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1.
Infect Immun ; : e0033421, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883264

ABSTRACT

To identify sequences with a role in microbial pathogenesis, we assessed the adequacy of their annotation by existing controlled vocabularies and sequence databases. Our goal was to regularize descriptions of microbial pathogenesis for improved integration with bioinformatic applications. Here, we review the challenges of annotating sequences for pathogenic activity. We relate the categorization of more than 2,750 sequences of pathogenic microbes through a controlled vocabulary called Functions of Sequences of Concern (FunSoCs). These allow for an ease of description by both humans and machines. We provide a subset of 220 fully annotated sequences in the supplemental material as examples. The use of this compact (∼30 terms), controlled vocabulary has potential benefits for research in microbial genomics, public health, biosecurity, biosurveillance, and the characterization of new and emerging pathogens.

2.
Construction Innovation ; 22(3):405-411, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1878873

ABSTRACT

[...]they proposed a framework focusing on facilitating the information exchange and interoperability for existing buildings. [...]semantic Web technologies and standards, such as Web Ontology Language and existing AEC domain ontologies, were used to enhance and improve the proposed framework. [...]four levels of awareness were developed based on Endsley’s situation awareness model. Furthermore, they addressed the lack of an organised digital content asset dedicated to producing VR site scenarios that emerged as one of the most limiting factors for implementing BIM and VR for construction workers’ safety training. [...]a dedicated site object library was proposed to improve this critically time-consuming process.

3.
Brief Bioinform ; 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873849

ABSTRACT

Rational vaccine design, especially vaccine antigen identification and optimization, is critical to successful and efficient vaccine development against various infectious diseases including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In general, computational vaccine design includes three major stages: (i) identification and annotation of experimentally verified gold standard protective antigens through literature mining, (ii) rational vaccine design using reverse vaccinology (RV) and structural vaccinology (SV) and (iii) post-licensure vaccine success and adverse event surveillance and its usage for vaccine design. Protegen is a database of experimentally verified protective antigens, which can be used as gold standard data for rational vaccine design. RV predicts protective antigen targets primarily from genome sequence analysis. SV refines antigens through structural engineering. Recently, RV and SV approaches, with the support of various machine learning methods, have been applied to COVID-19 vaccine design. The analysis of post-licensure vaccine adverse event report data also provides valuable results in terms of vaccine safety and how vaccines should be used or paused. Ontology standardizes and incorporates heterogeneous data and knowledge in a human- and computer-interpretable manner, further supporting machine learning and vaccine design. Future directions on rational vaccine design are discussed.

4.
10th World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, WorldCIST 2022 ; 468 LNNS:542-552, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1872332

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 health crisis has forced many people to work from home, exposing companies and workers to the various risks brought about by teleworking. In order to raise awareness and enable better management of these risks, we have built an ontology for the control and mitigation of teleworking risks as well as a tool for self-assessment of individual worker risk profiles. We have conducted a literature review and interviews about corporate practices to manage telework’s negative impacts. The resulting ontology allows us to link the risks with adaptations provided by the employers and employees. In order to circulate this self-assessment tool, we have integrated the ontology into a user-friendly website, where people can fill out an anonymous survey to establish their personal risk profile and get recommendations about further adaptations that could be beneficial in their situation. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

5.
13th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (IC3K) / 13th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development (KEOD) ; : 17-27, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1869997

ABSTRACT

Healthcare inequity, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is a systemic difference in healthcare services received by different population groups, based on race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, etc. The Covid-19 pandemic has heightened the awareness of differences in care received by racial and ethnic minorities in the US. We have investigated the physical, psychological, and emotional harm that people of colour were exposed to during this time. It is necessary to record data about unequal treatment to identify and eradicate existing institutional racism in healthcare. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) rely to a high degree on "coded" terms from terminologies and ontologies. Such a biomedical ontology can be used for standardization, integration and sharing of data, knowledge reuse, decision support, etc. No ontology for racial differences exists in US healthcare. This motivation leads us to the development of such an ontology to record the physical, emotional, and psychological effects resulting from differences in treatment that citizens receive, based on their identity. Differences exist not only inside of healthcare organizations, but also occur even before entering them. We present the first version of such a Health Ontology for Minority Equity (HOME) along with ontology evaluation methods that we applied.

