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1.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604761, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963657

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Develop a tool for applying various COVID-19 re-opening guidelines to the more than 120 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) facilities. Methods: A geographic information system boundary was created for each EPA facility encompassing the county where the EPA facility is located and the counties where employees commuted from. This commuting area is used for display in the Dashboard and to summarize population and COVID-19 health data for analysis. Results: Scientists in EPA's Office of Research and Development developed the EPA Facility Status Dashboard, an easy-to-use web application that displays data and statistical analyses on COVID-19 cases, testing, hospitalizations, and vaccination rates. Conclusion: The Dashboard was designed to provide readily accessible information for EPA management and staff to view and understand the COVID-19 risk surrounding each facility. It has been modified several times based on user feedback, availability of new data sources, and updated guidance. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or the policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , United States/epidemiology , United States Environmental Protection Agency
2.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(7): e35290, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Owing to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, work environments and systems, as well as occupational health measures or activities that fall within our research field, are constantly changing. It is necessary to assess the impact of these changes on the physical and mental health of workers. OBJECTIVE: To assess how occupational health measures affect the health of workers, we conducted a baseline, longitudinal internet-based survey among Japanese workers in October 2021 and additionally scheduled 2 follow-up surveys for 2022 and 2023. We describe the details of the protocol of the work systems and health internet research (WSHIR) study, provide an overview of the results of the baseline survey, and discuss the study procedures and data used in the study. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted online among internet monitors. The baseline survey was conducted from October 1 to 7, 2021. This study targeted those who were working and between the ages of 20 and 69 years. A total of 5111 respondents who passed the screening survey and proceeded to the main survey were enrolled according to collection units organized by sex and age. For the screening and main surveys, the questionnaire consisted of 9 and 33 items with 9 and 55 questions, respectively. Consistency and completeness checks were performed after the questionnaires were submitted. We compared basic characteristics, such as sex, age group, educational background, and marital status, among all participants, including those who withdrew from the analysis. RESULTS: Of the 5111 initial survey respondents, 571 (11.2%) were considered fraudulent. The data of the remaining 4540 (88.8%) participants (2273, 50.1%, males; 2267, 49.9%, females) included in the analysis were well balanced across participant sex and age groups according to the sampling plan because there was no significant difference by sex and age group using the chi-square test for checking the distribution bias of the participants (P=.84). Compared to female participants, male participants tended to be more likely to be managers and supervisors (323, 14.2%, males; 86, 3.8%, females), to work in a secondary industry (742, 32.6%, males; 357, 15.7%, females), and to have an annual income of ≥5 million yen (976, 42.9%, males; 429, 18.9%, females). For the evaluation of a psychological indicator, Kessler 6 (K6) score, by sex and age group, the characteristics of the score distribution of the included participants were similar to those reported in previous studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a protocol and overview of the results of an internet-based occupational health survey of workers. Using the results of this survey, we hope to evaluate the changes in occupational health activities and their impact on workers' health while controlling for the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Zdravniski Vestnik ; 91(5/6):205-214, 2022.
Article in Slovenian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964491

ABSTRACT

The new risks faced by healthcare workers in the COVID-19 pandemic have inspired the development of new forms of personal protective equipment (PPE). Such a novel PPE is an aerosol box modified and adapted to facilitate safer intubation of patients infected with SARS-CoV2. Hitherto, the idea of a protective aerosol box has found clinical application in anaesthesiology and many other fields of medicine and dentistry. However, numerous criticisms of the original design have led to the evolution of new forms that gradually improved the original shortcomings. The present modified design improves the safety and simplicity of use while reducing the operator's hindrance during interventions. Operator training is also extremely important for the correct and safe use of the aerosol box in clinical practice. Aerosol box does significantly affect the speed of intubation therefore it is not recommended in urgent cases. Many authors have been able to prove that the use of the original box, as well as its later modifications, adequately protects healthcare workers from large and small water droplets. However, the use of the original form increases the risk of infection with aerosol particles.

4.
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; 26(1):34-38, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964237

ABSTRACT

This conference proceeding contains 39 articles that discuss various topics related to occupational health. Discussed are hypersensitivity among farmers, prescription eye wear among toy makers, COVID-19 and comorbidity, personal protective equipment among health care workers, arrhythmia and COVID-19 among industrial worker and migrant workers, volatile organic compound exposure in a testing laboratory, catastrophic health expenditure among construction workers, musculoskeletal disorder symptoms among optometrists, stress among commercial airline pilots, health care practitioners, and lab technicians, bio-aerosols and flour mill workers, among others.

