior hemorrhage, diffuse ulcers, and multifocal inflammation. This is the first report of a chronic GI sequelae resulting from COVID-19. As the pandemic evolves, medical professionals must be vigilant to consider alternative GI diagnoses in the COVID-19 survivors.

11.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 54: 102604, 2023 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several gastrointestinal complications have been reported in patients with COVID-19, including motility disorders, such as acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO). This affection is characterized by colonic distention in the absence of mechanical obstruction. ACPO in the context of severe COVID-19 may be related to neurotropism and direct damage of SARS-CoV-2 in enterocytes. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective study of patients who were hospitalized for critical COVID-19 and developed ACPO between March 2020 and September 2021. The diagnostic criteria to define ACPO was the presence of 2 or more of the following: abdominal distension, abdominal pain, and changes in the bowel movements, associated with distension of the colon in computed tomography. Data of sex, age, past medical history, treatment, and outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Five patients were detected. All required admission to the Intensive Care Unit. The ACPO syndrome developed with a mean of 33.8 days from the onset of symptoms. The mean duration of the ACPO syndrome was 24.6 days. The treatment included colonic decompression with placement of rectal and nasogastric tubes, endoscopy decompression in two patients, bowel rest, fluid, and electrolytes replacement. One patient died. The remaining resolved the gastrointestinal symptoms without surgery. CONCLUSIONS: ACPO is an infrequent complication in patients with COVID-19. It occurs especially in patients with critical condition, who require prolonged stays in intensive care and multiple pharmacological treatments. It is important to recognize its presence early and thus establish an appropriate treatment, since the risk of complications is high.

12.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S2273, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323694

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Enteral feeding is a physiologic process of providing adequate nutrition and has been shown to improve both mortality and quality of life in patients with inadequate oral intake. Improved critical care medicine and recent wave of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has left us with a large proportion of patients needing alternative enteral nutrition. Although rare, intussusception is an important differential for patients presenting with acute abdominal pain post makeshift percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement. Case Description/Methods: A 58-year-old male was admitted to the hospital for coffee ground emesis over three days accompanied with epigastric pain. He had right sided hemiparesis secondary to cerebrovascular accident with PEG tube for enteral nutrition. Examination was significant for epigastric tenderness with normal bowel sounds. PEG tube aspiration revealed bile-tinged fluid. Significant labs included white blood cell count of 11,600 /mm3, hemoglobin 10.2 g/dL, and lactic acid of 2.3 mmol/L. A computerized tomography of the abdomen with IV contrast showed a small segment duodeno-duodenal intussusception at the horizontal segment around the distal end of the tube was noted (Figure A). An urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a Foley catheter acting as a makeshift PEG tube extending across the pylorus into the duodenum. The distal tip of the Foley catheter was visualized with an inflated balloon seen in the third portion of the duodenum (Figure B) The inflated catheter balloon acted as a lead point causing intussusception in a ball-valve effect. The balloon was deflated, and the catheter was replaced (Figure C) with a 20 Fr PEG tube. Discussion(s): Gastric outlet obstruction is an uncommon complication reported in few cases caused by migration of the gastrostomy tube. Rarely this migrating gastrostomy tube can invaginate the duodenum or the jejunum causing intussusception. Only handful of cases have been reported in the literature. Patients usually present with epigastric pain, vomiting or rarely hematemesis. CT scan of the abdomen is the investigation of choice. Amidst the pandemic and supply shortage, Foley catheters have been deemed as a viable alternative to gastrostomy tubes and are being used more often. It is important to recognize this rare complication and use of balloon catheter should raise further suspicion. Timely endoscopic intervention can help avoid bowel necrosis and surgical intervention.

