Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.566
Filter
1.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 18:67-71, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2206842

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coagulopathy is commonly seen with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Abnormal coagulation parameters are important to determine the prognosis and severity of the disease. There is scant evidence of coagulation in the Omicron variant of COVID-19. This study aimed to analyse the correlation between D-dimer level and clinical severity among 284 hospitalised patients with COVID in Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 284 patients with COVID-19 admitted to Wisma Atlet Kemayoran COVID-19 Emergency Hospital between August 2021 and January 2022. D-dimer levels were determined on I-Chroma cs2100 and x-rays were taken with a Rotanode E7239X. p<0.05 was defined as statistically significant. The analytics were calculated using SPSS ver. 21. Results: Elevated D-dimer was discovered in 175 patients with the Omicron variant of COVID-19 (61.61%). Radiological signs of pneumonia were found in 38 patients (13.3%). Only one patient (0.35% severity rate) was diagnosed with a severe clinical case. A correlation was identified between an elevated D-dimer level and radiological signs of pneumonia in the Omicron variant of COVID-19 (p=0.045). Conclusion: The Omicron variant of COVID-19 tends to generate milder symptoms and less severe cases. Elevated D-dimer can be one of the signs of severity in the Omicron variant of COVID-19 due to its correlation with radiological signs of pneumonia. © 2022 UPM Press. All rights reserved.

2.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 14(1):17-21, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206831

ABSTRACT

Genetic lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have continued to emerge and circulate around the world since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. There are numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Like other viruses, SARS-CoV-2 evolves over time. Most mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome have no impact on viral function, but certain variants have gained worldwide attention because of their rapid emergence within populations, evidence of transmission, and clinical implications. During the pandemic, most parts of India were affected, including Odisha, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. For the present study, 368,303 samples were received by the COVID-19 lab i.e., medical college level (Virus Research Diagnostic Laboratory) VRDL from six districts of western Odisha, including approximately 25,000 COVID-19-positive samples. The diagnostic method of the quantitative RT-PCR cannot be used to distinguish among the variants created by mutation of the genes initially, therefore selected positive clinical samples were sent in cold chain for whole genome sequencing (WGS), using the Illumina Seq. at ILS, BBSR for variant detection. The reported observation from the next generation sequencing (NGS) based sequenced samples of western Odisha updated in the INSACOG-WGS portal confirms the presence of Delta (B.1.617.2) and Delta sublineages, Omicron (BA.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529). Maximum infection was caused by Delta sublineages (83.5%) irrespective of age, sex, and geographic area followed by Delta and Omicron. Molecular diagnosis and WGS based study reveal the widespread transmission of the fatal virus, significantly affecting every corner of the globe. Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

3.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:6332-6347, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206806

ABSTRACT

Genetic lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have continued to emerge and circulate around the world since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. There are numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Like other viruses, SARS-CoV-2 evolves over time. Most mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome have no impact on viral function, but certain variants have gained worldwide attention because of their rapid emergence within populations, evidence of transmission, and clinical implications. During the pandemic, most parts of India were affected, including Odisha, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. For the present study, 368,303 samples were received by the COVID-19 lab i.e., medical (Virus Research Diagnostic Laboratory) VRDL from six districts of western Odisha, including approximately 25,000 COVID-19-positive samples. The diagnostic method of the quantitative RT-PCR cannot be used to distinguish among the variants created by mutation of the genes initially. Therefore, selected positive clinical samples were sent in cold chain for whole genome sequencing (WGS), and disease severity was sequenced using the Illumina Seq at ILS, BBSR for variant detection. The reported observation from the next generation sequencing (NGS) based sequenced samples of western Odisha updated in the INSACOG-WGS portal confirms the presence of Delta (B.1.617.2) and Delta sub lineages, Omicron (BA.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529). Maximum infection was caused by Delta sub lineages 83.5%) irrespective of age, sex, and geographic area followed by Delta and Omicron. Molecular diagnosis and WGS based study reveal the widespread transmission of the fatal virus, significantly affecting every corner of the globe. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

4.
Glob Health Med ; 4(6):327-331, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2206268

ABSTRACT

Japan has faced seven waves of the COVID-19 pandemic since 2020. Due to the less severe Omicron variant and the high rate of vaccination nationwide, the death rate has declined compared to that due to previous variants. In early 2022, current Prime Minister Fumio Kishida devised a new concept entitled "Living with COVID-19", encouraging a new lifestyle of living with SARS-CoV-2. Although treatment and prevention options have increased, the Omicron variant still causes deaths among the most vulnerable population. Before accepting life with SARS-CoV-2, challenges remain, especially with regard to communication, the healthcare system, and vaccination. A society-wide strategy involving multiple stakeholders should be adopted to mitigate the damage and achieve a true world where we are "Living with COVID-19".

