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2.
Cancer Treatment Reviews ; : 102405, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819470

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines have gained popularity over the last decade as a versatile tool for developing novel therapeutics. The recent success of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mRNA vaccine has unlocked the potential of mRNA technology as a powerful therapeutic platform. In this review, we apprise the literature on the various types of cancer vaccines, the novel platforms available for delivery of the vaccines, the recent progress in the RNA-based therapies and the evolving role of mRNA vaccines for various cancer indications, along with a future strategy to treat the patients. Literature reveals that despite multifaceted challenges in the development of mRNA vaccines, the promising and durable efficacy of the RNA in pre-clinical and clinical studies deserves consideration. The introduction of mRNA-transfected DC vaccine is an approach that has gained interest for cancer vaccine development due to its ability to circumvent the necessity of DC isolation, ex vivo cultivation and re-infusion. The selection of appropriate antigen of interest remains one of the major challenges for cancer vaccine development. The rapid development and large-scale production of mRNA platform has enabled for the development of both personalized vaccines (mRNA 4157, mRNA 4650 and RO7198457) and tetravalent vaccines (BNT111 and mRNA-5671). In addition, mRNA vaccines combined with checkpoint modulators and other novel medications that reverse immunosuppression show promise, however further research is needed to discover which combinations are most successful and the best dosing schedule for each component. Each delivery route (intradermal, subcutaneous, intra tumoral, intranodal, intranasal, intravenous) has its own set of challenges to overcome, and these challenges will decide the best delivery method. In other words, while developing a vaccine design, the underlying motivation should be a reasonable combination of delivery route and format. Exploring various administration routes and delivery route systems has boosted the development of mRNA vaccines.

3.
Bulletin du Cancer ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819438

ABSTRACT

Summary Background We report two different peer role-play training courses for breaking bad news (BBN) in Oncology, the classic “in-class” model and the “virtual” peer role-play (VPRP) model developed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods Each session included 20–25 4th year medical students supervised by two practitioners experienced in oncology. After an ice breaking activity to exchange with students on means to promote hope to patients when BBN, peer role-plays started. Pre-and post-session questionnaires were submitted to evaluate students’ satisfaction, attitudes, and perceptions. Pre-and post-session knowledge test were realized. Each student has participated to only one peer-role play either “in-class” (2018) or VPRP (2020). Results In 2018, a total of 222 students received the “in-class” training. In 2020, a total 431 students received the VPRP training. For almost all students it was the first peer role-play training session. Before training, reported level of confidence in BBN was low. After training, students of the VPRP group were highly satisfied regarding quality (realism, organization). Students also reported great interest and perceived benefits. Students who underwent “in-class” training course showed a significantly higher improvement (+1.9 points) of their knowledge scores compared to those who underwent the VPRP training course (+0.7 points) (P-value=2e–16). Conclusion The two methods seem beneficial to improve knowledge skills in BBN although “in-class” training class seem to be more efficient. To our knowledge, this is the first comparison between virtual and in-class peer-role play training for BBN in oncology.

4.
Psycho-Oncology ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819387

ABSTRACT

Objective The currents study sought to explore the impact of treatment delay on the mental health for patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Travel restrictions were imposed in most areas of the country between January 23th, 2020 and February 25th, 2020 owing to the COVID-19 epidemic. Travel restrictions were lifted from February 26th, 2020 to March 12th, 2020. The number of new confirmed cases significantly reduced after March 12th, 2020. Study participants, comprised of individuals from three distinct groups: (1) 835 cancer patients who attended Zhejiang Cancer Hospital between February 26th, 2020 and March 12th, 2020;(2) 185 healthy volunteers recruited between February 26th, 2020 and March 12th, 2020;(3) 168 cancer patients who attended the hospital during the non-epidemic period (after March 12th, 2020). Two outcome measures including patients? posttraumatic stress responses and general psychological distress (GPD) were assessed using the Chinese versions of the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Treatment delay was assessed via counting the time interval from diagnosis to treatment initiation, or from planned treatment date to actual date of therapy. Communication satisfaction was evaluated via a self-report questionnaire. An independent sample t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for comparison. Statistical analysis included Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and multivariate logistic regression. Results All 1188 participants (835 patients with cancer and 185 controls during the outbreak, and 168 patients with cancer during the non-epidemic period) completed and submitted the questionnaires. A positive association was observed between treatment delays and increased GPD levels (OR 1.716;95% CI 1.254?2.348;p = 0.001) as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (OR: 1.545, 95% CI: (1.166?2.047), p = 0.002). Patients who reported good communication with their doctors showed a significantly lower risk of GPD (OR: 0.526, 95% CI (0.348?0.794), p = 0.002) and PTSD (OR: 0.683, 95% CI (0.490?0.951), p = 0.024) compared with patients who reported unsatisfactory communication or had no contact with their doctors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that treatment at a local hospital, treatment delays and unsatisfactory or no communication with cancer-care professionals were significantly correlated with severe GPD and PTSD symptoms of patients (all p≤0.05). Conclusion The findings indicate that cancer patients who underwent treatment delays during the COVID-19 pandemic may become vulnerable to psychological distress . The results showed that effective communication with doctors and cancer-care professionals during outbreak significantly reduces GPD levels and PTSD symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Cancer Science ; 113:1317-1317, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819276
7.
Cancer Science ; 113:1319-1319, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819275
8.
Cancer Science ; 113:1317-1317, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819271
9.
Cancer Science ; 113:1242-1242, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819255
10.
Cancer Science ; 113:1318-1318, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819252
13.
Cancer Science ; 113:1321-1321, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819232
14.
World Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 13(2):101-115, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818559