13.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S86, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322325

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While elevated lipase is typically used to diagnose acute pancreatitis, it has also been associated with other critical disease states including sepsis, COVID-19, bowel obstruction, and trauma. In this study we compared outcomes of patients with elevated lipase who had pancreatitis and NPHL. Method(s): Retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who presented to the Emergency Department between February 2016 and August 2020 with lipase >= 3x the upper limit of normal. Patient demographics and past medical history, including active cancer, were noted. Patient outcomes were followed through November 2021. If applicable, dates of death were also documented. Result(s): 414 total patients were included in this study. Upon initial evaluation, 305/414 (74%) were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis (AP) and 109/414 had NPHL. The age (54 617 vs. 58 618, p=0.0220), Sex (male 164/305 vs. 49/109, p=0.1194), and BMI (28.9 67.4 vs. 25.8 64.6, p=0.0066) were compared between the AP and NPHL groups. The serum lipase in the AP and NPHL group were respectively 1471 61070 vs. 605 6555 (p< 0.0001). The most common causes of NPHL were sepsis (10/109;9%) renal failure (7/109;6%), GI bleed (5/109;4%), and bowel obstruction (5/109;4%). The NPHL group had higher rate of malignancy (29/105;28%) compared to those with AP (35/305;11%, p< 0.0001). NPHL patients without malignancy had a higher mortality rate (63/80;80%) compared to those without malignancy in the AP group (17/270;6.3%, p< 0.0001). The most common malignancy in patients with AP was breast (6/35;17%, vs. 3/29;10%, p=0.4943). In NPHL, the most common malignancies were pancreatic (4/29;14%, vs. 3/35;9%, p=0.6920) and bowel malignancies (4/29;14%, vs. 4/35, 11% p51.0000). Conclusion(s): Patients with NPHL without malignancy have higher mortality than those with pancreatitis despite lower serum lipase levels. A limitation of our study is the difference between age and BMI of AP versus NPHL patients. Whether this impacts the prognostic relevance of NPHL on survival need to be explored in future studies.

14.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S1307, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322009

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Primary Pancreatic Lymphoma (PPL) is the exceedingly rare instance of extranodal Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma developing mainly in the pancreas.We report a diagnostically challenging case of a patient presenting with a rapidly growing pancreatic mass, found to have PPL. Case Description/Methods: A 48-year-old female with past history of tobacco use presented with several months of cramping abdominal pain following COVID-19 infection. She denied weight loss, fevers, or night sweats. Her physical exam, CBC, CMP, lipase, LDH, and CA 19-9 were unremarkable. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a 2.8 x 1.9 x 3 cm cystic mass of the pancreatic head, most congruent with a pseudocyst. Worsening abdominal pain prompted repeat ultrasound one month later, which showed a doubling in size. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration of the cystic mass and surrounding lymph nodes yielded cystic contents and reactive lymphadenopathy. Two months later, her abdominal pain worsened and repeat imaging showed further doubling in size with encasement of the celiac plexus. A second FNA performed via EUS redemonstrated cystic contents. An ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of the mass revealed necrotic CD301 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PET scan was suggestive of stage IV PPL (Figure). Imaging also identified an inguinal lymph node that returned as CD101 BCL61 high grade follicular lymphoma, which was thought to be a distinct lesion. She was started on R-CHOP. Her clinical course was complicated by the formation and subsequent rupture of a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm, gastrointestinal bleeding, anuric kidney injury, and intestinal ischemia. She ultimately transitioned to comfort care. Discussion(s): Primary pancreatic lymphoma comprises 0.6% of extranodal lymphomas and 0.2% of primary pancreatic tumors. The clinical presentation is often vague and includes abdominal pain, B symptoms, jaundice, or bowel obstruction. The diagnostic criteria according to the WHO requires that the (1) majority of tumor burden be localized to the pancreas and (2) existing nearby and distant lymph node involvement should be secondary to pancreatic presentation. A biopsy is required to diagnose PPL, which is histologically most often DLBCL. Our case highlights the challenges associated with diagnosing PPL despite two EUS with FNA. Although rare, one should proceed with a high index of suspicion for PPL in any patient presenting with a rapidly enlarging pancreatic mass.