5.
Glob Health Med ; 4(6):322-326, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2206267

ABSTRACT

Although Omicron appears to cause less severe acute illness than the original strain, the potential for large numbers of patients to experience long COVID is a major concern. Little is known about the recovery phase in cases of Omicron, highlighting the importance of dynamically monitor long COVID in those patients. Subjects of the current study were patients available for a three-month follow-up who were admitted from January 13 to May 22, 2020 (period of the original strain) and from January 1 to May 30, 2022 (period of Omicron). Twenty-eight-point-four percent of patients infected with the original strain had long-term symptoms of COVID-19 and 5.63% of those infected with the Omicron strain had such symptoms. The most common symptom was a cough (18.5%), followed by tightness in the chest (6.5%), in patients infected with the original strain. Fatigue (2.4%) and dyspnea (1.7%) were the most commonly reported symptoms in patients infected with the Omicron strain. The respiratory system is the primary target of SARSCoV-2. Supportive treatment is the basis for the treatment of respiratory symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Quality sleep and good nutrition may alleviate fatigue and mental issues. Further knowledge about a long-term syndrome due to Omicron needs to be discussed and assembled so that healthcare and workforce planners can rapidly obtain information to appropriately allocate resources.

6.
Immunopathologia Persa ; 9(1), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2206171

ABSTRACT

On 25 November 2021, the world health organization listed Omicron as a newly arisen and the fifth variant of concern (VoC) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The genome sequence of Omicron showed the utmost number of mutations compared to other known VoCs up to now, and it was regarded as the only SARS-CoV-2 variant with changes in the receptor-binding domain (RBD). However, the Omicron is still detectable via previous polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Clinical presentation of the disease is identical to previous VoCs, however in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a higher transmission rate. The biggest obstacles posed by Omicron are the immune escape and reduction in vaccine effectiveness, as indicated by many simulations and real-world studies. Although the efficacy of the two-dose vaccinations is suboptimal for Omicron, preliminary studies have considered the injection of a booster shot is beneficial and can decrease the risk of severe disease. All these new features of Omicron warranted close investigation of this VoC as a new chapter in the pandemic, especially with emersion of subvariants BA.4 and BA.5. This review presents a conspectus of the current knowledge on the COVID-19 Omicron variant biological, clinical, and epidemiological changes. © 2023 The Author(s).

7.
Revista Politecnica ; 50(3):17-26, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2206064

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and its variants have created a global pandemic. In Chile, as of February 28 2022, more than 3 million people have been infected and more than 42 thousand people have died. In this article, a comparative study of different mathematical models used to model and predict the number of daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Chile is carried out. This research considers the daily records of confirmed cases since the beginning of the pandemic and therefore, includes those infected by the different variants of the virus (Delta, Gamma and Omicron), these variants have dominated the evolution of daily infections in Chile, being the Omicron variant the one that has shown to have a higher rate of infection at national level. The objective of this study is to provide relevant information on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile through time series models that have been validated in different investigations and to assess their validity with the appearance of the Omicron variant of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. © 2022, Escuela Politecnica Nacional. All rights reserved.

8.
Polish Journal of Microbiology ; 71(4):577-587, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2206021

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the genetic alterations in the Omicron variants compared to other variants of concern (VOCs) to trace the evolutionary genetics of the SARS-CoV-2 variants responsible for the multiple COVID-19 waves globally. The present study is an in silico analysis determining the evolution of selected 11 VOCs compared to the original Wuhan strain. The variants included six Omicrons and one variant of Alpha, Beta, Delta, Gamma, and Mu. The pairwise alignment with the local alignment search tool of NCBI Nucleotide-BLAST and NCBI Protein-BLAST were used to determine the nucleotide base changes and corresponding amino acid changes in proteins, respectively. The genomic analysis revealed 210 nucleotide changes;most of these changes (127/210, 60.5%) were non-synonymous mutations that occurred mainly in the S gene (52/127, 40.1%). The remaining 10.5% (22/210) and 1.9% (4/210) of the mutations were frameshift deletions and frameshift insertions, respectively. The frameshift insertion (Ins22194T T22195G) led to frameshift deletion (Delta 211N). Only four mutations (C241T, C3037T, C14408T, and A23403G) were shared among all the VOCs. The nucleotide changes among Omicron variants resulted in 61 amino acid changes, while the nucleotide changes in other VOCs showed 11 amino acid changes. The present study showed that most mutations (38/61, 62.3%) among Omicron variants occurred in the S gene;and 34.2% of them (13/38) occurred in the receptor-binding domain. The present study confirmed that most of mutations developed by Omicron variants occurred in the vaccine target gene (S gene).

