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1.
Journal of Education Culture and Society ; 13(2):285-295, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102026

ABSTRACT

Aim. At-risk individuals have many forms, often it is the two opposing sides of a personality which can ultimately implement risky behaviour only to accept an individual into a peer group. Concept. The risky behaviour of young people and children currently associated with a consumer society aggravated by the pandemic situation Covid-19 is the subject of interest in professional as well as scientific research of various professionals who work in different areas of life. Methods. This study deals with the risks, social, but also individual consequences of at-risk youth, which occur at all levels of society. In the study, we proceeded in an analytical-synthetic way, interpreting and ascertaining the results of various other scientific and professional studies by foreign authors who deal with the given issue. Results. The study confirms that risky behaviour requires a constant approach to educating a young person through not only the family but also the school environment, which allows a new perspective on risky youth behaviour. However, it is very important to integrate young people into society to see the risks of their behaviour not only for themselves. but for a narrower or wider comm unity. Conclusion. The scientific articles and contributions offered in this study point out the risky behaviour of young people, the risks of behaviour not only for individuals but also for groups, it points out the possible causes, reasons, but also consequences of risky behaviour.

2.
PeerJ ; 10: e13924, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100353

ABSTRACT

Background: In Taiwan, the aerial part of Adenostemma lavenia (Al) is used in the form of herbal tea or in a folk remedy primarily to mitigate inflammatory conditions in the lungs and liver. Due to the excellent health benefits of Al against inflammation, it has become increasingly crucial and in great demand during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, Al has been found to be adulterated with Wedelia biflora, Sigesbeckia orientalis, and/or Wedelia chinensis because of similarities in appearance and vernacular names. Methods: This study aimed to develop a PCR-RFLP DNA molecular method for the authentication of Al. The restriction enzyme BsrI was used according to the sequencing and alignment results of PCR products in the ITS2 regions of Al and its adulterants. Gel electrophoresis resulted in the clear separation of Al and its adulterants into two distinct categories. Results: In conclusion, the PCR-RFLP authentication method developed herein provides an easy, rapid, and accurate method to distinguish Al from its adulterants to assure user health and safety.

3.
Biosci Trends ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090751

ABSTRACT

Recently, the morbidity of acute severe hepatitis of unknown origin in children (SHIC) has tended to decrease, but this condition should not be ignored because of its uncertain but severe nature. The current study briefly summarizes updated information regarding the epidemiological, clinical, and etiological aspects of SHIC based on the newest information available. Opinions from pediatricians are also presented. In light of the status quo of SHIC and COVID-19 globally, several suggestions are proposed to improve future studies, which could help to further explore the underlying mechanisms of SHIC in the context of COVID-19.

4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063936

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak that emerged at the end of 2019 has now swept the world for more than 2 years, causing immeasurable damage to the lives and economies of the world. It has drawn so much attention to discovering how the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated and entered the human body. The current argument revolves around two contradictory theories: a scenario of laboratory spillover events and human contact with zoonotic diseases. Here, we reviewed the transmission, pathogenesis, possible hosts, as well as the genome and protein structure of SARS-CoV-2, which play key roles in the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe the coronavirus was originally transmitted to human by animals rather than by a laboratory leak. However, there still needs more investigations to determine the source of the pandemic. Understanding how COVID-19 emerged is vital to developing global strategies for mitigating future outbreaks.

5.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115403, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061886

ABSTRACT

While existing studies have reported and recognized country-of-origin effects on the intentions to vaccinate against COVID-19 among individual citizens in some countries, the causal mechanism behind such effects to inform public health policymakers remain unexplored. Adding up a quality cue explanation for such effects to the existing literature, the authors argue that individual consumers are less willing to get a vaccine designed and manufactured by a country with a significantly lower quality perception than other countries. A survey experiment that recruited a nationally representative sample of Taiwanese adults (n = 1951) between December 13, 2020 and January 11, 2021 was designed and conducted to test the argument. We find that all else equal, Taiwanese respondents were on average less likely to express stronger willingness to take a vaccine from China than from the US, Germany, and Taiwan. Furthermore, even when the intrinsic quality of the vaccine was held constant by the experimental design, respondents still had a significantly lower quality perception of the vaccine from China, both in terms of perceived protection and severe side effects. Further evidence from casual mediation analyses shows that about 33% and 11% of the total average causal effects of the "China" country-of-origin label on vaccine uptake intention were respectively mediated through the perceived efficacy of protection and perceived risk of experiencing severe side effects. We conclude that quality cue constitutes one of many casual mechanisms behind widely reported country-of-origin effects on intention to vaccinate against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention , Cues , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vaccination
6.
Engineering Materials ; : 671-696, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2048063