15.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S148, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325412

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Colonoscopy is the most commonly performed colorectal cancer screening test in the US, and is associated with known adverse events (AE), including gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), bowel perforation, abdominal pain, and others. Despite this, post-colonoscopy AEs are rarely monitored by current colonoscopy quality programs. This study investigated the frequency of ED visits in the two weeks following an outpatient colonoscopy at a multi-site academic center. Method(s): We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all adults aged >= 40 who underwent an outpatient colonoscopy at a single academic center between 2016-2019. Data from 2020 were excluded given unpredicTable effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare utilization. Patients were identified using procedural codes and administrative claims records were used to identify persons who had a subsequent ED visit up to 14 days after their procedure date. For those with ED visits, patient charts were reviewed to data including details of ED presentation. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Result(s): There were 187 patients who had an ED visit within two weeks of their colonoscopy, among 34,222 total colonoscopies during the same 4 year time period (0.44%). 46.1% of the ED visits reviewed were either definitely or possibly related to post-colonoscopy AEs. The mean age of the population sample was 61 years. The most common presenting symptoms to the ED post-colonoscopy included abdominal pain (47%), GI bleeding (27.7%), and nausea/vomiting (20.6%). The most common ED diagnosis included GI bleed (26.2%), dehydration (6.4%), and obstruction (3.6%). Nearly half of patients presenting to the ED were admitted (47.2%). In terms of clinical details of the colonoscopies of those who presented to the ED, polypectomy was performed in 67.4% of patients and polypectomy of a large (>=10mm) polyp was performed in 22.7% of patients. Hot snare/biopsy was used in 36.9% of patients and periprocedural use of anti-thrombotics occurred in 36.9% of patients. (Table) Conclusion(s): ED visits occurred in roughly 4 out of 1000 patients within two weeks of a colonoscopy at our center, and nearly half of these patients were admitted. A high proportion of ED visits were for GI symptoms. Furthermore, over 1/3rd of patients with ED visits following a colonoscopy had polyps removed with electrosurgical techniques. These data suggest that regular monitoring of post-colonoscopy ED visits may be valuable for quality improvement purposes.

16.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S1213, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325262

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Biliary fistulas are a rare complication of gallstones. Fistula formation can occur in a number of adjacent sites;even more rare complication is the formation of a cholecystocolonic fistula. Case Description/Methods: A 74-year-old man who had recently undergone an extensive hospitalization secondary to inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (IDP) and COVID-19 infection. During his hospitalization, he required ICU admission and mechanical ventilation with subsequent PEG tube placement. He was discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation facility when he developed worsening respiratory distress. Laboratory examinations were pertinent for ALT of 252, AST of 140 and ALP of 401 without hyperbilirubinemia. Blood cultures revealed Escherichia coli bacteremia. Given transaminitis and bacteremia, an MRCP was performed which demonstrated evidence absent space between gallbladder and hepatic flexure of the colon suggesting a CCF (Figure A). An ERCP with sphincterotomy was performed which showed extravasation of contrast from the gallbladder into the colon at the hepatic flexure (Figure B). He underwent cholecystectomy and fistula repair without any complications and gradual improvement in liver function test. He was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. Discussion(s): Complications of gallstones are well established, which include the common bile duct obstruction, but also include the rare occurrences of acute cholangitis, malignancy, and fistula formation. CCF is a rare complication of gallstones which can occur in the stomach, duodenum, or colon with a variable clinical presentation. Complications from an undiagnosed fistula can be life threatening including colon perforation and fecal peritonitis. This case highlights the diagnostic challenge and the high degree of clinical suspicion involved in establishing the diagnosis of CCF in patient without abdominal symptoms suggestive of gallbladder disease. We hypothesize that stone formation resulting in the development of the fistula may be secondary to the underlying history of IDP and subsequent immobility. Although rare, CCF should be considered in patients presenting with unexplained pneumobilia and bacteremia. A timely diagnosis should be made to proceed with immediate treatment including cholecystectomy and fistula closure to prevent fatal complications.