6.
Communication Today ; 13(1):46-59, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1863912

ABSTRACT

This study covers the issue of information dissemination. Along with recognising this topic in the social epistemology framework, the authors aim to identify and analyse the circumstances and significant factors that determine it in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. They uncover certain risks in terms of achieving the very objectives of disseminating information via the media. In the first part, the authors outline the process's essence and nature, but also its social value in the current pandemic situation. They make a particular reference to the role ofjournalism, or rather journalists in their specific professional and personal circumstances (broader and global communication ecology that concerns the pandemic with a direct news cycle, or social media and layman media practices and, for example, also the financing issues or insecurity of the profession, economic conditions, etc.). In the second part, they identify the determining factors influencing media coverage - its technological context - space and time, but also ethical and noetic factors related to journalists. They draw attention to relations and interactions that shape the specific character of media-disseminated information and bring risks ('information explosion' in society, including "(dis)infodemic", the professional noetic crisis in connection with the crisis of relevant concepts in journalism and the quality of journalists' work, but also the ethical crisis in the context of non-ethical interests and relations in the media (ideological, political, economic), journalists' personal moral failures and their own neglect of epistemic (cognitive) training in the context of professional practice, etc.) for the public, concerning its aim to contribute to the reduction of social uncertainty, fear, risk of fear and panic, or to the correct and ethical judgement and action of the public at the time of the pandemic.

7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 294: 711-712, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865437

ABSTRACT

CovidGraph, developed by the HealthECCO community, is a platform designed to foster research and data exploration to fight COVID-19. It is built on a graph database and encompasses data sources from different biomedical data domains including publications, clinical trials, patents, case statistics, molecular data and systems biology models. The tool provides multiple interfaces for data exploration and thus serves as a single point of entry for data driven COVID-19 research. Availability and Implementation: CovidGraph is available from the project website: https://healthecco.org/covidgraph/. The source code and documentation are provided on GitHub: https://github.com/covidgraph.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Databases, Factual , Documentation , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Software
8.
Tijdschrift voor Genderstudies ; 25(1):1-18, 2022.
Article in Dutch | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1863147

ABSTRACT

Despite its notoriously ‘sticky’ (Ahmed, 2004) nature as a social straitjacket for many, gender has a nasty habit of slipping through scholars’ fingers when mobilised for analysis or systematic study. [...]the field of gender studies itself is ever-changing, responding to new insights generated within its own diverse, interdisciplinary intellectual ecology as well as to societal, political, and environmental challenges. The policing influence of medical, legal, and political institutions enthralled to ‘normality’ (Foucault, 2003a, 2003b;Tremain, 2006;Chen, 2012) has largely superseded religious interpretations of (im)moral or blessed bodies.2 Philosophical, historical (Stiker, 1999), and sociological (Thomas, 2007) models of dis/ability have been developed, and continue to evolve, and the field has expanded along the lines of posthumanist, new materialist, and affect theoretical thought (e.g. Hickey-Moody & Crowley, 2010;Roets & Braidotti, 2012;Goodley, Lawthom, & Runswick-Cole, 2014;Feely, 2016;Puar, 2017). [...]much like feminist and antiracist movements have labouriously worked towards justice, equality, and inclusion, grassroots intersectional disability justice activism (Mingus, 2011;Piepzna-Samarasinha, 2018;Disability Visibility Project, 2021) has inspired societal change as well as scholarly renewal within critical disability studies and theory, and critical pedagogical frameworks in particular.3 There is, in other words, much that gender studies and critical disability studies have in common: a commitment to justice, equality, and inclusion;an ever-changing philosophical vocabulary;a consistently critical approach to what is defined as ‘normal’, ‘good’, and ‘(re)productive’;4 and a close connection between the work of activism and scholarship produced. Despite such shared interests and questions, however, gender studies and critical disability studies often use different theoretical toolboxes, appeal to different conceptualisations of justice, equality, and inclusion, and hail back to different modes of activism and research. [...]these fields could, potentially, learn much from one another. Smith and Hutchinson’s volume addressed crucial intersections between both fields, such as a feminist ethics of care, conceptualisations of the body as the material face of a ‘minority’, and the difficult integration of queer theory and ethnicised experiences in both fields. Since the appearance of the aforementioned volume, many authors have further ‘gendered’ disability (see e.g. Hall, 2011), and critical disability studies scholars have, moreover, attuned themselves increasingly towards identity questions and categories, such as class (Turner & Blackie, 2018);coloniality (Nair, 2020;Hunt-Kennedy, 2020);liberty (Ben-Moshe, Champan, & Carey, 2014);race/ethnicity (Annamma, Connor, & Ferri, 2013;Samuels, 2011;Parker, 2015);sexuality (McRuer, 2011);age (Ladd-Taylor, 2017;Gallop, 2018);and the queering of various intersecting identity categories (Chen, 2012;Kafer, 2013;Puar, 2017).