ABSTRACT

Ouabain is a steroid-glycoside compound that has been used for decades for the treatment of heart diseases, and has also proved effective against several viruses, including coronaviruses;its potentialities against SARS-CoV-2 are currently object of various investigations. The molecule contains eight OH groups, whose mutual positions enable the simultaneous presence of several O−H⋅⋅⋅O intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IHB), although only few with bond length shorter than 2 Å and favourable directionality. Conformers corresponding to different IHB patterns have been calculated at the DFT level of theory, using both the B3LYP and the M062X functionals. Two sets of B3LYP calculations were performed, without and with the Grimme’s dispersion correction, to evaluate the influence of dispersion forces on the estimation of the molecular properties. The results highlight four conformers whose relative energies are sufficiently low to make them potentially responsible for the molecule’s biological activities. They also highlight the influence of the incorporation of correlation effects on the estimation of energetics and other properties. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

7.
Journal of Policy Modeling ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041973

ABSTRACT

We argue that the volume of remittances sent home by migrants is influenced by the exogenous likelihood that the duration of their migration will be cut short. A higher probability of reverse migration, brought about by the collapse of jobs in the wake of COVID-19, made migrants attach greater importance to the creation of a social and economic environment in their places of origin that can support them when they return. There are several ways in which this can be done. One is by instilling gratitude. When bigger remittances are responded to by greater gratitude, the support will be bigger. An impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on migrants’ perceived duration of their migration is an increase in the uncertainty of the duration. The good will of migrants’ families and communities at origin is a form of insurance. A standard response to uncertainty is to take out insurance, and when uncertainty is higher, insurance is more valuable, and there is a tendency to acquire more of it. As it happens, the link between the volume of remittances and the likelihood of return migration does not feature at all in Shastri’s (2022) paper, nor for that matter in related writings by the World Bank and the IMF. The purpose of this rejoinder is to draw attention to this link, inducing students of migrants’ remittances to explore the link.

8.
Environ Res ; 215(Pt 1): 114131, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035995

ABSTRACT

More than two and a half years have already passed since the first case of COVID-19 was officially reported (December 2019), as well as more than two years since the WHO declared the current pandemic (March 2020). During these months, the advances on the knowledge of the COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible of the infection, have been very significant. However, there are still some weak points on that knowledge, being the origin of SARS-CoV-2 one of the most notorious. One year ago, I published a review focused on what we knew and what we need to know about the origin of that coronavirus, a key point for the prevention of potential future pandemics of a similar nature. The analysis of the available publications until July 2021 did not allow drawing definitive conclusions on the origin of SARS-CoV-2. Given the great importance of that issue, the present review was aimed at updating the scientific information on that origin. Unfortunately, there have not been significant advances on that topic, remaining basically the same two hypotheses on it. One of them is the zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2, while the second one is the possible leak of this coronavirus from a laboratory. Most recent papers do not include observational or experimental studies, being discussions and positions on these two main hypotheses. Based on the information here reviewed, there is not yet a definitive and well demonstrated conclusion on the origin of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
9.
J Agric Food Res ; 10: 100385, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031411

ABSTRACT

The paper addresses the consumption issue in the post-Covid-19 pandemic era, finding a possible interpretative model in the theory of planned behaviour. To this end, a sample was selected, and multivariate statistical analysis showed that the aspects of sustainability, health and well-living represent possible keys to understanding purchasing and consumption behaviour in the recovery and return to "normality". The mass media, the advice of experts, and the optimism of small things (from an emotional and social point of view) also have a correlated effect on the purchase of food, health and the environment, as well as production methods, origin and supply chain, packaging and ethical and social responsibility, in line with the much desired ecological transition.