17.
Cureus ; 15(4): e37163, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319291

ABSTRACT

Prolonged intubation is associated with several complications leading to upper airway obstruction, including tracheal stenosis and tracheomalacia. Tracheostomy may potentially decrease the risk of tracheal injury in patients with upper airway obstruction. The ideal timing to perform tracheostomy remains controversial. Prolonged intubations were particularly common during the initial phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to present a series of five cases of upper airway complications in patients who underwent mechanical ventilation in the setting of COVID-19 and discuss their clinical aspects, risk factors, and therapeutic strategies.

18.
Circulation Conference: American Heart Association's ; 144(Supplement 2), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320714

ABSTRACT

Case Presentation: Term male infant born to SARS-CoV-2 positive mother with infant testing negative. ECG for perinatal bradycardia revealed ventricular pre-excitation. Echocardiogram showed asymmetric LV hypertrophy with prominent trabeculations, subaortic narrowing with no pressure gradient, and normal biventricular systolic function. Rapid increase in RV pressure estimates and NT-proBNP in first week if life concerning for diastolic dysfunction. Anti-arrhythmic therapy initiated for SVT with subsequent resolution. Later, developed progressive LV dilation and systolic dysfunction. Myocardium showed regions resembling non-compaction and others concerning for infiltrative process. Cardiac MRI showed no obvious tumors, but rhabdomyomas could not be ruled out given similar appearance to myocardium. Due to worsening heart failure, everolimus therapy initiated to target potential rhabdomyomas while awaiting genetic testing for tuberous sclerosis. Subaortic narrowing and LV hypertrophy improved within days, and LV appearance became more consistent with non-compaction. Genetic testing revealed a TSC2 gene variant consistent with tuberous sclerosis. Systolic function improved, and patient discharged on afterload reduction. Echocardiogram 6 months post-discharge shows continued LV dilation and mild systolic dysfunction. Discussion(s): Although outflow obstruction and arrhythmias are common with cardiac rhabdomyomas and can cause dysfunction, our patient developed progressive dysfunction in the absence of outflow tract gradient or prolonged arrhythmia. As rhabdomyomas subsided, it became clearer that he had an underlying cardiomyopathy. We suspect that rhabdomyomas in the setting of abnormal myocardium led to abnormalities in myocardial contractility and compliance causing combined systolic and diastolic dysfunction. After complete resolution of rhabdomyomas, cardiac function has improved. However, he continues to have ventricular dilation and mild dysfunction attributable to cardiomyopathy. It is unlikely that mother's SARS-CoV-2 infection played a role as infant tested negative and clinical picture was not consistent with myocarditis.

19.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis ; 21(Supplement 2):S73-S74, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319403