9.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862916

ABSTRACT

Background. Interferon is a marker of host antiviral immunity, which is disordered in COVID-19 patients. ERV can affect the secretion of interferon through the cGAS-STING pathway. In this study, we explored whether IFN-I and HERV-K (HML-2) were activated in COVID-19 patients and whether there was an interaction between them. Methods. We collected blood samples from COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. We first detected the expression of HERV-K (HML-2) gag, env, and pol genes and IFN-I-related genes between patients and healthy people by qPCR, synchronously detected VERO cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. Then, the chromosome distributions of highly expressed HERV-K (HML-2) gag, env, and pol genes were mapped by the next-generation sequencing results, and GO analysis was performed on the related genes. Results. We found that the HERV-K (HML-2) gag, env, and pol genes were highly expressed in COVID-19 patients and VERO cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. The interferon-related genes IFNB1, ISG15, and IFIT1 were also activated in COVID-19 patients, and GO analysis showed that HERV-K (HML-2) can regulate the secretion of interferon. Conclusions. The high expression of HERV-K (HML-2) might activate the increase of interferon in COVID-19 patients, proving that HERV-K does not only play a negative role in the human body.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endogenous Retroviruses , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics , Humans , Interferons/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
10.
North Clin Istanb ; 9(2): 122-130, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856394

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), leading to mild infection (MI), acute respiratory distress syndrome or death in different persons. Although the basis of these variabilities has not been fully elucidated, some possible findings have been encountered. In the present study, we aimed to reveal genes with different expression profiles by next-generation sequencing of RNA isolated from blood taken from infected patients to reveal molecular causes of different response. Methods: Two healthy, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-negative control individuals (NCI), two SARS-CoV-2-positive patients who have MI, and two patients who have critical infection (CI) were included in the study. Total RNA was extracted from blood samples and sequenced. Raw RNA-Seq data were analyzed on Galaxy platform for the identification of differentially expressed genes and their pathway involvements. Results: We found that 199 and 521 genes were downregulated in whole blood of COVID-19-positive CI patients compared to NCI and MI patients, respectively. We identified 21 gene ontology pathways commonly downregulated in CI patients compared to both NCI and MI, mostly associated with innate and adaptive immune responses. Three hundred and fifty-four and 600 genes were found to be upregulated compared to NCI and MI, respectively. Upregulated six pathways included genes that function in inflammatory response and inflammatory cytokine release. Conclusion: The transcriptional profile of CI patients deviates more significantly from that of MI in terms of the number of differentially expressed genes, implying that genotypic differences may account for the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and inflammatory responses through differential regulation of gene expression. Therefore, further studies that involve whole genome analysis coupled with differential expression analysis are required in order to determine the dynamics of genotype - gene expression profile associations.