5.
Journal of Corporate Real Estate ; 24(3):173-189, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1961334

ABSTRACT

Purpose>It is widely recognized that interior office space can affect health in several ways. Strategic and evidence-based design, including explicit design objectives, well-chosen design solutions and evaluation of results, aid realization of desired health effects. Therefore, this paper aims to identify possibly effective interior design strategies and accompanying design solutions and to provide examples of effectiveness measures.Design/methodology/approach>A literature sample of 59 peer-reviewed papers published across disciplines was used to collect examples of workplace design features that have positively influenced workers’ well-being. The papers were grouped by their health objective and design scope successively and their theoretical assumptions, measures and findings were analyzed.Findings>Four main workplace design strategies were identified. Design for comfort aims at reducing or preventing health complaints, discomfort and stress, following a pathogenic approach. It has the longest tradition and is the most frequently addressed in the included papers. The other three take a salutogenic approach, promoting health by increasing resources for coping with demands through positive design. Design for restoration supports physical and mental recovery through connections with nature. Design for social well-being facilitates social cohesion and feelings of belonging. Design for healthy behavior aims at nudging physical activity in the workplace.Originality/value>By drawing complementary perspectives and offering examples of design solutions and effectiveness measures, this paper encourages workplace designers, managers and researchers to take a transdisciplinary and evidence-based approach to healthy workplaces. It also serves as a starting point for future empirical research.

6.
New Solut ; : 10482911221116664, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962677

ABSTRACT

Face coverings have been recommended for the public and workers to prevent person-to-person transmission of COVID-19. Throughout 2020, guidelines for face coverings recommended multiple layers worn tightly against the face with straps or ear loops. This article briefly describes a new ASTM 3502 Standard Specification for Barrier Face Coverings (BFCs) and the development of performance criteria for workplace BFCs ahead of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) COVID-19 Emergency Temporary Standards (ETS). We also describe a method for comparing the effect on the time to receipt of an infectious dose (ID) of BFCs with varying degrees of inward leakage (personal protection) and outward leakage (source control). The role of BFCs in workplace settings during the pandemic and for exposure to infectious respiratory organisms after the pandemic remains in question. It will be important for occupational health and safety professionals to recognize their limitations in contrast with respiratory protection.

7.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the rate ratio (RR) of reported Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases among governmental employees from seven District of Columbia (D.C.) departments from March 2020 to February 2022. METHODS: Poisson regression models were used to estimate the RR by department, using D.C. residents as the reference and the person-day as the offset. The COVID-19 surveillance data and the full-time equivalent hours for each department were obtained from the D.C. governmental websites. RESULTS: Five of the seven departments had statistically significant higher COVID-19 case rates than D.C. residents. Stratified by four pandemic stages, RR of Fire and Emergency Medical Services (FEMS), Office of Unified Communication (OUC), and Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) were consistently >1: FEMS: 3.34 (95% confidence interval, CI [2.94, 3.77]), 2.39 (95% CI [2.06, 2.75]), 2.48 (95% CI [2.06, 2.95]), and 3.90 (95% CI [3.56, 4.26]), respectively; OUC: 1.47 (95% CI [0.92, 2.18]), 2.72 (95% CI [1.93, 3.69]), 1.85 (95% CI [1.09, 2.92]), and 2.18 (95% CI [1.62, 2.85]), respectively; and MPD: 2.33 (95% CI [2.11, 2.58]), 1.96 (95% CI [1.75, 2.18]), 1.52 (95% CI [1.29, 1.77]), and 1.76 (95% CI [1.60, 1.92]), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested higher case rates for emergency responders and frontline personnel than for general population in D.C.