10.
Washington International Law Journal ; 31(2):185-212, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026981

ABSTRACT

A year and a half into a near-total shutdown of the United States border to asylum seekers, United States Border Patrol agents were recorded riding on horseback, swinging whips in the faces of Haitian refugees, and beating them back across the border into Mexico from Del Rio, Texas.1 The refugees were fleeing political instability and forced displacement-in July of 2021, Haitian President Jovenel Moise was assassinated,2 and a month later, a devastating earthquake killed thousands of people and destroyed 53,000 homes.3 Upon arriving in the United States, instead of being granted temporary refuge, the asylum seekers were forced to live in encampments along the United StatesMexico border, waiting and hoping for an opportunity to make their case for asylum-an opportunity that would never come.4 Many of them were expelled from the United States en masse before they were ever able to ask for asylum, and thousands more were left in limbo in Mexico.5 During this humanitarian crisis, Department of Homeland Security ("DHS") Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas issued a warning to Haitians: "If you come to the United States illegally, you will be returned. A. COVID, Border Closures, and Impact on Asylum Seekers On December 31, 2019, China reported the first cases of what would soon be recognized as the novel coronavirus COVID-19.8 On January 21, 2020, the United States Centers for Disease Control ("CDC") confirmed the first United States COVID case, which originated from a person who had traveled to Washington state from Wuhan, China.9 In early February, the United States and other countries formally imposed global air travel and quarantine restrictions.10 On March 11, the World Health Organization ("WHO") officially declared COVID-19 to be a global pandemic, and by midMarch 2020, U.S. states and localities began widely issuing stay-at-home orders to slow the spread of the disease.11 Across the globe, nations closed their borders to human migration and movement. A Pew Research Report found that, by April of 2020, 91% of the world's population was living in a country with some sort of COVID travel restriction.12 Canada closed its borders to foreign tourism.13 The European Union restricted incoming nonessential travel14 and many member states banned entry from countries with high rates of COVID infection, such as India.15 The United States banned entry for non-essential travelers from the European Union and the United Kingdom.16 The most devastating consequences of border closures, though, have been for asylum seekers and refugees. At the height of the pandemic, at least 168 nations had closed or restricted their borders and around 90 countries had closed their borders to those seeking asylum.17 Simultaneously, COVID-19 served as a "threat multiplier," compounding the effects of poverty, lack of healthcare, and violence affecting refugees and displaced people.18 There were 82.4 million forcibly displaced people in the world at the end of 2020, the highest number ever recorded,19 but fewer refugees were resettled in 2020 than any year in the previous two decades.20 The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ("UNHCR") estimated that about 1.5 million refugees and asylum seekers were unable to seek international protection because they were stranded by these border closures in 2020.21 Border closures are particularly harmful to asylum seekers, who rely on the ability to cross borders to seek safety and refuge.22 Asylum seekers, by definition, have been displaced from their homes, and they rely on access to territory outside of their country of origin to seek protection from persecution.

11.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343147

ABSTRACT

Trade in Africa is largely characterized by trade with foreign countries. Many African countries rely on earnings from export of natural resources, as well as food and commodities imported from outside the borders of Africa. Thus, at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, Africa immediately suffered setbacks in its trading activities owing to the lockdown and travel ban in other continents, exposing Africa's dependence on foreign products. The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) Agreement is projected to increase intra-African trade by mitigating some of the challenges, as well as increase Africa's exports to other continents. This paper analyses the impact of COVID-19 on trade in Africa. It further discusses the AfCFTA and highlights ways in which the AfCFTA can stimulate economic development in Africa.

12.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 944867, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023029