11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 834172, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855461

ABSTRACT

Health equity is a rather complex issue. Social context and economical disparities, are known to be determining factors. Cultural and educational constrains however, are also important contributors to the establishment and development of health inequities. As an important starting point for a comprehensive discussion, a detailed analysis of the literature corpus is thus desirable: we need to recognize what has been done, under what circumstances, even what possible sources of bias exist in our current discussion on this relevant issue. By finding these trends and biases we will be better equipped to modulate them and find avenues that may lead us to a more integrated view of health inequity, potentially enhancing our capabilities to intervene to ameliorate it. In this study, we characterized at a large scale, the social and cultural determinants most frequently reported in current global research of health inequity and the interrelationships among them in different populations under diverse contexts. We used a data/literature mining approach to the current literature followed by a semantic network analysis of the interrelationships discovered. The analyzed structured corpus consisted in circa 950 articles categorized by means of the Medical Subheadings (MeSH) content-descriptor from 2014 to 2021. Further analyses involved systematic searches in the LILACS and DOAJ databases, as additional sources. The use of data analytics techniques allowed us to find a number of non-trivial connections, pointed out to existing biases and under-represented issues and let us discuss what are the most relevant concepts that are (and are not) being discussed in the context of Health Equity and Culture.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Bias , Semantic Web
12.
12th International Conference on ICT Convergence (ICTC) - Beyond the Pandemic Era with ICT Convergence Innovation ; : 1649-1654, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853458

ABSTRACT

Due to the increasing use of the Internet, the development of the information society, and public awareness about health, many patients are using the Internet to find health information. In addition, medical field information retrieval is exploding to retrieve specific medical knowledge about diseases due to the current corona pandemic and the prevalence of mobile handsets such as smartphones. Currently, much of the knowledge information in the medical field is provided in ontology, a method of expressing knowledge information. However, medical knowledge built in this ontology form requires the general user to know basic logic-based representations of ontology, such as the web ontology language OWL and semantic web technologies, for searching. Furthermore, the usage and understanding of the SPARQL protocol and RDF query language (SPARQL), a formalized query language in the form of ontology, is essential. To overcome the limitations of this ontology form of knowledge retrieval, this paper proposes the stroke medical ontology question and answering (QA) system that can analyze user medical knowledge in natural language form for medical knowledge curation services and automatically convert it to the structured query language, SPARQL. The proposed system analyzes questions and answers through query analysis, s each syntax word through top-level medical ontology, and deduces the structured query template for ed questions and answers based on SWRL to complete the structured query template.

13.
Tissue Engineering - Part A ; 28(SUPPL 1):S641-S642, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1852889

ABSTRACT

Unlike seasonal coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 has a profound tropism for the heart. Estimates indicate 78% of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 experience cardiac side effects, with asymptomatic individuals still at risk of viral-induced heart failure, yet the mechanisms and consequences of such effects remain unclear. [1] Thus, therapeutics targeting SARS-CoV-2-induced heart failure remain elusive. The organ-on-a-chip industry has emerged at the intersection of microfluidics and tissue engineering, combining cells and biomaterials in arrangements that mimic organ processes, facilitating investigation of human physiology in a controlled and accessible environment. [2],[3] Recent studies indicate that cell signalling in the heart plays an integral role in tissue physiology and phenotype. [4],[5] For instance, it has been suggested that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released and taken up by cells in the heart are critical to regulating cardiac function and cellular responses to stress, disease, and injury. [6],[7] The “Biowire” model of cardiac tissueon-a-chip was used to study the cardiac side effects of coronavirus infection in the heart and to screen EV therapeutics for mitigating such effects. EVs sourced from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) facilitated the recovery of infected cardiac tissue function to baseline levels. miRNA sequencing and gene ontology analyses suggested several stress responsive pathways are targeted by iPSCEV miRNA that may alleviate some detrimental effects of coronavirus infection. Limited knowledge regarding SARS-CoV-2 side effects in the heart make tissue-on-a-chip models a novel tool to better understand the mechanisms of viral-induced heart failure and to study the potential for cell signalling-based therapeutics to improve patient outcomes.