9.
Organic Communications ; 15(3):260, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2205397

ABSTRACT

Pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine conveys antimicrobial activity against various micro pathogens having functionalized properties. As a result, this study has designed to illustrate the antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine. First of all, these structures have been optimized from the characterization of synthesis for calculating chemical descriptors by DFT. Next, the auto docking and target docking against 12 proteins, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2Y0H), Bacillus cereus (1AH7), Escherichia coli (6DR3), Shigella dysenteriae (3FHH) Salmonella typhi (3FHU), Aspergillus niger (1ACZ), Aspergillus flavus (1XY3), Rhizomucor miehei (4WTP), Candida auris (6U8J), three proteins of SARS-CoV-2 (7T9J, 7T9L, and 7TB4) were performed for the determination of binding sites and binding affinity. One FDA approved drug (Ampicillin) has docked against 12 proteins while the Bacillus cereus (Bacteria), Aspergillus flavus (Fungus), and SARS-CoV-2, 7T9L (Omicron) are obtained the best binding affinity after docking. The most common residues are the PHE-66, ARG-176 and VAL-124 for Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus flavus and SARS-CoV-2, Omicron (7T9L), respectively, as they blocked the active sites by the ligands as inhibitors. It is revealed that this study contained both auto docking and target docking whereas the binding affinity of auto docking is that the binding affinity for auto docking is higher than target docking. Finally, among the nine compounds, three compounds show outstanding results against bacteria, fungus and virus. At last, molecular dynamics were performed to check the stability and validation of the docked complex and quantum calculations obtained the molecular properties, as well as ADMET, pharmacokinetics, Lipinski Rule and QSAR data.

10.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 13(6):443-447, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2205265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: On November 5, 2021, Pfizer Inc. announced Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir +ritonavir) asa treatment method that could reduce the risk of hospitalization or death for patients withconfirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: From February 6, 2022 to April 2, 2022, the incidence of COVID-19 and the effectsof treatment with Paxlovid were analyzed in 2,241 patients and workers at 5 long-term carefacilities during the outbreak of the Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndromecoronavirus 2 in South Korea. RESULTS: The rate of severe illness or death in the group given Paxlovid was 51% lower thanthat of the non-Paxlovid group (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 0.49;95% confidence interval [CI],0.24-0.98). Compared to unvaccinated patients, patients who had completed 3 doses of thevaccine had a 71% reduced rate of severe illness or death (aRR, 0.29;95% CI, 0.13-0.64) and a65% reduced death rate (aRR, 0.35;95% CI, 0.15-0.79). CONCLUSION: Patients given Paxlovid showed a lower rate of severe illness or death and alower fatality rate than those who did not receive Paxlovid. Patients who received 3 dosesof the vaccine had a lower rate of severe illness or death and a lower fatality rate than theunvaccinated group.

11.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 13(6):435-442, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2205264

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Household contacts of confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) areexposed to a high risk of viral transmission, and secondary incidence is an important indicatorof community transmission. This study analyzed the secondary attack rate and mRNA vaccineeffectiveness against transmission (VET) for index cases (patients treated at home) confirmedto be infected with the Delta and Omicron variants. METHODS: The subjects of the study were 4,450 index cases and 10,382 household contacts.Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the secondary attack rate byvaccination status, and adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were identified. RESULTS: The secondary attack rate of the Delta variant was 27.3%, while the secondary attackrate of the Omicron variant was 29.8%. For the Delta variant, groups with less than 90 daysand more than 90 days after 2 doses of mRNA vaccination both showed a VET of 37%. For theOmicron variant, a 64% VET was found among those with less than 90 days after 2 doses ofmRNA vaccination. CONCLUSION: This study provides useful data on the secondary attack rate and VET of mRNAvaccines for household contacts of COVID-19 cases in South Korea.