8.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(9-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1957770

ABSTRACT

Stress among healthcare workers is a common phenomenon causing adverse healthcare effects. Extended shifts, constrained relationships with patients and relatives, heavy workloads, as well as patient emergencies are common workplace occurrences in the professional life of healthcare workers resulting in psychological stress and burnout. More recently, the challenges associated with the corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic have contributed to high stress levels among healthcare providers. This can potentially affect patient care delivery. Interventions are therefore needed to reduce stress among healthcare workers. The purpose of the project was to implement mindfulness-based meditation to reduce stress in healthcare workers, ages 16 to 60, within an eight week period. The project was quasi-experimental and based on a convenience sample of healthcare workers working in a healthcare facility in Los Angeles. The project lasted eight weeks, and participants implemented a mindfulness-based meditation intervention. The project's main outcome was stress levels, which were determined using the perceived stress scale (PSS), before and after implementing the intervention. The findings revealed a statistically significant reduction in stress levels (t (23) = 10.824, p < .001). Therefore, mindfulness-based meditation could be an important intervention for mitigating stress among healthcare workers. Keywords: mindfulness-based meditation, stress, stress management, and healthcare workers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

9.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(4): e730, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958750

ABSTRACT

Background: Nail salon workers (NSW) in the United States (U.S.) are predominantly immigrant women who face a number of occupational hazards, such as biological, ergonomic, and chronic chemical exposures. Additionally, there are challenges to keeping up with the latest practices in this evolving small business industry. Licensure requirements are intended to keep not only consumers but also workers safe, however licensure requirements vary between states creating little skill, education, and occupational health and safety knowledge and practice consistency among the nail salon workforce. The current state of nail salons and licensure of workers in the State of Michigan-an overlooked state and region (Midwest) in NSW research-was determined to better characterize this workforce. Methods: A Freedom of Information Act request was submitted to the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs regarding nail salon establishments and their workers, formally termed manicurists, and citation data for breaches. Data were provided on the number of licensed cosmetologists and cosmetology businesses from January 2017 to March 2021. From there, the total number of licensed manicurists was determined, and the cosmetology establishment list was analyzed to see if the businesses exclusively or predominantly provided nail services. Results: As of Mach 2021, there were 1372 nail salons that exclusively provided nail services and over 12,000 licensed manicurists. Over half of the disciplinary actions cited were for salons not officially licensed. Michigan has reduced licensure requirements compared to other states and no continuing education (CE) requirements for license renewals. Conclusion: There is a need for industry educational and training standardization, across the nation, as well as heightened licensure requirements for these vulnerable workers. CE not only keeps workers abreast of the latest practices in the industry, but also provides them the skills and knowledge to enhance their worker health, safety, and wellbeing.

10.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 78:S62-S63, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955960

ABSTRACT

Background: Further understanding on the safety profile of vaccines in a real-world still need to be elucidated, such as the comparative tolerability and reactogenicity of mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 and MRNA- 1273) beyond the controlled context of clinical trials. An active pharmacovigilance study was designed to capture a complete short-term safety profile of two mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA- 1273, targeting incidence rates of adverse reactions within a pre-defined denominator of vaccinated healthcare professionals. Methods: A prospective active surveillance study was implemented during the vaccination campaign at Hospital Clínic by a multidisciplinary team, involving the Pharmacovigilance Technical Committee, the Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology and the Department of Occupational Health Care of the Hospital. Target population of the program included vaccinated professionals from Hospital Clínic and affiliated institutions, who were vaccinated with BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273. The program was based on the delivery of a structured questionnaire by telephonic interview after each vaccine dose. A total of 64% of vaccinated professionals completed the questionnaire (n=5088). Results: A total of 85% subjects suffered at least 1 AR reaction with the vaccine. The proportion of professionals developing any AR was 2878 (81.2%) after vaccination with BNT162b2 and 1463 (92.9%) after vaccination with mRNA-1273. Severe ARs (VAS scoring ≥ 7) were reported in 1184 (33.7%) professionals after vaccination with BNT162b2 and 886 (56.4%) after mRNA-1273. In the multivariate analysis, mRNA-1273 showed a greater reactogenicity than BNT162b2 (OR=3.04 (95% CI 2.48 - 3.73;p-value: <0.0001)). Conclusions: Our study shows that mRNA-1273 has greater reactogenicity than BNT162b2. Overall, both mRNA vaccines had a reasonable tolerability profile, compared in a real-world scenario. This can be understood as a reassuring message for the medical and scientific community.