ABSTRACT

Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is an effective technique comparable to surgery in terms of local control and efficacy in early stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pulmonary metastasis. Several fractionation schemes have proven to be safe and effective, including the single fraction (SF) scheme. SF is an option cost-effectiveness, more convenience and comfortable for the patient and flexible in terms of its management combined with systemic treatments. The outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has driven this not new but underutilized paradigm, recommending this option to minimize patients' visits to hospital. SF SABR already has a long experience, strong evidence and sufficient maturity to reliably evaluate outcomes in peripheral primary NSCLC and there are promising outcomes in pulmonary metastases, making it a valid treatment option;although its use in central locations, synchronous and recurrencies tumors requires more prospective safety and efficacy studies. The SABR radiobiology study, together with the combination with systemic therapies, (targeted therapies and immunotherapy) is a direction of research in both advanced disease and early stages whose future includes SF.

15.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 16:14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1817923

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Head and neck cancer is characterised as traumatic, when compared to other types of cancer, due to the physical, physiological and social impact it has on the patient. Objective: To evaluate hope and severe depression in patients with head and neck cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Quantitative, observational, and analytical;conducted in the outpatient department of the head and neck department of an ontological hospital in the city of Curitiba, Parana, Brazil, with 60 patients with head and neck cancer being treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Data collection took place between May and September 2020, with the application of three questionnaires: socio-demographic and clinical;Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), to evaluate severe depression;and the Herth hope scale. Data analysis was through descriptive statistics and non-parametric Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman correlation tests. Results: The age of participants ranged from 34 to 85 years, with 61.7% being male. The diagnosis of cancer occurred in the oral cavity (53.3%) and larynx (33.3%);28.3% (n = 17) presented with a diagnosis of depression;8.6% (n = 5) are in treatment with psychology;and 10.3% (n = 6) are in treatment with psychotropic drugs. The analysis of the association of the PHQ-9 score with sex showed a mean score of 7.7 +/- 6.2, with a higher level of depression in women. The mean hope score was 41.3 +/- 3.1;however, during the pandemic, 35% (n = 21) reported feelings of anguish, anxiety and fear, with the latter being predominant and in association with the PHQ-9 score showing a mean of 8.2 +/- 6.2 (p = 0.123). The association of hope with the number of children was statistically significant (p = 0.034) and in the education variable with the PHQ-9 score (p = 0.019). Conclusion: The use of tools that assess both levels of hope and depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy provides health professionals with support for the implementation of targeted actions to cope with the disease.