ABSTRACT

Background: With the introduction of new cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator therapy (elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ ivacaftor), peoplewith CF experiencing severe lung disease can experience significant improvements in clinical symptoms. Method(s): This single-center institutional review board-approved retrospective chart review identified patients with advanced lung disease who met criteria for a compassionate use or expanded access program because of high risk of death or transplant need within 2 years. Clinical data collection for all patients began at baseline, 2 to 4 weeks after therapy initiation, and continued every 3 months for 2 years. Datawere collected on demographic characteristics, clinic progress notes, clinical labs, forced expiratory volume in 1 minute (FEV1),weight, body mass index, respiratory colonization, and hospitalizations after drug initiation. Patients also completed sinus and chest computed tomography (CT) to track clinical changes. Result(s): Eighteen people with CF (aged 15-49, 56% male) from a large midwestern CF center who initiated drug therapy between July and September 2019 in an inpatient hospital or clinic setting were identified. Clinical markers (Table 1) indicated that modulator therapy was well tolerated and not discontinued by any participant;safety lab values did not indicate medical concern or discontinuation. There were 90 admissions for the group in the 2 years before therapy and 17 admissions during the 2 years after, although seven of the posttherapy admissions were for nonrespiratory indications. Monitoring results indicated the safety of modulator therapy because there were no adverse clinical occurrences or laboratory events, and all patients presented with universal stabilization. There have been no deaths and no transplants. Unlike lumacaftor/ivacaftor, therewere no problems with chest tightness or any difficulty with troublesome increases in expectoration burden or choking during initiation of therapy. Most had significant reduction in or loss of spontaneous cough and sputum production. The impact on microbial colonization is unclear, because even in this severe group, inability to produce sputum on command led to considerable missing data in follow-up, leaving colonization status at follow-up unclear. Conclusion(s): This study focused on people with CF who qualified for modulator therapy based on advanced lung disease. Initiation of modulator therapy was deemed safe and resulted in objective positive changes in nutrition;cough;FEV1);and subjective reports of clinical status, level of activity, and reduction in burden of treatment. No evidence was found of difficulty managing the increased expectoration during initial therapy. Limitations were noted in missing data during the COVID-19 pandemic, small sample size, and delayed follow-up for drug monitoring.(Table Presented) Clinical indicators before and after modulator therapy *Completed post-drug initiation (earlier than 12 months), **24 months before and after therapy initiationCopyright © 2022, European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved

20.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 69(4):937-938, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319312

ABSTRACT

Purpose of study Introduction COVID-19 emerged at the end of 2019 as an epidemic of respiratory disease in Wuhan, China that later spread globally and was declared as pandemic. The common clinical manifestations of COVID-19 infection include fever, cough, myalgias, headache, sore throat, anosmia, nasal congestion, fatigue and chest pain. The most serious complications include bilateral multifocal pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Acute pancreatitis is rarely reported in association with COVID-19 infection. We report a case of acute pancreatitis secondary to COVID-19 infection. Case Report: A 69-year-old man with past medical history of hyperlipidemia and seizure disorder presented with two days of epigastric pain radiating to back. The patient reported fever, malaise and dry cough for the last 3 days. Home medication included atorvastatin and carbamazepine for 10 and 15 years respectively. The patient denied smoking and alcohol use. COVID- 19 PCR was positive. Labs showed WBC of 3800/muL, hgb 11.8 g/dL, calcium 8.4 mg/dL , lipase 426 U/L, D-Dimer 179 ng/ml DDU, High sensitivity C-reactive protein 27.5 mg/L (normal <5 mg/L) ALT 26 U/L, AST 31 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 103 U/L and total bilirubin 0.3 mg/dL. Ultrasound of the right upper quadrant and CT abdomen showed normal pancreas, common bile duct and gallbladder with no evidence of gallstones. Triglyceride level was 70 mg/dL (<149 mg/dL) on the lipid panel. The patient was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis and received treatment with IV fluids and pain medication. The symptoms improved gradually and the patient was discharged home with resumption of home medications. Methods used Case Report Summary of results The common differentials for acute pancreatitis include alcohol use, gallstones, hypertriglyceridemia, viral infections like mumps and measles, hypercalcemia and medication-related, etc. Normal AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin along with absence of gallstones and normal common bile duct ruled out alcoholic and biliary pancreatitis. Normal calcium level and triglyceride level rule out hypercalcemia and hypertriglyceridemia as the cause of pancreatitis. Carbamazepine has rarely been reported to cause acute pancreatitis typically soon after the initiating the therapy or with increase in the dose. The use of carbamazepine for more than 15 years without any recent dose change makes this unlikely as the cause of pancreatitis. The onset of acute pancreatitis during the timeline of COVID-19 constitutional symptoms and absence of other risk factors suggests that COVID-19 infection is responsible for acute pancreatitis in our patient. Conclusions We report a case of acute pancreatitis secondary to COVID-19 infection. Further studies are warranted to better understand the etiology and the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis secondary to COVID-19 infection.

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