14.
Vaccine: X ; 10:8, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1852263

ABSTRACT

The development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted the emergence of COVID-19 vaccine data. Timely access to COVID-19 vaccine information is crucial to researchers and public. To support more comprehensive annotation, integration, and analysis of COVID-19 vaccine infor-mation, we have developed Cov19VaxKB, a knowledge-focused COVID-19 vaccine database (http://www. violinet.org/cov19vaxkb/). Cov19VaxKB features comprehensive lists of COVID-19 vaccines, vaccine for-mulations, clinical trials, publications, news articles, and vaccine adverse event case reports. A web-based query interface enables comparison of product information and host responses among various vaccines. The knowledge base also includes a vaccine design tool for predicting vaccine targets and a statistical analysis tool that identifies enriched adverse events for FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccines based on VAERS case report data. To support data exchange, Cov19VaxKB is synchronized with Vaccine Ontology and the Vaccine Investigation and Online Information Network (VIOLIN) database. The data integration and analytical features of Cov19VaxKB can facilitate vaccine research and development while also serving as a useful reference for the public. (c) 2022 University of Michigan. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

15.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(4): e35789, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of making research data from all German hospitals available to scientists to respond to current and future pandemics promptly. The heterogeneous data originating from proprietary systems at hospitals' sites must be harmonized and accessible. The German Corona Consensus Dataset (GECCO) specifies how data for COVID-19 patients will be standardized in Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profiles across German hospitals. However, given the complexity of the FHIR standard, the data harmonization is not sufficient to make the data accessible. A simplified visual representation is needed to reduce the technical burden, while allowing feasibility queries. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates how a search ontology can be automatically generated using FHIR profiles and a terminology server. Furthermore, it describes how this ontology can be used in a user interface (UI) and how a mapping and a terminology tree created together with the ontology can translate user input into FHIR queries. METHODS: We used the FHIR profiles from the GECCO data set combined with a terminology server to generate an ontology and the required mapping files for the translation. We analyzed the profiles and identified search criteria for the visual representation. In this process, we reduced the complex profiles to code value pairs for improved usability. We enriched our ontology with the necessary information to display it in a UI. We also developed an intermediate query language to transform the queries from the UI to federated FHIR requests. Separation of concerns resulted in discrepancies between the criteria used in the intermediate query format and the target query language. Therefore, a mapping was created to reintroduce all information relevant for creating the query in its target language. Further, we generated a tree representation of the ontology hierarchy, which allows resolving child concepts in the process. RESULTS: In the scope of this project, 82 (99%) of 83 elements defined in the GECCO profile were successfully implemented. We verified our solution based on an independently developed test patient. A discrepancy between the test data and the criteria was found in 6 cases due to different versions used to generate the test data and the UI profiles, the support for specific code systems, and the evaluation of postcoordinated Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes. Our results highlight the need for governance mechanisms for version changes, concept mapping between values from different code systems encoding the same concept, and support for different unit dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: We developed an automatic process to generate ontology and mapping files for FHIR-formatted data. Our tests found that this process works for most of our chosen FHIR profile criteria. The process established here works directly with FHIR profiles and a terminology server, making it extendable to other FHIR profiles and demonstrating that automatic ontology generation on FHIR profiles is feasible.

16.
Nurs Ethics ; : 9697330221085768, 2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846692

ABSTRACT

Background: In modern healthcare, the role of solidarity, altruism and the natural response to moral challenges in life-threatening situations is still rather unexplored. The COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity to obtain a deeper understanding of nurses' willingness to care for patients during crisis.Objective: To elucidate clinical expressions of ontological situational ethics through nurses' willingness to work during a pandemic.Research design, participants and context: A qualitative study with an interpretive design was applied. Twenty nurses who worked in intensive care unit at two Swedish hospitals during the first, second, and third waves of the COVID-19 pandemic were interviewed. The analysis was interpretative and applied a theoretical ethics perspective.Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority and informed consent was obtained from all participants.Findings: From a philosophical perspective, the nurses expressed sovereign life expressions of mercy and compassion, which arose spontaneously in response to seeing vulnerable fellow humans. They referenced ''the nurse inside me'' and their choice of profession as motives to provide care. Ontological situational ethics in culture and norms were noted in the constructs of competence, responsibility, solidarity with colleagues and organization; and interest and learning were driving forces. Ethical demand was evident when nurses expressed ideas of meaningfulness in helping their fellow humans; but themes of ambiguity, exhaustion and unwillingness were also present.Conclusions: The nurses showed a high willingness to care for patients during a crisis. Responding to the ethical demand and to care for vulnerable human beings while risking their own health and lives could be interpreted as an inter-human vocation. These spontaneous altruistic actions saved the lives of many patients during the pandemic and need to be understood and supported.