11.
Ind Health ; 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952139

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the association between work-related changes caused by COVID-19 and psychological distress among Japanese workers. The study was conducted from August 25 to September 30, 2020. The participants were 15,454 employees who were registered as panelists with an online survey company. The Kessler psychological distress scale with a 13-point cutoff was used to measure psychological distress. Multiple logistic regression was performed. Of the respondents, 8.9% were evaluated as having severe psychological distress. Among five examined work-related changes, being laid off and changing jobs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.18-7.05), experiencing temporary workplace closure (aOR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.67-2.25), being forced to visit the workplace for paperwork (aOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.58-2.15), and starting telework from home (aOR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.37) were associated with increased psychological distress; no significant association was found for participation in work-related online meetings. The impact on psychological distress was greater among men, especially for being laid off and changing jobs because of COVID-19. It is important to assess and reduce negative mental health effects among workers experiencing work-related changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, taking gender differences into account.

12.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 114, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Being a victim support worker (VSW) involves exposure to victims' suffering, pain, and traumatic events, which may trigger the risk of VSWs developing mental health problems. Psychosocial risks (PSR) and work-related stress are considered the most challenging issues in occupational safety and health, considering they impact individuals, organizations, and economies. METHODS: The purpose of the present study was to identify the PSR in a sample of 196 Portuguese victim support workers (VSW) (Mean age = 36.49; SD = 10.52). A questionnaire with socio-demographic characteristics, variables related to VSW's job, and the Portuguese medium version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) were used to assess these professionals' perception of PSR factors. RESULTS: The results reveal that although VSW recognizes some psychosocial factors favourable to their health and well-being, they also identify some PSR that place them at intermediate and severe risk, i.e., emotional and cognitive demands, which are the main areas of risk to the VSW. VSW over 38 years old scored higher in job insecurity, burnout, and offensive behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: These findings give important insights into the areas that must be enhanced in this context involving VSW. Additionally, the results highlight the relevance of encouraging a healthy and supportive work environment, preventing and promoting the health and well-being of VSW, particularly when considering the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace/psychology
13.
Curationis ; 45(1): e1-e9, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Nurses are the backbone of the healthcare system. During the fulfilment of their duties and responsibilities, they experience various types of work-related risks, which harmfully affect their health and nursing quality. OBJECTIVES:  This study aimed to explore and describe perceptions of nurses on occupational health hazards and safety practices in Ditsobotla public hospitals of North West province. METHOD:  An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative research design was undertaken in this study. An explorative design allowed the researcher to identify key issues regarding nurses' perceptions on occupational health hazards and safety practices using Donabedian structure, process and outcome. A total of 15 nurses of different categories participated in the study that formed four focus group discussions. Semi-structured focus group discussions of three to four participants were conducted until data saturation is obtained and at the point where no new themes from participants' perceptions emerged. Creswell and Clark framework of data analysis was used to analyse data. RESULTS:  Three major categories emerged during data analysis: nurse's perception on occupational health hazards in the health settings, Donabedian framework on assessing the quality of care in relation to occupational health hazards and occupational health and safety (OHS) practices. Eight themes were identified. CONCLUSION:  Nurses' perceived different occupational hazards that affect their normal duties and responsibility in the workplace. Future interventions such as training and education on OHS policy should be adopted to promote health and well-being of the staff.


Subject(s)
Nursing Staff, Hospital , Occupational Health , Health Promotion , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Qualitative Research
14.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953224

ABSTRACT

Infection prevention and control (IPC) cannot be implemented without healthcare workers (HCWs) being properly trained and competent. The provision of training is essential, yet there is a gap in our understanding of the factors impacting the implementation of IPC training. This paper reports the results from in-depth interviews that explored the current landscape around IPC training delivered across low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the key stakeholders involved in policymaking or IPC implementation in Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Australia. Although the training was mandated for many HCWs, participants indicated that only some training elements were mandatory. Participants spoke about covering various topics, but those in low-resource settings spoke about the challenges of delivering training. Classroom-based training dominated, but online delivery modes were also used in some locations. Whilst HCW's training was postulated to have improved during the COVID-19 pandemic, the capacity to deliver training did not improve in some settings. More research is needed to establish the essential elements that could underpin the development of training packages.

15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 878208, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952826

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this paper is to identify the risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection that are related to occupation type as well as workplace conditions. Identifying such risk factors could have noteworthy implications in workplace safety enhancement and emergency preparedness planning for essential workers. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of visits at a community-based SARS-CoV-2 testing site in the greater Boston area between March 18th and June 19th, 2020, for individuals between 14 and 65 years of age. Nasopharyngeal swab specimen, medical review, and self-administered questionnaire were obtained, and SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined with real-time, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Medical record-verified job classification, customer-facing, and work patterns were extracted from each individual's response through chart review and validated by licensed clinicians. The occupational patterns were coded by occupational medicine physicians with pre-specified criteria and were analyzed with logistic regression and inverse probability weighting. Results: Among the 780 individuals included in the final analysis, working in healthcare-related jobs was associated with a four-fold increase in risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (Adjusted OR: 4.00, 95% CI: 1.45-11.02). Individuals with customer-facing jobs had a two times risk increase (Adjusted OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.12-3.45) in having a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay result compared to participants with non-customer facing positions. Conclusions: In this U.S. community-based population during the initial wave of the pandemic, a significant increase in risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed in those employed in the healthcare sector or with customer-facing positions. Further research is warranted to determine if these correlations continued with the buildup of population immunity together with the attenuation of SARS-CoV-2 virulence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
16.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1061(1):012007, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1948118

ABSTRACT

The article discusses the principles for the formation of a sustainable architecture of office spaces in the context of such a global environmental problem as a pandemic. Current trends and general principles of the formation of office spaces in the post-COVID period, the direct relationship between the health of employees, the office ecosystem and the concept of “typology of organizational cultures of the company” are analysed. The main attention is paid to the architectural aspects of organizational models of office objects. The principles and techniques for creating a healthy efficient workspace, which a sustainable office complex should have, are formulated. The reconceptualization of the organization of office activities and methods of adapting traditional office spaces in a pandemic with the prospect of their development in the post-COVID period are considered. The most “viable” types of office spaces and models of workplace organization are singled out in these conditions. It is based on the opinions of business experts related to the further development of office activities, possible changes in internal strategies in the organizational culture of companies. Optimal architectural solutions for the organization of safe and demanded office spaces are proposed.

17.
J Nurs Manag ; 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949647

ABSTRACT

AIM: To identify groups of nurses engaging in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) care who are most in need of organizational support. BACKGROUND: Overwhelming stress and susceptibility to burnout have been reported in nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Nurses working at five hospitals that accepted COVID-19 patients answered the questionnaire. The Tokyo Metropolitan Distress Scale for Pandemic, Self-Diagnosis Check List for Assessment of Workers' Accumulated Fatigue and Japanese Burnout Scale were evaluated. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between engaging in COVID-19 care and psychosocial/physical burden. RESULTS: In total, 895 questionnaires were analysed. With experience in caring for COVID-19 patients as the independent variable, nurses caring for suspected cases had significantly higher standardized Tokyo Metropolitan Distress Scale for Pandemic scores for 'concerns for infection' (standardized partial regression coefficient ß = .921, P = .004), Assessment of Workers' Accumulated Fatigue (ß = .445, P = .022) and Japanese Burnout Scale 'emotional exhaustion' (ß = .136, P = .021) than those caring for confirmed cases. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses caring for suspected COVID-19 patients have the highest psychological/physical burden and propensity for burnout. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Extensive support systems are required for nurses caring for confirmed and suspected COVID-19 cases.