12.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2204826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To compare the research hotspots of infections with the Delta and Omicron variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to identify future research trends. METHODS: Studies about Delta and Omicron variant infections published over the last 3 years were retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) database. A comparative bibliometric analysis was conducted through machine learning and visualization tools, including VOSviewer, Bibliographic Item Co-Occurrence Matrix Builder, and Graphical Clustering Toolkit. Research hotspots and trends in the field were analyzed, and the contributions and collaborations of countries, institutions, and authors were documented. A cross-sectional analysis of the relevant studies registered at ClinicalTrials.gov was also performed to clarify the direction of future research. RESULTS: A total of 1,787 articles distributed in 107 countries and 374 publications from 77 countries focused on the Delta and Omicron variants were included in our bibliometric analysis. The top five productive countries in both variants were the USA, China, the UK, India, and Germany. In 5,999 and 1,107 keywords identified from articles on the Delta and Omicron, the top two frequent keywords were the same: "COVID-19" (occurrence: 713, total link strength: 1,525 in Delta;occurrence: 137, total link strength: 354 in Omicron), followed by "SARS-CoV-2" (occurrence: 553, total link strength: 1,478 in Delta;occurrences 132, total link strength: 395 in Omicron). Five theme clusters from articles on Delta variant were identified: transmission, molecular structure, activation mode, epidemiology, and co-infection. While other three theme clusters were recognized for the Omicron variant: vaccine, human immune response, and infection control. Meanwhile, 21 interventional studies had been registered up to April 2022, most of which aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of different kinds of vaccines in various populations. CONCLUSIONS: Publications and clinical trials related to COVID-19 increased annually. As the first comparative bibliometric analysis for Delta and Omicron variants, we noticed that the relevant research trends have shifted from vaccine development to infection control and management of complications. The ongoing clinical studies will verify the safety and efficacy of promising drugs.

13.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 55(2):641-648, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2204399

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly evolved in the last couple of years. This has created major havoc and concern because it has affected millions of people around the world. The new variants of covid-19 are classified into two types, VOI (variant of interest) and VOC (variant of concern). The major variants of concern (VOCs) have shared mutations in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The spike proteins of the novel coronavirus located mostly on the S1 unit result in a higher transmissibility rate and affect the viral virulence and clinical outcome. The spike protein and other non-structural protein mutations in VOCs may lead to escape the approved vaccinations. Here the VOC mutations i.e., OMICRON VARIANT have been discussed in detail, and the therapeutic strategies to enhance the host immune responses have been proposed. Additionally, a computational approach is proposed to design the drug and vaccine for the variant. The protein structure for the OMICRON variant has been predicted through bioinformatics tools and several databases have been used to identify suitable natural inhibitors. The OMICRON variant was analyzed to identify suitable vaccine candidates by identifying B-Cell epitopes. To design a drug, REPAGLINIDE and ENT-NATEGLINIDE were identified as natural inhibitors based on docking score. To design a vaccine the B-cell epitope i.e., CLIGAEYVNNSYECD was found to the highest antigenicity score. The present study identifies natural inhibitors and potential antigenic Epitopes which may be used as effective drug and vaccine candidates to suppress the novel coronavirus. Copyright 2023 by the authors. Licensee Zoological Society of Pakistan.

14.
Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics ; 49(10):1827-1847, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2204240

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a serious threat to international public health. The SARS-COV-2 gene continues to mutate in COVID-19 outbreaks. Mutation mainly manifests in 3 forms: point mutation, gene recombination and epigenetic modification. Viral mutations are driven by multiple factors, with mutation rates modulated at 3 levels, the nature of virus, host-virus interactions and natural selection. Therefore, it is particularly important to strengthen the monitoring of the global novel coronavirus genome and the protection of immunosuppressed populations. In the early stage of virus evolution, the mutant strains exhibit greater transmissibility and less virulence than the wild-type strain, although 5 variants of concern (VOCs) showed different stability, transmission capacity, adaptability and pathogenicity. So physical interventions need to be further strengthened. As herd immunity is established, novel mutant strains tend to mutate against vaccines and antibodies. In that case, VOCs, especially the prevailing Omicron variant, bring challenges to the prevention and control of COVID-19 worldwide. The existing and potential prevention, diagnosis and treatment approaches for COVID-19 were summarized. In the vaccination part, the protective efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine against VOCs and the factors influencing the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine were analyzed. In the detection part, the detection methods based on nucleic acid, antigen and antibody were summarized in order to satisfy the requirements for point-of-care testing and timely recognition of novel variants. And in the treatment part, the potential therapeutic drugs and targets of SARS-CoV-2 were summarized. Drug targets are generally divided into extracellular targets and intracellular targets. In general, this review proposes possible countermeasures by analyzing the impact of mutations on global epidemic prevention and control, hoping to provide theoretical basis for possible large-scale epidemic prevention and control in the future.