17.
15th International Conference on Information Technology and Applications, ICITA 2021 ; 350:183-194, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1844321

ABSTRACT

Several COVID19 statistical datasets are provided to support stakeholders for better planning and decision making in healthcare. However, the datasets are in heterogeneous proprietary formats that create data silos and compatibility issues and make data discovery and reuse difficult. Further, the data integration for analysis is difficult and is performed by the domain experts manually which is time consuming and error prone. Therefore, an explicit, flexible, and widely acceptable methodology is needed to represent, store, query, and visualize COVID19 statistical data in the datasets. In this paper, we have presented the design and development of OntoCOVID ontology for representing, organizing, sharing, and reusing COVID19 statistical data in the datasets. The OntoCOVID is a lightweight ontology providing definitions of classes, properties, and axioms to semantically represent and relate information in the COVID19 statistical datasets. The OntoCOVID is evaluated to demonstrate its completeness and information retrieval for different use-case scenarios. The results obtained are promising and advocate for the improved ontological design and applications of the OntoCOVID. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

18.
Velvet Light Trap ; - (86):1-2, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842623

ABSTRACT

While anime is not the primary revenue source of the conglomerates that streaming services belong to, Wong details how nonetheless the conglomerates' industry logics shape the conditions of anime's transnational distribution;in the case of queer content, bidding wars, licensing deals, and the imposition of controls on "mature" content lead to the genre's absence, disappearance, or obfuscation on the platform. [...]in "Toward a Filipinx Method: Queer of Color Critique and QTGNC Mobilization in Mark Aguhar's Poetics," M. T. Vallarta explores the possibilities of a "Filipinx method." [...]the panel looks to the present to consider queer media in light of COVID-19 and the possibility for queer digital media studies in the future.

19.
IEEE Access ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840230

ABSTRACT

The pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 has allowed the proliferation of an unprecedented amount of data that must be organized and connected in a way that allows its efficient management. Nevertheless, the speed at which all of this knowledge is being generated has highlighted the shortcomings of the research community in creating well-organized, standardized, and structured databases. Despite the efforts of the community to develop advanced integrative platforms such as CovidGraph, we have identified some limitations when using these solutions that we think are derived from the lack of a sound ontological schema to guide the collection, standardization, and integration of data. This work explores the advantages and disadvantages for the final user of building advanced information systems using a Model Driven Development approach to integrate heterogeneous and complex data using an ontological background as a basis. As a proof of concept, we built a database (CovProt) to integrate data about different aspects of SARS-CoV-2 using this approach, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of using this approach compared to CovidGraph by performing a set of queries in CovProt and CovidGraph, and finally, we compared the structure and redundancy of the retrieved data. Author

20.
Electronics ; 10(17):2129, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837828

ABSTRACT

In recent years, telehealthcare systems (TSs) have become more and more widespread, as they can contribute to promoting the continuity of care and managing chronic conditions efficiently. Most TSs and nutrition recommendation systems require much information to return appropriate suggestions. This work proposes an ontology-based TS, namely HeNuALs, aimed at fostering a healthy diet and an active lifestyle in older adults with chronic pathologies. The system is built on the formalization of users’ health conditions, which can be obtained by leveraging existing standards. This allows for modeling different pathologies via reusable knowledge, thus limiting the amount of information needed to retrieve nutritional indications from the system. HeNuALs is composed of (1) an ontological layer that stores patients and their data, food and its characteristics, and physical activity-related data, enabling the inference a series of suggestions based on the effects of foods and exercises on specific health conditions;(2) two applications that allow both the patient and the clinicians to access the data (with different permissions) stored in the ontological layer;and (3) a series of wearable sensors that can be used to monitor physical exercise (provided by the patient application) and to ensure patients’ safety. HeNuALs inferences have been validated considering two different use cases. The system revealed the ability to determine suggestions for healthy, adequate, or unhealthy dishes for a patient with respiratory disease and for a patient with diabetes mellitus. Future work foresees the extension of the HeNuALs knowledge base by exploiting automatic knowledge retrieval approaches and validation of the whole system with target users.

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