ABSTRACT

Meningoencephalitis of unknown origin (MUO) is an umbrella term for a variety of subtypes of meningoencephalitis of dogs and cats with no identifiable infectious agent. In dogs, granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME), necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), and necrotizing leukoencephalitis (NLE) are the most commonly reported subtypes. However, sporadically there are reports about other subtypes such as greyhound encephalitis or eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. The following case series presents three dogs with peracute to acute progressive signs of encephalopathy. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of two dogs (post mortem n = 1/2) showed severe, diffuse swelling of the cortical gray matter with increased signal intensity in T2weighted (w) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and decreased signal intensity in T1w. Additionally, focal to multifocal areas with signal void in both dogs and caudal transforaminal herniation of the cerebellum in one dog was observed. Post mortem histopathological examination revealed lympho-histiocytic encephalitis and central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis in all dogs. No infectious agents were detectable by histopathology (hematoxylin and eosin stain), periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS), Ziehl-Neelsen stain and immunohistochemistry for Canine adenovirus-1, Parvovirus, Listeria monocytogenes, Parainfluenzavirus, Toxoplasma gondii, Herpes-suis virus, Pan-Morbillivirus, Tick born encephalitis virus, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 2. Furthermore, two dogs were tested negative for rabies virus. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a lympho-histiocytic encephalitis with CNS vasculitis with no identifiable infectious agent. It is suggested to consider this as an additional subtype of MUO with severe clinical signs.

13.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(11): 942-947, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019527

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence of severe acute hepatitis across several European countries and several geographical regions in the United States has created panic among health institutions, local authorities, governmental organizations and regulatory bodies. Early reporting, stringent surveillance and supportive care can temporarily help tackle this crisis. However, definitive containment measures and management require characterization of the clinical spectrum, epidemiological assessment and extensive investigations. Furthermore, a sound management strategy requires randomized trials to explore the treatment options.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis , Child , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , United States
14.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1639, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009111

ABSTRACT

Background: Glucocorticoid (GC) use is well established in the treatment of rheumatics diseases, particularly rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The use of low dose GC has been endorsed by EULAR recommendations for the management of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases even if in the context of SARS-CoV-2, but long-term use is generally discouraged. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of glucocorticosteroids induced osteoporosis (GIOP) on bone mineral density (BMD) in African adult patients with infammatory rheumatic diseases. Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and African index medicus were systematically searched up to December 2020 without language restrictions. We included studies as follows: population-based or hospital-based study, study with sufficient information to estimate the prevalence of GIOP and osteoporotic fractures in African patients with rheumatic disease. Searches were limited to peer-reviewed full text articles. A standardized data extraction form was used to collect information from eligible studies. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to obtain the pooled prevalence of GIOP in these studies. The meta-analysis was strati-fed by geographical region. The study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42021256252. Results: Our search identifed 8571 studies, of which 8 studies were included in the systematic review from only four African countries and 7 studies in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of osteoporotic fractures in our study was 47.7% (95% CI 32.9-62.8) with 52.2% (95% CI 36.5-67.6) in North Africa and 15.4% (95% 1.9-45.4%) in South Africa (SA). There was no evidence of publication bias, although heterogeneity was high (p=0.018). There was no data from sub-Saharan Africa apart from the two studies from SA. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of GIOP in African adult patients with infam-matory rheumatic diseases was high at 47.7% (95% CI 32.9-62.8). Meta-analysis calculation revealed patient geographic origin as possible confounding factors of the proportion outcomes and further studies are required.

15.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992662

ABSTRACT

Human-beings are suffering from the rapid spread of COVID-19 throughout the world. In order to quickly identify, quarantine and cure the infected people, and to stop further infections, it is crucial to expose those origins who have been infected but are asymptomatic. However, this task is not easy, especially when the rigid security and privacy constraints on health records are taken into consideration. In this paper, we develop a new method to solve this problem. In the outbreak of a disease like COVID-19, the proposed method can find hidden infected people (or communities) through volunteered share of health data by some mobile users. Such volunteers only reveal whether they are healthy or infected e.g. through they mobile apps. This approach minimises health data disclosure and preserves privacy for the others. There are three steps in the proposed method. First, we borrow the idea from traditional epidemiology and design a novel algorithm to estimate the number of infection origins based on a Susceptible-Infected model. Second, we introduce the concept of ’heavy centre’to locate those origins. The probability of each node being infected will then be derived by building a spreading model based on the origins. To evaluate our method, we conduct a series of experiments on various networks with different structures. We examine the performance in estimating the number of origins as well as their origins. The results show that the proposed method yields higher accuracies than the existing methods, even when the fraction of volunteers is small. IEEE

16.
Veterinary Ireland Journal ; 10(9):491-492, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1989502
17.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 10(4): 711-717, 2022 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988570