16.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816912

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound effects on healthcare systems worldwide. It has also had global economic impacts that will continue to be felt for years. The effects have implications for how cancer research is conducted and funded. The REPRISE project aims to learn from the COVID-19 pandemic to provide opportunities to redefine cancer research priorities in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). We aim to characterize the nature of these practical and economic impacts and use this information to redefine research priorities in a changed world moving forward. Methods: As a first step, we conducted a snapshot survey of members of the 'Cancer and COVID-19 Global Task Force', which consists of experienced cancer researchers across the world. We asked about the extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak and resulting public health measures had affected cancer research in their centers. Results: We received 57 responses to our questionnaire. The respondents worked in 22 countries, representing all Word Health Organization (WHO) regions. 67% of respondents worked in either an academic/university setting, or in a public teaching hospital. The specialities of medical oncology, radiation oncology, surgery, and epidemiology were each represented by >25% of all respondents, which also included those with backgrounds in nursing, palliative care, survivorship, psychology, pathology, and prevention. Respondents in 17/22 countries reported that some (n=10) or all (n=7) cancer research studies were suspended at their center following the outbreak of COVID-19. Respondents in 5 countries reported that suspension of these studies had lasted >6 months. Respondents in 8/22 countries reported that staff redeployment, furlough, or restriction from clinical areas had had a 'large impact' on the conduct of research they were involved with. Respondents in 4 further countries reported that these factors had had a 'moderate impact'. Respondents also reported local impacts on cancer research from in-center outbreaks of COVID-19 (14 countries);government-imposed 'lockdowns' (20 countries);compliance with COVID-19 safety (18 countries);decreases in participant accrual (11 countries);and decreased patient access to diagnostics or treatment (19 countries). Nine countries yielded reports of funding cuts in their center. Twenty countries yielded reports of concerns about future funding cuts. Fifteen countries yielded reports of issues from delays to postgraduate education. Additionally, respondents were concerned about future impacts on cancer research from COVID-19 safety measures, funding cuts, and decreased patient access to diagnostics or treatments. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted on the conduct of cancer research in many different countries and in several different ways. The process of redefining cancer research priorities throughout the REPRISE project will ensure that the impacts we have documented here are mitigated as far as possible and that moving forward, we can begin to address global disparities in cancer research.

17.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology ; 44(4):193-193, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1816328
18.
Oncology Issues ; 37(2):38-45, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1815819
19.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-5, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1815726

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate the gynaecological oncology surgeries in the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 800 operations performed between January and December 2020 were retrieved. Since the COVID-19 pandemic affected operations as of April 1 2020, we compared the cases of the last nine months of the year with the first three months. Of the operations, 265 (33.1%) were performed between January and March and 535 (66.9%) between April and December. Of 168 malignant operations;78 (46%) were uterine cancer, 58 (35%) ovarian cancer, 28 (17%) cervical cancer and four (2%) vulvar cancer. If we compared the last nine months of the year with the first three months, a significant increase was observed in the rates of malignant and premalignant, while a significant decrease was detected in benign operations (p<.001). Gynaecological oncology surgeries performed with open or laparoscopic approaches during the COVID-19 pandemic should continue by taking preventive measures. Impact StatementWhat is already known on this subject? During the COVID-19 pandemic, many international associations and organisations recommended the suspension of elective surgeries. It is still controversial whether the gynaecologic oncology surgical procedures to be performed in this unprecedented time should be laparoscopic or laparotomic.What do the results of this study add? The malignant and premalignant gynaecological oncology surgeries should be safely performed laparoscopically or by laparotomy in the COVID-19 pandemic.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Gynaecologic oncology surgeries can be safely performed by attaching appropriate personal protective equipment procedures with pre-operative COVID-19 PCR testing in the COVID-19 era.

20.
Surg Innov ; 29(2): 282-288, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817058

ABSTRACT

Background. Ultrasound has been explored as an alternative, less bulky, less time-consuming and less expensive means of intraoperative imaging in pituitary surgery. However, its use has been limited by the size of its probes relative to the transsphenoidal corridor. We developed a novel prototype that is more slender than previously reported forward-viewing probes and, in this report, we assess its feasibility and safety in an initial patient cohort. Method. The probe was integrated into the transsphenoidal approach in patients with pituitary adenoma, following a single-centre prospective proof of concept study design, as defined by the Innovation, Development, Exploration, Assessment and Long-Term Study (IDEAL) guidelines for assessing innovation in surgery (IDEAL stage 1 - Idea phase). Results. The probe was employed in 5 cases, and its ability to be used alongside the standard surgical equipment was demonstrated in each case. No adverse events were encountered. The average surgical time was 20 minutes longer than that of 30 contemporaneous cases operated without intraoperative ultrasound. Conclusion. We demonstrate the safety and feasibility of our novel ultrasound probe during transsphenoidal procedures to the pituitary fossa, and, as a next step, plan to integrate the device into a surgical navigation system (IDEAL Stage 2a - Development phase).


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Pituitary Neoplasms , Adenoma/diagnostic imaging , Adenoma/surgery , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Microsurgery , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Pituitary Neoplasms/surgery , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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