15.
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army ; 47(11):1079-1084, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2203677

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the potential factors influencing the viral shedding time (duration of nucleic acid positivity) in elderly patients with mild and asymptomatic infection. Methods The clinical data of 1141 elderly (>=60 years) patients with mild and asymptomatic Omicron infection who were admitted to National Exhibition and Convention Center (Shanghai) Cabin Hospital from April 14, 2022 to May 1, 2022 were retrospectively collected, viral shedding time of patients were compared between different groups (age, gender, number of vaccination, hypertension, diabetes). Pearson analysis was adopted to analyze the relationship between age and viral shedding time. Kaplan-Meier curve and Log-rank test were used to evaluate the viral shedding time in elderly patients with different clinical characteristics. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression model was adopted to analyze the factors influencing viral shedding time in elderly patients with Omicron. Results Among 1441 patients, 791(54.9%) males and 650(45.1%) females. There were 513(35.6%) patients receiving 0 dose of vaccine, 29(2.0%) patients received 1 dose of vaccine, 405(28.1%) patients received 2 doses of vaccine, 494(34.3%) patients received 3 doses of vaccine. Compared with patients aged 60 to 70 years, patients aged 70 to 80 years had longer viral shedding time (P<0.001). The viral shedding time in patients with hypertension and diabetes was longer than that in patients without hypertension and diabetes (P<0.05). In terms of vaccination, the viral shedding time of patients receiving 2 or 3 doses of vaccine was significantly shorter than that of patients receiving 1 dose of vaccine or none (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between patient age and viral shedding time, with an R2=0.029 (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier curve showed that there existed significant difference in viral shedding time between the patients with different vaccination doses (P<0.001), and patients with age >=70, hypertension and diabetes were all associated with prolonged viral shedding time (P<0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that the age >=70 years was a risk factor for prolonged viral shedding time, and 2 or 3 doses of vaccine was a protective factor for prolonged viral shedding time (P<0.05). Conclusions Among the elderly population, the viral shedding time would gradually increase with age. Patients who received >=2 doses of vaccine would have reduced viral shedding time compared with those who received <2 doses of vaccine. Copyright © 2022 Authors. All rights reserved.

16.
International Journal of Public Health Science ; 12(1):32-40, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2203637

ABSTRACT

The post COVID-19 symptoms affect the productivity and the quality of life among survivors. It is imperative to identify the effect of virus variants and the vaccination against post-COVID-19 symptoms. There were 242 participants from the eastern part of Indonesia diagnosed with COVID-19 during July 2021-July to 2022 were recruited online. The participants underwent data collection and semi-clinical follow-up for post-COVID-19 symptoms within 30 days after the first symptoms or from the diagnosis day using a validated clinical questionnaire and physician confirmation. Fatigue was the most reported post-COVID-19 symptom (27.7%), followed by chronic cough (21.5%) and headache (15.3%). Adjusted by confounding factors in hierarchical logistic regression, the differences in post-COVID-19 symptoms were insignificant across different variants. Regarding vaccine efficacy against three post-COVID-19 symptoms, people with two-dose vaccination significantly reported lower post-COVID-19 chronic cough (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.244 95% CI OR 0.071-0.838), but the protection against fatigue and the chronic headache was insignificant. There is an indication that vaccine efficacy may be waning along with the emerging new variants. © 2023, Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama. All rights reserved.

17.
Epidemiology and health ; : e2023007, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2202167

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the severity of suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reinfection according to the concern of variants in the Republic of Korea. Method(s): The database of COVID-19 cases reported through the integrated system in an epidemiological investigation, by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, from January 20, 2020 to May 7, 2022, was combined with the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service system. The severity odds ratio (SOR) at secondary infection episodes compared with primary infection was estimated using a generalized linear model with binomial distribution. Result(s): In all patients, the SOR of reinfection was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.95), and the severity was relieved compared with their first infection episode. Patients in the vaccinated group within 91 days, the SOR was more declined than 91 days after vaccination as 0.85 (95% CI: 0.74-0.98). However, despite the vaccination, in patients with primary and secondary infections caused by Omicron, the severity was less relieved than in primarily infected episodes with other variants. Conclusion(s): We could make efforts to relieve the severity of the vulnerable populations that are likely to lead to death by recommending booster vaccinations in case of a resurgence.