ABSTRACT

In May 2022, the UK International Health Regulations National Focal Point notified World Health Organization of 176 cases of severe acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in children under 10 years of age. From that moment on, cases of severe acute hepatitis of unknown origin in children began to be reported in several countries. As of June 17, 2022, a total of 991 cases had been reported in 35 countries worldwide, 50 children needed a liver transplant and 28 patients died. According to information published by ECDC, 449 cases have been detected in 21 EU countries. The children were between 1 month and 16 years of age. Adenovirus was detected in 62.2% of the analyzed samples. So far, the cause of these cases is unknown and many hypotheses remain open, but hepatitis A-E viruses and COVID-19 vaccines have been ruled out. A possible hypothesis has been published to explain the cause of these cases of severe hepatitis, according to which it could be a consequence of adenovirus infection in the intestine in healthy children previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. No other clear epidemiological risk factors have been identified to date. Thus, at this time, the etiology of the current cases of hepatitis remains under active investigation.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987832

ABSTRACT

After the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, unanswered questions remain related to its evolutionary history, path of transmission or divergence and role of recombination. There is emerging evidence on amino acid substitutions occurring in key residues of the receptor-binding domain of the spike glycoprotein in coronavirus isolates from bat and pangolins. In this article, we summarize our current knowledge on the origin of SARS-CoV-2. We also analyze the host ACE2-interacting residues of the receptor-binding domain of spike glycoprotein in SARS-CoV-2 isolates from bats, and compare it to pangolin SARS-CoV-2 isolates collected from Guangdong province (GD Pangolin-CoV) and Guangxi autonomous regions (GX Pangolin-CoV) of South China. Based on our comparative analysis, we support the view that the Guangdong Pangolins are the intermediate hosts that adapted the SARS-CoV-2 and represented a significant evolutionary link in the path of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus. We also discuss the role of intermediate hosts in the origin of Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , China , Pangolins/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(46): 69117-69136, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982294

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic of 2019 has already exerted an enormous impact. For over a year, the worldwide pandemic has ravaged the whole globe, with approximately 250 million verified human infection cases and a mortality rate surpassing 4 million. While the genetic makeup of the related pathogen (SARS-CoV-2) was identified, many unknown facets remain a mystery, comprising the virus's origin and evolutionary trend. There were many rumors that SARS-CoV-2 was human-borne and its evolution was predicted many years ago, but scientific investigation proved them wrong and concluded that bats might be the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and pangolins act as intermediary species to transmit the virus from bats to humans. Airborne droplets were found to be the leading cause of human-to-human transmission of this virus, but later studies showed that contaminated surfaces and other environmental factors are also involved in its transmission. The evolution of different SARS-CoV-2 variants worsens the condition and has become a challenge to overcome this pandemic. The emergence of COVID-19 is still a mystery, and scientists are unable to explain the exact origin of SARS-CoV-2. This review sheds light on the possible origin of SARS-CoV-2, its transmission, and the key factors that worsen the situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(15)2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979339

ABSTRACT

Despite the dramatic increase in food production thanks to the Green Revolution, hunger is increasing among human populations around the world, affecting one in nine people. The negative environmental and social consequences of industrial monocrop agriculture is becoming evident, particularly in the contexts of greenhouse gas emissions and the increased frequency and impact of zoonotic disease emergence, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Human activity has altered 70-75% of the ice-free Earth's surface, squeezing nature and wildlife into a corner. To prevent, halt, and reverse the degradation of ecosystems worldwide, the UN has launched a Decade of Ecosystem Restoration. In this context, this review describes the origin and diversity of cultivated species, the impact of modern agriculture and other human activities on plant genetic resources, and approaches to conserve and use them to increase food diversity and production with specific examples of the use of crop wild relatives for breeding climate-resilient cultivars that require less chemical and mechanical input. The need to better coordinate in situ conservation efforts with increased funding has been highlighted. We emphasise the need to strengthen the genebank infrastructure, enabling the use of modern biotechnological tools to help in genotyping and characterising accessions plus advanced ex situ conservation methods, identifying gaps in collections, developing core collections, and linking data with international databases. Crop and variety diversification and minimising tillage and other field practices through the development and introduction of herbaceous perennial crops is proposed as an alternative regenerative food system for higher carbon sequestration, sustaining economic benefits for growers, whilst also providing social and environmental benefits.

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