18.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948160

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has simultaneously exacerbated and elucidated inequities in resource distribution for small businesses across the United States in terms of worker health and the financial stability of both owners and employees. This disparity was further intensified by the constantly changing and sometimes opposing health and safety guidelines and recommendations to businesses from the local, state, and federal government agencies. To better understand how the pandemic has impacted small businesses, a cross-sectional survey was administered to owners, managers, and workers (n = 45) in the beauty and auto shop sectors from Southern Arizona. The survey identified barriers to safe operation that these businesses faced during the pandemic, illuminated worker concerns about COVID-19, and elicited perceptions of how workplaces have changed since the novel coronavirus outbreak of 2019. A combination of open-ended and close-ended questions explored how businesses adapted to the moving target of pandemic safety recommendations, as well as how the pandemic affected businesses and workers more generally. Almost all the beauty salons surveyed had to close their doors (22/25), either temporarily or permanently, due to COVID-19, while most of the auto repair shops were able to stay open (13/20). Beauty salons were more likely to implement exposure controls meant to limit transmission with customers and coworkers, such as wearing face masks and disallowing walk-ins, and were also more likely to be affected by pandemic-related issues, such as reduced client load and sourcing difficulties. Auto shops, designated by the state of Arizona to be 'essential' businesses, were less likely to have experienced financial precarity due to the pandemic. Content analysis of open-ended questions using the social-ecological model documented current and future worker concerns, namely financial hardships from lockdowns and the long-term viability of their business, unwillingness of employees to return to work, uncertainty regarding the progression of the pandemic, conflict over suitable health and safety protocols, and personal or family health and well-being (including anxiety and/or stress). Findings from the survey indicate that small businesses did not have clear guidance from policymakers during the pandemic and that the enacted regulations and guidelines focused on either health and safety or finances, but rarely both. Businesses often improvised and made potentially life-changing decisions with little to no support. This analysis can be used to inform future pandemic preparedness plans for small businesses that are cost-efficient, effective at reducing environmental exposures, and ultimately more likely to be implemented by the workers.

19.
Surg Endosc ; 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941654

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic led to recommendations aimed at minimizing the risk of gas leaks at laparoscopy. As this has continuing relevance including regarding operating room pollution, we empirically quantified carbon dioxide (CO2) leak jet velocity (important for particle propulsion) occurring with different instruments inserted into differing trocars repeated across a range of intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) and modern insufflators in an experimental model. METHOD: Laparoscopic gas plume leak velocity (metres/second) was computationally enumerated from schlieren optical flow videography on a porcine cadaveric laparoscopic model with IAPs of 4-5, 7-8, 12-15 and 24-25 mmHg (repeated with 5 different insufflators) during simulated operative use of laparoscopic clip appliers, scissors, energy device, camera and staplers as well as Veres needle (positive control) and trocar obturator (negative control) in fresh 5 mm and 12 mm ports. RESULTS: Close-fitting solid instruments (i.e. cameras and obturators) demonstrated slower gas leak velocities in both the 5 mm and 12 mm ports (p = 0.02 and less than 0.001) when compared to slimmer instruments, however, hollow instrument designs were seen to defy this pattern with the endoscopic linear stapler visibly inducing multiple rapid jests even when compared to similarly sized clip appliers (p = 0.03). However, on a per device basis the operating instrumentation displayed plume speeds which did not vary significantly when challenged with varying post size, IAP and a range of insufflators. CONCLUSION: In general, surgeon's selection of instrument, port or pressure does not usefully mitigate trocar CO2 leak velocity. Instead better trocar design is needed, helped by a fuller understanding of trocar valve mechanics via computational fluid dynamics informed by relevant surgical modelling.

20.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 26(4): 102387, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Brazil is the third country most affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the world. Health care workers (HCWs) are at higher risk of infection. Despite the increasing numbers of studies on the topic, There are gaps in the knowledge of characteristics and risk factors for infection of HCWS. This information is important to design preventive strategies and to mitigate the disease impact. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, to identify factors associated, and to describe symptoms reported by healthcare workers at a tertiary hospital in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: All HCWs were evaluated in a cross-sectional study conducted between May and September 2020, using self-administered questionnaires, and screening all participants for SARS-COV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies by rapid tests. Reactive IgG samples were retested by ELISA and IgM-positive test had a saliva sample retest by RT-PCR. Univariate associations were estimated by a non-adjusted incidence proportion ratio. Variables associated with COVID-19 incidence at p < 0.20 were selected for inclusion in a binary logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 2083 HCWs were included, mean age 41±10 years, 71.8% women, and 77.8% non-white. Of these, 271 (13.0%) and 25 (1.2%) HCWs tested positive for IgG and IgM SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, respectively, and three had a positive RT-PCR. Ancillary work [Odds Ratio (OR): 4.96], elementary education (OR: 2.91), high school education (OR: 2.89), and catholic religion (OR: 2.16) were associated with an increased likelihood of a positive IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Anosmia [Incidence Proportion Ratio (IPR): 7.41] and ageusia (IPR:8.51) were the most frequent associated symptoms. CONCLUSION: HCWs with low mean family income, lower level of schooling, ancillary workor being black had a significantly higher likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Social vulnerability was an important risk factor for COVID-19 infection.

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