18.
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal ; 6(4):594-597, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2201680

ABSTRACT

Background: Currently, a massive surge of Omicron (a new variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]) is experiencing in several continents of the world (Asia, Europe, USA, etc.). Omicron (B.1.1.529) is the third variant of concern (VOC) that has emerged now in the COVID-19 pandemic after the Alpha (B.1.1.7) VOC (first reported in the UK in December 2020, followed by Delta (B.1.617.2) in mid-2021 in India). Omicron variant was emerged in South Africa and has now found in several countries. Methods: The spread of variants cannot be stopped because countries of the world are connected. This new variant can evade COVID-19 vaccine response and is highly transmissible because Omicron is differing from other variants in many aspects. Omicron has more mutations as compared to Alpha and Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2. Results: It was detected early on a global scale relative to other variants. The more opportunities viruses have to spread, the more it will replicate, the more opportunities virus has to undergo mutations, and create new variants. Omicron may not be horrible and serious as compared to Delta, but its early detection could prevent people. Omicron is an upper respiratory infection, whereas Delta resides in lower respiratory tract. Spread of Omicron is fast, but nothing can say about its severity because there is not much information available on Omicron. Conclusions: Currently, scientists and epidemiologists are working tirelessly together to find out what Omicron can do. This article explains genome structure of SARS-CoV-2, its pathogenesis, global upsurge, devastation, and future prospect.

19.
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering ; 20(2):2530-2543, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2201219

ABSTRACT

With continuing emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, understanding the proportion of the population protected against infection is crucial for public health risk assessment and decision-making and so that the general public can take preventive measures. We aimed to estimate the protection against symptomatic illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants BA.4 and BA.5 elicited by vaccination against and natural infection with other SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants. We used a logistic model to define the protection rate against symptomatic infection caused by BA.1 and BA.2 as a function of neutralizing antibody titer values. Applying the quantified relationships to BA.4 and BA.5 using two different methods, the estimated protection rate against BA.4 and BA.5 was 11.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01–25.4) (method 1) and 12.9% (95% CI: 8.8–18.0) (method 2) at 6 months after a second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, 44.3% (95% CI: 20.0–59.3) (method 1) and 47.3% (95% CI: 34.1–60.6) (method 2) at 2 weeks after a third BNT162b2 dose, and 52.3% (95% CI: 25.1–69.2) (method 1) and 54.9% (95% CI: 37.6–71.4) (method 2) during the convalescent phase after infection with BA.1 and BA.2, respectively. Our study indicates that the protection rate against BA.4 and BA.5 are significantly lower compared with those against previous variants and may lead to substantial morbidity, and overall estimates were consistent with empirical reports. Our simple yet practical models enable prompt assessment of public health impacts posed by new SARS-CoV-2 variants using small sample-size neutralization titer data to support public health decisions in urgent situations. © 2023 the Author(s)

20.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine ; 25(1) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2201146

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of patients infected with novel coronavirus wild strains, Delta variant strains and Omicron variant strains to provide a refer- ence for early clinical diagnosis and prognostic assessment. The demographic, clinical symptoms and ancillary examina- tion data of 47 patients with novel coronavirus wild type strain infection, 18 with Delta variant infection and 20 with Omicron variant infection admitted to the First Hospital of Quanzhou affiliated with Fujian Medical University were collected and analyzed. The novel coronavirus wild strain and Delta strain were the predominant clinical types;patients infected with the Omicron strain were mainly asymptomatic. Fever and fatigue were the main clinical manifestations in the wild strain and Delta strain groups, whereas dry cough, nasal congestion, sore throat and fever were common clinical manifestations in the Omicron strain group. The Delta strain and Omicron variant groups had fewer comorbidities than the wild-type strain group, but no significant reduction was observed in the nega- tive conversion time of nucleic acids. Significant differences were found in the neutrophil count/lymphocyte count ratio, lymphocyte count, eosinophil count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio and plasma D-dimer, PH, PaO2, lactic acid and albumin levels among the three groups. Patients infected with the Omicron strain in Quanzhou presented with mild symptoms of the upper respiratory tract as the primary clinical manifestation and had few comorbidities and a good prognosis;however, the negative conversion time of the new coronavirus nucleic acid was still considerably long. Copyright © 2023 Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL