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1.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(9): 916-931, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038256

ABSTRACT

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional membrane-enclosed organelle. One of the major ER functions is cotranslational transport and processing of secretory, lysosomal, and transmembrane proteins. Impaired protein processing caused by disturbances in the ER homeostasis results in the ER stress. Restoration of normal ER functioning requires activation of an adaptive mechanism involving cell response to misfolded proteins, the so-called unfolded protein response (UPR). Besides controlling protein folding, UPR plays a key role in other physiological processes, in particular, differentiation of cells of connective, muscle, epithelial, and neural tissues. Cell differentiation is induced by the physiological levels of ER stress, while excessive ER stress suppresses differentiation and can result in cell death. So far, it remains unknown whether UPR activation induces cell differentiation or if UPR is initiated by the upregulated synthesis of secretory proteins during cell differentiation. Cell differentiation is an important stage in the development of multicellular organisms and is tightly controlled. Suppression or excessive activation of this process can lead to the development of various pathologies in an organism. In particular, impairments in the differentiation of connective tissue cells can result in the development of fibrosis, obesity, and osteoporosis. Recently, special attention has been paid to fibrosis as one of the major complications of COVID-19. Therefore, studying the role of UPR in the activation of cell differentiation is of both theoretical and practical interest, as it might result in the identification of molecular targets for selective regulation of cell differentiation stages and as well as the potential to modulate the mechanisms involved in the development of various pathological states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Cell Differentiation , Fibrosis , Humans , Unfolded Protein Response
2.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 32(9): 672-679, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301018

ABSTRACT

The restrictions adopted during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic limiting direct medical consultations and access to healthcare centers reduced the participation of patients with chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis (OP), in screening and monitoring programs. This highlighted the need for new screening diagnostic tools that are clinically effective, but require minimal technical and time commitments, to stratify populations and identify who is more at risk for OP and related complications. This paper provides an overview of the potential use of blood-related factors, such as platelet (PLT)- and monocyte-related factors, as biomarkers able to quickly screen, detect, and monitor OP in both sexes. Such biomarkers might be of key importance not only during the COVID-19 pandemic but also, even more importantly, during periods of better global health stability.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets , COVID-19 , Monocytes , Osteoporosis/blood , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Humans
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